Gitlab-CI job 配置文件 .gitlab-ci.yml 配置方式(翻译)

配置 jobs 文件 .gitlab-ci.yml

原文档:https://docs.gitlab.com/ee/ci/yaml/README.html

  1. GitLab-CI 使用 YAML 文件管理配置 job .
  2. 文件存放于仓库的根目录, 命名为 .gitlab-ci.yml , 定义了 job 应该如何工作.

Job

YAML 文件定义了一系列带有约束说明的 job, job 至少需要要包含 script

示例:

job1:
  script: "execute-script-for-job1"

job2:
  script: "execute-script-for-job2"

上面这个例子是一个最简单且带有两个 job 的 CI 配置,每个任务分别执行不同的命令。

script 可以直接执行系统命令(如:./configure;make;make install)或者直接执行脚本(test.sh)。

任务是由 CI 接管并且在服务器执行, 并且每一个任务的执行都是独立的。

job 的名称具有唯一性在文件中只能出现一次, 并且下列词汇被保留不能被使用:

  • image
  • services
  • stages
  • types
  • before_script
  • after_script
  • variables
  • cache

下面是 job 可以配置的参数列表:

参数名称是否必须参数说明
scriptyes需要在 docker 容器中运行的脚本
imagenodocker 容器使用的镜像, covered in Using Docker Images
servicesno需要关联的 docker 服务, covered in Using Docker Images
stageno定义当前 job 运行在那个阶段 (默认: test)
variablesnoDefine job variables on a job level
onlynoDefines a list of git refs for which job is created
exceptnoDefines a list of git refs for which job is not created
tagsno通过 tags 确定使用指定还是使用通用部署程序。
allow_failureno允许 job 失败. job 失败不会影响最终结果
whenno定义 job 在什么时候运行. 支持参数 on_success, on_failure, always or manual
dependenciesnoDefine other jobs that a job depends on so that you can pass artifacts between them
artifactsnoDefine list of job artifacts
cachenoDefine list of files that should be cached between subsequent runs
before_scriptno覆盖 job 执行前需要执行的脚本设置
after_scriptno覆盖 job 执行后需要执行的脚本设置
environmentnoDefines a name of environment to which deployment is done by this job
coveragenoDefine code coverage settings for a given job
retrynojob 执行发生故障时自动重试次数

更复杂的例子:

image: ruby:2.1
services:
  - postgres

before_script:
  - bundle install

after_script:
  - rm secrets

stages:
  - build
  - test
  - deploy

job1:
  stage: build
  script:
    - execute-script-for-job1
  only:
    - master
  tags:
    - docker

image and services

这两个关键字允许使用一个自定义的Docker镜像和一系列的服务,并且可以用于整个job周期.

详细配置文档

before_script

  • 必须是数组或多行字符串
  • before_script 支持定义为 globaljob 类型, job 类型会覆盖掉 global 类型的值

before_script 定义在所有 job(包括deploy job)之前运行的命令。(在 artifacts 运行之后).

after_script

  • 必须是数组或多行字符串
  • after_script 支持定义为 globaljob 类型, job 类型会覆盖掉 global 类型的值

after_script 定义在所有 job(包括失败的 job)之后运行的命令。

The before_script and the main script are concatenated and run in a single context/container.
The after_script is run separately, so depending on the executor, changes done
outside of the working tree might not be visible, e.g. software installed in the
before_script.

示例:

before_script:
  - global before script

job:
  before_script:
    - execute this instead of global before script
  script:
    - my command
  after_script:
    - execute this after my script

stages(阶段)

  • stages 只支持 global 类型
  • stages 定义了 job 支持的执行阶段和顺序
  • stages 中的元素顺序决定了对应 job 的执行顺序
  • 下一个 阶段job 只会在前一个 阶段job 执行成功后开始执行。

示例:

stages:
  - build
  - test
  - deploy

运行顺序:
1. 运行所有的 build
1. 如果所有作业都 build 运行成功,那么开始运行所有的 test
1. 如果所有作业都 test 运行成功,那么开始运行所有的 deploy
1. 如果所有作业都 deploy 成功,则标记 jobpassed
1. 如果在之前动作中有任何失败,则标记 jobfailed 并终止 job 执行。

没有定义时的默认动作:

  1. 如果 .gitlab-ci.yml 文件中没有定义 stages , stages 将会被设置成 build -> test -> deploy.
  2. 如果 job 没有定义 stage, 则 jobstage 将会被设置成 test

stage

  • 相同 stagejob 会并行执行

stage is defined per-job and relies on stages which is defined
globally. It allows to group jobs into different stages, and jobs of the same
stage are executed in parallel. For example:

stage 的值必须定义在 stages 中,可以通过设置 stage 来对 job 进行分组,相同分组的 job 将会并行执行.

stages:
  - build
  - test
  - deploy

job 1:
  stage: build
  script: make build dependencies

job 2:
  stage: build
  script: make build artifacts

job 3:
  stage: test
  script: make test

job 4:
  stage: deploy
  script: make deploy

script

scriptjob 运行需要的唯一一个必须字段, 通过 script 来指定应该如何执行 job.

