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ES技术团队划重点 | ES6.X,你必须知道的API和相关技巧

题记

[Elasticsearch6.X相关核心知识点必知必会](http://elasticsearch-cheatsheet.jolicode.com/
Elasticsearch5.X相关核心知识点必知必会(如下)。

0. ES相关推荐

首先,不要再使用curl,请安装sense(kibana5.x中默认包含sense)
1)ES官方向导
https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/elasticsearch/guide/master/index.html

2)ES官方文档(API相关)
https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/elasticsearch/reference/master/index.html

3)ES资源清单(全)
https://github.com/dzharii/awesome-elasticsearch

4)ES云
https://www.found.no/play

5)ES官方论坛(英文)
https://discuss.elastic.co/

6)ES|stackOverflow论坛地址
https://stackoverflow.com/questions/tagged/elasticsearch

7)ES 性能测试相关(NB)
https://www.datadoghq.com/blog/monitor-elasticsearch-performance-metrics/

1. 查询操作

基本查询有两种语法:左边是一个简单的语法,你不能使用任何选项,
右边是一个扩展。 大多数初学者头痛的DSL来自于:

GET _search
{
  "query": {
    "match": {
      "FIELD": "TEXT"
    }
  }
}
GET _search
{
  "query": {
    "match": {
      "FIELD": {
        "query": "TEXT",
        "OPTION": "VALUE"
      }
    }
  }
}

1.1 包含高亮、聚合、过滤器的完整的检索示例

GET /_search
{
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must": [
        {
          "match": {
            "title": "smith"
          }
        }
      ],
      "must_not": [
        {
          "match_phrase": {
            "title": "granny smith"
          }
        }
      ],
      "filter": [
        {
          "exists": {
            "field": "title"
          }
        }
      ]
    }
  },
  "aggs": {
    "my_agg": {
      "terms": {
        "field": "user",
        "size": 10
      }
    }
  },
  "highlight": {
    "pre_tags": [
      "<em>"
    ],
    "post_tags": [
      "</em>"
    ],
    "fields": {
      "body": {
        "number_of_fragments": 1,
        "fragment_size": 20
      },
      "title": {}
    }
  },
  "size": 20,
  "from": 100,
  "_source": [
    "title",
    "id"
  ],
  "sort": [
    {
      "_id": {
        "order": "desc"
      }
    }
  ]
}

1.2 普通检索

多字段检索

"multi_match": {
  "query": "Elastic",
  "fields": ["user.*", "title^3"],
  "type": "best_fields"
}

bool检索

"bool": {
  "must": [],
  "must_not": [],
  "filter": [],
  "should": [],
  "minimum_should_match" : 1
}

范围检索

"range": {
  "age": {
    "gte": 10,
    "lte": 20,
    "boost": 2
  }
}

1.3 QueryString语法概述

1.3.1 检索所有的_all字段

GET /_search?q=pony

1.3.2 包含运算符和包含boost精确检索的复杂检索

GET /_search?q=title:(joli OR code) AND author:"Damien Alexandre"^2

1.3.3 使用通配符和特殊查询进行检索

GET /_search?q=_exists_:title OR title:singl? noneOrAnyChar*cter

1.3.4 模糊搜素和范围检索

GET /_search?q=title:elastichurch~3 AND date:[2016-01-01 TO 2018-12-31]

1.3.5 使用 DSL检索(不推荐用于用户搜索):

GET /_search
{
  "query": {
    "query_string": {
      "default_field": "content",
      "query": "elastic AND (title:lucene OR title:solr)"
    }
  }
}

2. 索引操作

2.1 创建包含设置和mapping的索引

PUT /my_index_name
{
  "settings": {
    "number_of_replicas": 1,
    "number_of_shards": 3,
    "analysis": {},
    "refresh_interval": "1s"
  },
  "mappings": {
    "my_type_name": {
      "properties": {
        "title": {
          "type": "text",
          "analyzer": "english"
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

2.2 动态的更新设置

PUT /my_index_name/_settings
{
  "index": {
    "refresh_interval": "-1",
    "number_of_replicas": 0
  }
}

2.3 通过向类型添加字段更新索引

PUT /my_index_name/_mapping/my_type_name
{
  "my_type_name": {
    "properties": {
      "tag": {
        "type": "keyword"
      }
    }
  }
}

2.4 获取Mapping和设置

GET /my_index_name/_mapping
GET /my_index_name/_settings

2.5 创建document

POST /my_index_name/my_type_name
{
  "title": "Elastic is funny",
  "tag": [
    "lucene"
  ]
}

2.6 创建或更新document

PUT /my_index_name/my_type_name/12abc
{
  "title": "Elastic is funny",
  "tag": [
    "lucene"
  ]
}

2.7 删除文档

DELETE /my_index_name/my_type_name/12abc

2.8 打开或关闭索引已节约内存和CPU

POST /my_index_name/_close
POST /my_index_name/_open

2.9 移除和创建别名

POST /_aliases
{
  "actions": [
    {
      "remove": {
        "index": "my_index_name",
        "alias": "foo"
      }
    },
    {
      "add": {
        "index": "my_index_name",
        "alias": "bar",
        "filter" : { "term" : { "user" : "damien" } }
      }
    }
  ]
}

2.10 列举别名

GET /_aliases
GET /my_index_name/_alias/*
GET /*/_alias/*
GET /*/_alias/foo

2.11 索引监控和信息

GET /my_index_name/_stats
GET /my_index_name/_segments
GET /my_index_name/_recovery?pretty&human

2.12 索引状态和管理

POST /my_index_name/_cache/clear
POST /my_index_name/_refresh
POST /my_index_name/_flush
POST /my_index_name/_forcemerge
POST /my_index_name/_upgrade
GET /my_index_name/_upgrade?pretty&human

3. 调试和部署

3.1 检索调试

3.1.1 获取query操作到底做了什么?