script 可以设置为 stringarray 类型:

通过将 script 设置为 string 来设置 job 执行什么命令:

job:
  script: "bundle exec rspec"

也可以通过将 script 设置为 array 来指定运行多个命令:

job:
  script:
    - uname -a
    - bundle exec rspec

如果命令中包含有特殊字符, 则需要用双引号将 script 括起来.

job:
  script:
    - make
    - "ps -aux | grep gcc"

这些字符是 YAML 中的特殊字符:

:, {, }, [, ], ,, &, *, #, ?, |, -, <, >, =, !, %, @, `.

only and except (simplified)

only and except are two parameters that set a job policy to limit when
jobs are created:

  1. 只有满足 only 条件的 branches 和 tags 才会被运行.
  2. only 相反, 满足 except 条件的 branches 和 tags 将 不会 被运行.

下面是refs策略的使用规则:

  • onlyexcept 支持使用正则表达式.
  • onlyexcept 支持使用特殊的关键字.
  • onlyexcept 支持同时设置, 当同时设置时 onlyexcept 将会同时起作用.
  • onlyexcept 也可以用来指定 forks 作业的存储库路径。

下面是 onlyexcept 支持的关键字:

说明
branches当分支被 push.
tags当一个 tags 被 push.
apiWhen pipeline has been triggered by a second pipelines API (not triggers API).
external使用 CI 之外的其他 CI 服务时
pipelinesFor multi-project triggers, created using the API with CI_JOB_TOKEN.
pushesPipeline is triggered by a git push by the user.
schedulesFor scheduled pipelines.
triggersFor pipelines created using a trigger token.
webFor pipelines created using Run pipeline button in GitLab UI (under your project’s Pipelines).

下面这个例子中, job 会跳过所有分支, 只在以 issue- 开头的 ref 时运行:

job:
  # use regexp
  only:
    - /^issue-.*$/
  # use special keyword
  except:
    - branches

下面这个例子中, job 只会执行有 tags 或者通过API触发器构建的 refs :

job:
  # use special keywords
  only:
    - tags
    - triggers
    - schedules

下面这个例子中, job 只会在除 gitlab-org/gitlab-ce master 分支外的其他分支时才会运行。

job:
  only:
    - branches@gitlab-org/gitlab-ce
  except:
    - master@gitlab-org/gitlab-ce

only and except (complex)

refs and kubernetes policies introduced in GitLab 10.0

variables policy introduced in 10.7

CAUTION: Warning:
This an alpha feature, and it it subject to change at any time without
prior notice!

Since GitLab 10.0 it is possible to define a more elaborate only/except job
policy configuration.

GitLab now supports both, simple and complex strategies, so it is possible to
use an array and a hash configuration scheme.

Three keys are now available: refs, kubernetes and variables.
Refs strategy equals to simplified only/except configuration, whereas
kubernetes strategy accepts only active keyword.

variables keyword is used to define variables expressions. In other words
you can use predefined variables / project / group or
environment-scoped variables to define an expression GitLab is going to
evaluate in order to decide whether a job should be created or not.

See the example below. Job is going to be created only when pipeline has been
scheduled or runs for a master branch, and only if kubernetes service is
active in the project.

job:
  only:
    refs:
      - master
      - schedules
    kubernetes: active

使用变量表达式的示例:

deploy:
  script: cap staging deploy
  only:
    refs:
      - branches
    variables:
      - $RELEASE == "staging"
      - $STAGING

根据提交的消息来排除作业:

end-to-end:
  script: rake test:end-to-end
  except:
    variables:
      - $CI_COMMIT_MESSAGE =~ /skip-end-to-end-tests/

Learn more about variables expressions on a separate page.

runner(环境)

job 需要在 runner 中运行, runner 的新增删除需要管理员来操作, runner 包含了一些全局设置和 tags,只有满足 tagsjob 才会在 runner 中运行。

runner 有多种类型:

  1. 通用, 通用 runner 可以运行所有 job
  2. 特定, 特定 runner 包含有一系列 tags

特定 runner 只会运行 runner tags 包含所有 job tagsjob

tags

tags 用来确定使用哪个 runner 运行当前任务,如果不设置的话将使用通用 runner 运行.

示例:

job:
  tags:
    - ruby
    - postgres

只有同时定义了 rubypostgresrunner 才能运行这个 job.

allow_failure

允许 job 失败. job 失败不会影响最终结果

设置 allow_failurejob 失败后不会中断 CI 的执行,当你希望一个 job 执行失败之后 CI 仍要继续执行时可以设置这个值为 true

如果你设置了 allow_failure 并且 job 执行失败, 这时候 CI 会显示执行成功但是会出现一个警告信息。警告信息用来提示有一个允许失败的任务执行失败。(管理人员可能会执行其他措施。)

下面这个例子中, 当 job1 运行失败, 也不会打断 CI 执行,CI 会继续运行下一阶段,因为它设置了 allow_failure: true

job1:
  stage: test
  script:
    - execute_script_that_will_fail
  allow_failure: true

job2:
  stage: test
  script:
    - execute_script_that_will_succeed

job3:
  stage: deploy
  script:
    - deploy_to_staging

when

when 用来指示 job 应该在什么时候开始运行.

when 可以被设置为以下值:

  1. on_success - 只有之前的阶段全部成功时才会执行.(默认值)
  2. on_failure - 当之前的阶段执行过程中出现过任何错误时执行.
  3. always - 无论之前的阶段是否执行成功都执行.
  4. manual - 手动执行, 阅读更多.

示例:

stages:
  - build
  - cleanup_build
  - test
  - deploy
  - cleanup

build_job:
  stage: build
  script:
    - make build

cleanup_build_job:
  stage: cleanup_build
  script:
    - cleanup build when failed
  when: on_failure

test_job:
  stage: test
  script:
    - make test

deploy_job:
  stage: deploy
  script:
    - make deploy
  when: manual

cleanup_job:
  stage: cleanup
  script:
    - cleanup after jobs
  when: always

示例的执行方式:

  1. cleanup_build_job 只有在 build_job 失败时才会执行.
  2. 不论其他 job 是否执行成功, cleanup_job 总会在最后一个被执行.
  3. 可以通过 Gitlab 控制台手动执行 deploy_job.

when:manual

Notes:
- Introduced in GitLab 8.10.
- Blocking manual actions were introduced in GitLab 9.0.
- Protected actions were introduced in GitLab 9.2.

Manual actions are a special type of job that are not executed automatically,
they need to be explicitly started by a user. An example usage of manual actions
would be a deployment to a production environment. Manual actions can be started
from the pipeline, job, environment, and deployment views. Read more at the
environments documentation.

Manual actions can be either optional or blocking. Blocking manual actions will
block the execution of the pipeline at the stage this action is defined in. It’s
possible to resume execution of the pipeline when someone executes a blocking
manual action by clicking a play button.

When a pipeline is blocked, it will not be merged if Merge When Pipeline Succeeds
is set. Blocked pipelines also do have a special status, called manual.
Manual actions are non-blocking by default. If you want to make manual action
blocking, it is necessary to add allow_failure: false to the job’s definition
in .gitlab-ci.yml.

Optional manual actions have allow_failure: true set by default and their
Statuses do not contribute to the overall pipeline status. So, if a manual
action fails, the pipeline will eventually succeed.

Manual actions are considered to be write actions, so permissions for
protected branches are used when
user wants to trigger an action. In other words, in order to trigger a manual
action assigned to a branch that the pipeline is running for, user needs to
have ability to merge to this branch.

environment

>
Notes:
- Introduced in GitLab 8.9.
- You can read more about environments and find more examples in the
documentation about environments.

environment is used to define that a job deploys to a specific environment.
If environment is specified and no environment under that name exists, a new
one will be created automatically.

In its simplest form, the environment keyword can be defined like:

deploy to production:
  stage: deploy
  script: git push production HEAD:master
  environment:
    name: production

In the above example, the deploy to production job will be marked as doing a
deployment to the production environment.

environment:name

>
Notes:
- Introduced in GitLab 8.11.
- Before GitLab 8.11, the name of an environment could be defined as a string like
environment: production. The recommended way now is to define it under the
name keyword.
- The name parameter can use any of the defined CI variables,
including predefined, secure variables and .gitlab-ci.yml variables.
You however cannot use variables defined under script.

environment 可以设置为:

  • letters
  • digits
  • spaces
  • -
  • _
  • /
  • $
  • {
  • }

Common names are qa, staging, and production, but you can use whatever
name works with your workflow.

Instead of defining the name of the environment right after the environment
keyword, it is also possible to define it as a separate value. For that, use
the name keyword under environment:

deploy to production:
  stage: deploy
  script: git push production HEAD:master
  environment:
    name: production

environment:url

>
Notes:
- Introduced in GitLab 8.11.
- Before GitLab 8.11, the URL could be added only in GitLab’s UI. The
recommended way now is to define it in .gitlab-ci.yml.
- The url parameter can use any of the defined CI variables,
including predefined, secure variables and .gitlab-ci.yml variables.
You however cannot use variables defined under script.

This is an optional value that when set, it exposes buttons in various places
in GitLab which when clicked take you to the defined URL.

In the example below, if the job finishes successfully, it will create buttons
in the merge requests and in the environments/deployments pages which will point
to https://prod.example.com.

deploy to production:
  stage: deploy
  script: git push production HEAD:master
  environment:
    name: production
    url: https://prod.example.com

environment:on_stop

>
Notes:
- Introduced in GitLab 8.13.
- Starting with GitLab 8.14, when you have an environment that has a stop action
defined, GitLab will automatically trigger a stop action when the associated
branch is deleted.

Closing (stoping) environments can be achieved with the on_stop keyword defined under
environment. It declares a different job that runs in order to close
the environment.

Read the environment:action section for an example.

environment:action

Introduced in GitLab 8.13.

The action keyword is to be used in conjunction with on_stop and is defined
in the job that is called to close the environment.