GET /blog/post/_validate/query?explain
{
  "query": {
    "match": {
      "title": "Smith"
    }
  }
}

3.1.2 获取文档是否匹配?

GET /blog/post/1/_explain
{
  "query": {
    "match": {
      "title": "Smith"
    }
  }
}

3.2 分析

3.2.1 测试内容如何在文档中被标记?

GET /blog/_analyze?field=title&text=powerful

3.2.2 测试分析器输出?

GET /_analyze?analyzer=english&text=powerful

3.3 集群管理和插件管理

3.3.1 集群和节点信息

GET /_cluster/health?pretty
GET /_cluster/health?wait_for_status=yellow&timeout=50s
GET /_cluster/state
GET /_cluster/stats?human&pretty
GET /_cluster/pending_tasks
GET /_nodes
GET /_nodes/stats
GET /_nodes/nodeId1,nodeId2/stats

3.3.2 手动移动分片

索引1的分片移动到索引2

POST /_cluster/reroute
{
  "commands": [
    {
      "move": {
        "index": "my_index_name",
        "shard": 0,
        "from_node": "node1",
        "to_node": "node2"
      }
    },
    {
      "allocate": {
        "index": "my_index_name",
        "shard": 1,
        "node": "node3"
      }
    }
  ]
}

3.3.3 更新设置

动态更新最小节点数。

PUT /_cluster/settings
{
  "persistent": {
    "discovery.zen.minimum_master_nodes": 3
  }
}

PUT /_cluster/settings
{
  "transient": {
    "discovery.zen.minimum_master_nodes": 2
  }
}

使分片失效,在rolling重启前有效。

PUT /_cluster/settings
{
    "transient" : {
        "cluster.routing.allocation.enable" : "none"
    }
}

PUT /_cluster/settings
{
    "transient" : {
        "cluster.routing.allocation.enable" : "all"
    }
}

4.最有用的插件

ES5.X版本已不再支持站点插件,请查看kibana应用或类似Cerebro等其他独立的app做管理。
Cerebro地址: https://github.com/lmenezes/cerebro

Analysis ICU
从Unicode ICU库中添加有用的tokenizer和令牌过滤器。

bin/elasticsearch-plugin install analysis-icu

AWS Cloud
允许在Amazon云(EC2和S3)中发现和存储。

bin / elasticsearch-plugin install discovery-ec2 bin / elasticsearch-plugin install repository-s3

Azure Cloud
允许在微软云(EC2和S3)中发现和存储。

bin/elasticsearch-plugin install discovery-azure-classicbin/elasticsearch-plugin install repository-azure

插件管理:

bin/elasticsearch-plugin install file:///path/to/plugin
bin/elasticsearch-plugin list
bin/elasticsearch-plugin remove [pluginname]

5.其他信息

5.1 如何发现其他插件

RPM: /usr/share/elasticsearch/bin
Debian: /usr/share/elasticsearch/bin

5.2 缺省端口

Kibana: http://localhost:5601/.

Elasticsearch: http://localhost:9200/.

5.3 如何设置堆大小

单一Elasticsearch 服务器最大可用内存小于总内存的50%,且小于32GB;
假定你使用Ubuntu/Debian 服务器,你可以通过如下配置修改:

/etc/security/limits.conf

elasticsearch - nofile 65535
elasticsearch - memlock unlimited

对于Centos服务器,修改配置如下:

/etc/default/elasticsearch (on CentOS/RH: /etc/sysconfig/elasticsearch)

ES_HEAP_SIZE=20g
MAX_OPEN_FILES=65535
MAX_LOCKED_MEMORY=unlimited

5.4 elasticsearch.yml中有用的需要改变的配置

cluster.name: jolicluster
node.name: ${HOSTNAME}
discovery.zen.ping.unicast.hosts: ["front01", "front02"]
discovery.zen.minimum_master_nodes: 2
network.host: _site_
network.bind_host: [_site_, _local_]
plugin.mandatory: analysis-icu
node.data: true
node.master: true
bootstrap.memory_lock: true
action.auto_create_index: +aaa*,-bbb*,+ccc*,-*

6. 小结

本文是翻译的 http://elasticsearch-cheatsheet.jolicode.com/#es5

Cheat sheet是作弊表的意思。可见源作者对文章寄托的意义就是最核心、最关键的ES知识点“小抄”。

我把它理解成ES学习中待翻看的字典。

尤其第0章节的相关链接,都是上乘ES佳作,待进一步深度剖析。

——————————————————————————————————
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这里写图片描述
和你一起,死磕Elasticsearch
——————————————————————————————————

2017年08月19日 14:45 于家中床前

作者:铭毅天下
转载请标明出处,原文地址:
http://blog.csdn.net/laoyang360/article/details/75094457
如果感觉本文对您有帮助,请点击‘顶’支持一下,您的支持是我坚持写作最大的动力,谢谢!

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