Take for instance:

review_app:
  stage: deploy
  script: make deploy-app
  environment:
    name: review
    on_stop: stop_review_app

stop_review_app:
  stage: deploy
  script: make delete-app
  when: manual
  environment:
    name: review
    action: stop

In the above example we set up the review_app job to deploy to the review
environment, and we also defined a new stop_review_app job under on_stop.
Once the review_app job is successfully finished, it will trigger the
stop_review_app job based on what is defined under when. In this case we
set it up to manual so it will need a manual action via
GitLab’s web interface in order to run.

The stop_review_app job is required to have the following keywords defined:

  • when - reference
  • environment:name
  • environment:action
  • stage should be the same as the review_app in order for the environment
    to stop automatically when the branch is deleted

Dynamic environments

>
Notes:
- Introduced in GitLab 8.12 and GitLab Runner 1.6.
- The $CI_ENVIRONMENT_SLUG was introduced in GitLab 8.15.
- The name and url parameters can use any of the defined CI variables,
including predefined, secure variables and .gitlab-ci.yml variables.
You however cannot use variables defined under script.

For example:

deploy as review app:
  stage: deploy
  script: make deploy
  environment:
    name: review/$CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME
    url: https://$CI_ENVIRONMENT_SLUG.example.com/

The deploy as review app job will be marked as deployment to dynamically
create the review/$CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME environment, where $CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME
is an environment variable set by the Runner. The
$CI_ENVIRONMENT_SLUG variable is based on the environment name, but suitable
for inclusion in URLs. In this case, if the deploy as review app job was run
in a branch named pow, this environment would be accessible with an URL like
https://review-pow.example.com/.

This of course implies that the underlying server which hosts the application
is properly configured.

The common use case is to create dynamic environments for branches and use them
as Review Apps. You can see a simple example using Review Apps at
https://gitlab.com/gitlab-examples/review-apps-nginx/.

cache

>
Notes:
- Introduced in GitLab Runner v0.7.0.
- cache 可以被设置成全局的和 job 的.
- From GitLab 9.0, caching is enabled and shared between pipelines and jobs
by default.
- From GitLab 9.2, caches are restored before artifacts.

TIP: Learn more:
Read how caching works and find out some good practices in the
caching dependencies documentation.

cache is used to specify a list of files and directories which should be
cached between jobs. You can only use paths that are within the project
workspace.

If cache is defined outside the scope of jobs, it means it is set
globally and all jobs will use that definition.

cache:paths

Use the paths directive to choose which files or directories will be cached.
Wildcards can be used as well.

Cache all files in binaries that end in .apk and the .config file:

rspec:
  script: test
  cache:
    paths:
      - binaries/*.apk
      - .config

Locally defined cache overrides globally defined options. The following rspec
job will cache only binaries/:

cache:
  paths:
    - my/files

rspec:
  script: test
  cache:
    key: rspec
    paths:
      - binaries/

Note that since cache is shared between jobs, if you’re using different
paths for different jobs, you should also set a different cache:key
otherwise cache content can be overwritten.

cache:key

Introduced in GitLab Runner v1.0.0.

Since the cache is shared between jobs, if you’re using different
paths for different jobs, you should also set a different cache:key
otherwise cache content can be overwritten.

The key directive allows you to define the affinity of caching between jobs,
allowing to have a single cache for all jobs, cache per-job, cache per-branch
or any other way that fits your workflow. This way, you can fine tune caching,
allowing you to cache data between different jobs or even different branches.

The cache:key variable can use any of the
predefined variables, and the default key, if not
set, is just literal default which means everything is shared between each
pipelines and jobs by default, starting from GitLab 9.0.

NOTE: Note:
The cache:key variable cannot contain the / character, or the equivalent
URI-encoded %2F; a value made only of dots (., %2E) is also forbidden.

For example, to enable per-branch caching:

cache:
  key: "$CI_COMMIT_REF_SLUG"
  paths:
    - binaries/

If you use Windows Batch to run your shell scripts you need to replace
$ with %:

cache:
  key: "%CI_COMMIT_REF_SLUG%"
  paths:
    - binaries/

cache:untracked

Set untracked: true to cache all files that are untracked in your Git
repository:

rspec:
  script: test
  cache:
    untracked: true

Cache all Git untracked files and files in binaries:

rspec:
  script: test
  cache:
    untracked: true
    paths:
      - binaries/

cache:policy

Introduced in GitLab 9.4.

The default behaviour of a caching job is to download the files at the start of
execution, and to re-upload them at the end. This allows any changes made by the
job to be persisted for future runs, and is known as the pull-push cache
policy.

If you know the job doesn’t alter the cached files, you can skip the upload step
by setting policy: pull in the job specification. Typically, this would be
twinned with an ordinary cache job at an earlier stage to ensure the cache
is updated from time to time:

stages:
  - setup
  - test

prepare:
  stage: setup
  cache:
    key: gems
    paths:
      - vendor/bundle
  script:
    - bundle install --deployment

rspec:
  stage: test
  cache:
    key: gems
    paths:
      - vendor/bundle
    policy: pull
  script:
    - bundle exec rspec ...

This helps to speed up job execution and reduce load on the cache server,
especially when you have a large number of cache-using jobs executing in
parallel.

Additionally, if you have a job that unconditionally recreates the cache without
reference to its previous contents, you can use policy: push in that job to
skip the download step.

artifacts

>
Notes:
- Introduced in GitLab Runner v0.7.0 for non-Windows platforms.
- Windows support was added in GitLab Runner v.1.0.0.
- From GitLab 9.2, caches are restored before artifacts.
- Not all executors are supported.
- Job artifacts are only collected for successful jobs by default.

artifacts is used to specify a list of files and directories which should be
attached to the job after success.

The artifacts will be sent to GitLab after the job finishes successfully and will
be available for download in the GitLab UI.

Read more about artifacts.

artifacts:paths

You can only use paths that are within the project workspace. To pass artifacts
between different jobs, see dependencies.

Send all files in binaries and .config:

artifacts:
  paths:
    - binaries/
    - .config

To disable artifact passing, define the job with empty dependencies:

job:
  stage: build
  script: make build
  dependencies: []

You may want to create artifacts only for tagged releases to avoid filling the
build server storage with temporary build artifacts.

Create artifacts only for tags (default-job will not create artifacts):

default-job:
  script:
    - mvn test -U
  except:
    - tags

release-job:
  script:
    - mvn package -U
  artifacts:
    paths:
      - target/*.war
  only:
    - tags

artifacts:name

Introduced in GitLab 8.6 and GitLab Runner v1.1.0.

The name directive allows you to define the name of the created artifacts
archive. That way, you can have a unique name for every archive which could be
useful when you’d like to download the archive from GitLab. The artifacts:name
variable can make use of any of the predefined variables.
The default name is artifacts, which becomes artifacts.zip when downloaded.

NOTE: Note:
If your branch-name contains forward slashes
(e.g. feature/my-feature) it is advised to use $CI_COMMIT_REF_SLUG
instead of $CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME for proper naming of the artifact.

To create an archive with a name of the current job:

job:
  artifacts:
    name: "$CI_JOB_NAME"
    paths:
      - binaries/

To create an archive with a name of the current branch or tag including only
the binaries directory:

job:
   artifacts:
     name: "$CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME"
    paths:
      - binaries/

To create an archive with a name of the current job and the current branch or
tag including only the binaries directory:

job:
  artifacts:
    name: "$CI_JOB_NAME-$CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME"
    paths:
      - binaries/

To create an archive with a name of the current stage and branch name:

job:
  artifacts:
    name: "$CI_JOB_STAGE-$CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME"
    paths:
      - binaries/

If you use Windows Batch to run your shell scripts you need to replace
$ with %:

job:
  artifacts:
    name: "%CI_JOB_STAGE%-%CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME%"
    paths:
      - binaries/

If you use Windows PowerShell to run your shell scripts you need to replace
$ with $env::

job:
  artifacts:
    name: "$env:CI_JOB_STAGE-$env:CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME"
    paths:
      - binaries/

artifacts:untracked

artifacts:untracked is used to add all Git untracked files as artifacts (along
to the paths defined in artifacts:paths).

NOTE: Note:
To exclude the folders/files which should not be a part of untracked just
add them to .gitignore.

Send all Git untracked files:

artifacts:
  untracked: true

Send all Git untracked files and files in binaries:

artifacts:
  untracked: true
  paths:
    - binaries/

artifacts:when

Introduced in GitLab 8.9 and GitLab Runner v1.3.0.

artifacts:when is used to upload artifacts on job failure or despite the
failure.

artifacts:when can be set to one of the following values:

  1. on_success - upload artifacts only when the job succeeds. This is the default.
  2. on_failure - upload artifacts only when the job fails.
  3. always - upload artifacts regardless of the job status.

To upload artifacts only when job fails:

job:
  artifacts:
    when: on_failure

artifacts:expire_in

Introduced in GitLab 8.9 and GitLab Runner v1.3.0.

expire_in allows you to specify how long artifacts should live before they
expire and therefore deleted, counting from the time they are uploaded and
stored on GitLab. If the expiry time is not defined, it defaults to the
instance wide setting
(30 days by default, forever on GitLab.com).

You can use the Keep button on the job page to override expiration and
keep artifacts forever.

After their expiry, artifacts are deleted hourly by default (via a cron job),
and are not accessible anymore.

The value of expire_in is an elapsed time. Examples of parsable values:

  • ‘3 mins 4 sec’
  • ‘2 hrs 20 min’
  • ‘2h20min’
  • ‘6 mos 1 day’
  • ‘47 yrs 6 mos and 4d’
  • ‘3 weeks and 2 days’

To expire artifacts 1 week after being uploaded:

job:
  artifacts:
    expire_in: 1 week

dependencies

Introduced in GitLab 8.6 and GitLab Runner v1.1.1.

This feature should be used in conjunction with artifacts and
allows you to define the artifacts to pass between different jobs.

Note that artifacts from all previous stages are passed by default.

To use this feature, define dependencies in context of the job and pass
a list of all previous jobs from which the artifacts should be downloaded.
You can only define jobs from stages that are executed before the current one.
An error will be shown if you define jobs from the current stage or next ones.
Defining an empty array will skip downloading any artifacts for that job.
The status of the previous job is not considered when using dependencies, so
if it failed or it is a manual job that was not run, no error occurs.


In the following example, we define two jobs with artifacts, build:osx and
build:linux. When the test:osx is executed, the artifacts from build:osx
will be downloaded and extracted in the context of the build. The same happens
for test:linux and artifacts from build:linux.

The job deploy will download artifacts from all previous jobs because of
the stage precedence:

build:osx:
  stage: build
  script: make build:osx
  artifacts:
    paths:
      - binaries/

build:linux:
  stage: build
  script: make build:linux
  artifacts:
    paths:
      - binaries/

test:osx:
  stage: test
  script: make test:osx
  dependencies:
    - build:osx

test:linux:
  stage: test
  script: make test:linux
  dependencies:
    - build:linux

deploy:
  stage: deploy
  script: make deploy

When a dependent job will fail

Introduced in GitLab 10.3.

If the artifacts of the job that is set as a dependency have been
expired or
erased, then
the dependent job will fail.

NOTE: Note:
You can ask your administrator to
flip this switch
and bring back the old behavior.

coverage

Introduced in GitLab 8.17.

coverage allows you to configure how code coverage will be extracted from the
job output.

Regular expressions are the only valid kind of value expected here. So, using
surrounding / is mandatory in order to consistently and explicitly represent
a regular expression string. You must escape special characters if you want to
match them literally.

A simple example:

job1:
  script: rspec
  coverage: '/Code coverage: \d+\.\d+/'

retry

Introduced in GitLab 9.5.

retry 用来设置 job 执行出错时的重试次数, 需要设置成 int 类型,并且值必须 >= 0 && <= 2.

如果配置了 retryjob 执行时发生错误, 则 job 将被再次运行,成功将会退出,或者 retry 次全都发生错误。

示例:

test:
  script: rspec
  retry: 2

include [STARTER]

Introduced in GitLab Edition Premium 10.5.
Available for Starter, Premium and Ultimate versions since 10.6.
Behaviour expanded in GitLab 10.8 to allow more flexible overriding

Using the include keyword, you can allow the inclusion of external YAML files.

In the following example, the content of .before-script-template.yml will be
automatically fetched and evaluated along with the content of .gitlab-ci.yml:

# Content of https://gitlab.com/awesome-project/raw/master/.before-script-template.yml

before_script:
  - apt-get update -qq && apt-get install -y -qq sqlite3 libsqlite3-dev nodejs
  - gem install bundler --no-ri --no-rdoc
  - bundle install --jobs $(nproc)  "${FLAGS[@]}"
# Content of .gitlab-ci.yml

include: 'https://gitlab.com/awesome-project/raw/master/.before-script-template.yml'

rspec:
  script:
    - bundle exec rspec

You can define it either as a single string, or, in case you want to include
more than one files, an array of different values . The following examples
are both valid cases:

# Single string

include: '/templates/.after-script-template.yml'
# Array

include:
  - 'https://gitlab.com/awesome-project/raw/master/.before-script-template.yml'
  - '/templates/.after-script-template.yml'

include supports two types of files:

  • local to the same repository, referenced by using full paths in the same
    repository, with / being the root directory. For example:

    
    # Within the repository
    
    include: '/templates/.gitlab-ci-template.yml'

    NOTE: Note:
    You can only use files that are currently tracked by Git on the same branch
    your configuration file is. In other words, when using a local file, make
    sure that both .gitlab-ci.yml and the local file are on the same branch.

    NOTE: Note:
    We don’t support the inclusion of local files through Git submodules paths.

  • remote in a different location, accessed using HTTP/HTTPS, referenced
    using the full URL. For example:

    include: 'https://gitlab.com/awesome-project/raw/master/.gitlab-ci-template.yml'

    NOTE: Note:
    The remote file must be publicly accessible through a simple GET request, as we don’t support authentication schemas in the remote URL.


Since GitLab 10.8 we are now recursively merging the files defined in include
with those in .gitlab-ci.yml. Files defined by include are always
evaluated first and recursively merged with the content of .gitlab-ci.yml, no
matter the position of the include keyword. You can take advantage of
recursive merging to customize and override details in included CI
configurations with local definitions.

The following example shows specific YAML-defined variables and details of the
production job from an include file being customized in .gitlab-ci.yml.

# Content of https://company.com/autodevops-template.yml

variables:
  POSTGRES_USER: user
  POSTGRES_PASSWORD: testing_password
  POSTGRES_DB: $CI_ENVIRONMENT_SLUG

production:
  stage: production
  script:
    - install_dependencies
    - deploy
  environment:
    name: production
    url: https://$CI_PROJECT_PATH_SLUG.$AUTO_DEVOPS_DOMAIN
  only:
    - master
# Content of .gitlab-ci.yml

include: 'https://company.com/autodevops-template.yml'

image: alpine:latest

variables:
  POSTGRES_USER: root
  POSTGRES_PASSWORD: secure_password

stages:
  - build
  - test
  - production

production:
  environment:
    url: https://domain.com

In this case, the variables POSTGRES_USER and POSTGRES_PASSWORD along
with the environment url of the production job defined in
autodevops-template.yml have been overridden by new values defined in
.gitlab-ci.yml.

NOTE: Note:
Recursive includes are not supported meaning your external files
should not use the include keyword, as it will be ignored.

Recursive merging lets you extend and override dictionary mappings, but
you cannot add or modify items to an included array. For example, to add
an additional item to the production job script, you must repeat the
existing script items.

# Content of https://company.com/autodevops-template.yml

production:
  stage: production
  script:
    - install_dependencies
    - deploy
# Content of .gitlab-ci.yml

include: 'https://company.com/autodevops-template.yml'

stages:
  - production

production:
  script:
    - install_depedencies
    - deploy
    - notify_owner

In this case, if install_dependencies and deploy were not repeated in
.gitlab-ci.yml, they would not be part of the script for the production
job in the combined CI configuration.

NOTE: Note:
We currently do not support using YAML aliases across different YAML files
sourced by include. You must only refer to aliases in the same file.

variables

Introduced in GitLab Runner v0.5.0.

NOTE: Note:
Integers (as well as strings) are legal both for variable’s name and value.
Floats are not legal and cannot be used.

GitLab CI/CD allows you to define variables inside .gitlab-ci.yml that are
then passed in the job environment. They can be set globally and per-job.
When the variables keyword is used on a job level, it overrides the global
YAML variables and predefined ones.

They are stored in the Git repository and are meant to store non-sensitive
project configuration, for example:

variables:
  DATABASE_URL: "postgres://postgres@postgres/my_database"

These variables can be later used in all executed commands and scripts.
The YAML-defined variables are also set to all created service containers,
thus allowing to fine tune them.

To turn off global defined variables in a specific job, define an empty hash:

job_name:
  variables: {}

Except for the user defined variables, there are also the ones set up by the
Runner itself
.
One example would be CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME which has the value of
the branch or tag name for which project is built. Apart from the variables
you can set in .gitlab-ci.yml, there are also the so called
Variables
which can be set in GitLab’s UI.

Learn more about variables and their priority.

Git strategy

Introduced in GitLab 8.9 as an experimental feature. May change or be removed
completely in future releases. GIT_STRATEGY=none requires GitLab Runner
v1.7+.

You can set the GIT_STRATEGY used for getting recent application code, either
globally or per-job in the variables section. If left
unspecified, the default from project settings will be used.

There are three possible values: clone, fetch, and none.

clone is the slowest option. It clones the repository from scratch for every
job, ensuring that the project workspace is always pristine.

variables:
  GIT_STRATEGY: clone

fetch is faster as it re-uses the project workspace (falling back to clone
if it doesn’t exist). git clean is used to undo any changes made by the last
job, and git fetch is used to retrieve commits made since the last job ran.

variables:
  GIT_STRATEGY: fetch

none also re-uses the project workspace, but skips all Git operations
(including GitLab Runner’s pre-clone script, if present). It is mostly useful
for jobs that operate exclusively on artifacts (e.g., deploy). Git repository
data may be present, but it is certain to be out of date, so you should only
rely on files brought into the project workspace from cache or artifacts.

variables:
  GIT_STRATEGY: none

Git submodule strategy

Requires GitLab Runner v1.10+.

The GIT_SUBMODULE_STRATEGY variable is used to control if / how Git
submodules are included when fetching the code before a build. You can set them
globally or per-job in the variables section.

There are three possible values: none, normal, and recursive:

  • none means that submodules will not be included when fetching the project
    code. This is the default, which matches the pre-v1.10 behavior.

  • normal means that only the top-level submodules will be included. It is
    equivalent to:

    git submodule sync
    git submodule update --init
  • recursive means that all submodules (including submodules of submodules)
    will be included. It is equivalent to:

    git submodule sync --recursive
    git submodule update --init --recursive

Note that for this feature to work correctly, the submodules must be configured
(in .gitmodules) with either:

  • the HTTP(S) URL of a publicly-accessible repository, or
  • a relative path to another repository on the same GitLab server. See the
    Git submodules documentation.

Git checkout

Introduced in GitLab Runner 9.3

The GIT_CHECKOUT variable can be used when the GIT_STRATEGY is set to either
clone or fetch to specify whether a git checkout should be run. If not
specified, it defaults to true. You can set them globally or per-job in the
variables section.

If set to false, the Runner will:

  • when doing fetch - update the repository and leave working copy on
    the current revision,
  • when doing clone - clone the repository and leave working copy on the
    default branch.

Having this setting set to true will mean that for both clone and fetch
strategies the Runner will checkout the working copy to a revision related
to the CI pipeline:

variables:
  GIT_STRATEGY: clone
  GIT_CHECKOUT: "false"
script:
  - git checkout master
  - git merge $CI_BUILD_REF_NAME

Job stages attempts

Introduced in GitLab, it requires GitLab Runner v1.9+.

You can set the number for attempts the running job will try to execute each
of the following stages:

VariableDescription
GET_SOURCES_ATTEMPTSNumber of attempts to fetch sources running a job
ARTIFACT_DOWNLOAD_ATTEMPTSNumber of attempts to download artifacts running a job
RESTORE_CACHE_ATTEMPTSNumber of attempts to restore the cache running a job

The default is one single attempt.

Example:

variables:
  GET_SOURCES_ATTEMPTS: 3

You can set them globally or per-job in the variables section.

Shallow cloning

Introduced in GitLab 8.9 as an experimental feature. May change in future
releases or be removed completely.

You can specify the depth of fetching and cloning using GIT_DEPTH. This allows
shallow cloning of the repository which can significantly speed up cloning for
repositories with a large number of commits or old, large binaries. The value is
passed to git fetch and git clone.

Note:
If you use a depth of 1 and have a queue of jobs or retry
jobs, jobs may fail.

Since Git fetching and cloning is based on a ref, such as a branch name, Runners
can’t clone a specific commit SHA. If there are multiple jobs in the queue, or
you are retrying an old job, the commit to be tested needs to be within the
Git history that is cloned. Setting too small a value for GIT_DEPTH can make
it impossible to run these old commits. You will see unresolved reference in
job logs. You should then reconsider changing GIT_DEPTH to a higher value.

Jobs that rely on git describe may not work correctly when GIT_DEPTH is
set since only part of the Git history is present.

To fetch or clone only the last 3 commits:

variables:
  GIT_DEPTH: "3"

You can set it globally or per-job in the variables section.

Special YAML features

It’s possible to use special YAML features like anchors (&), aliases (*)
and map merging (<<), which will allow you to greatly reduce the complexity
of .gitlab-ci.yml.

Read more about the various YAML features.

Hidden keys (jobs)

Introduced in GitLab 8.6 and GitLab Runner v1.1.1.

If you want to temporarily ‘disable’ a job, rather than commenting out all the
lines where the job is defined:

#hidden_job:
#  script:
#    - run test

you can instead start its name with a dot (.) and it will not be processed by
GitLab CI. In the following example, .hidden_job will be ignored:

.hidden_job:
  script:
    - run test

Use this feature to ignore jobs, or use the
special YAML features and transform the hidden keys
into templates.

Anchors

Introduced in GitLab 8.6 and GitLab Runner v1.1.1.

YAML has a handy feature called ‘anchors’, which lets you easily duplicate
content across your document. Anchors can be used to duplicate/inherit
properties, and is a perfect example to be used with hidden keys
to provide templates for your jobs.

The following example uses anchors and map merging. It will create two jobs,
test1 and test2, that will inherit the parameters of .job_template, each
having their own custom script defined:

.job_template: &job_definition  # Hidden key that defines an anchor named 'job_definition'
  image: ruby:2.1
  services:
    - postgres
    - redis

test1:
  <<: *job_definition           # Merge the contents of the 'job_definition' alias
  script:
    - test1 project

test2:
  <<: *job_definition           # Merge the contents of the 'job_definition' alias
  script:
    - test2 project

& sets up the name of the anchor (job_definition), << means “merge the
given hash into the current one”, and * includes the named anchor
(job_definition again). The expanded version looks like this:

.job_template:
  image: ruby:2.1
  services:
    - postgres
    - redis

test1:
  image: ruby:2.1
  services:
    - postgres
    - redis
  script:
    - test1 project

test2:
  image: ruby:2.1
  services:
    - postgres
    - redis
  script:
    - test2 project

Let’s see another one example. This time we will use anchors to define two sets
of services. This will create two jobs, test:postgres and test:mysql, that
will share the script directive defined in .job_template, and the services
directive defined in .postgres_services and .mysql_services respectively:

.job_template: &job_definition
  script:
    - test project

.postgres_services:
  services: &postgres_definition
    - postgres
    - ruby

.mysql_services:
  services: &mysql_definition
    - mysql
    - ruby

test:postgres:
  <<: *job_definition
  services: *postgres_definition

test:mysql:
  <<: *job_definition
  services: *mysql_definition

The expanded version looks like this:

.job_template:
  script:
    - test project

.postgres_services:
  services:
    - postgres
    - ruby

.mysql_services:
  services:
    - mysql
    - ruby

test:postgres:
  script:
    - test project
  services:
    - postgres
    - ruby

test:mysql:
  script:
    - test project
  services:
    - mysql
    - ruby

You can see that the hidden keys are conveniently used as templates.

Triggers

Triggers can be used to force a rebuild of a specific branch, tag or commit,
with an API call.

Read more in the triggers documentation.

Skipping jobs

If your commit message contains [ci skip] or [skip ci], using any
capitalization, the commit will be created but the pipeline will be skipped.

Validate the .gitlab-ci.yml

Each instance of GitLab CI has an embedded debug tool called Lint, which validates the
content of your .gitlab-ci.yml files. You can find the Lint under the page ci/lint of your
project namespace (e.g, http://gitlab-example.com/gitlab-org/project-123/-/ci/lint)

Using reserved keywords

If you get validation error when using specific values (e.g., true or false),
try to quote them, or change them to a different form (e.g., /bin/true).

Examples

Visit the examples README to see a list of examples using GitLab
CI with various languages.

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