Linux FSCK自动修复文件系统

背景:

Linux系统(Ubuntu)在运行时,断电等非正常关机操作,会导致ext4文件系统数据损坏。严重时会导致系统崩溃。如下log就是系统数据损坏。

[    7.878756] EXT4-fs error (device mmcblk0p2): ext4_mb_generate_buddy:742: group 0, 14845 clusters in bitmap, 14822 in gd
[    8.484660] init: samba-ad-dc main process (995) terminated with status 1
[   14.248075] EXT4-fs error (device mmcblk0p2): ext4_mb_generate_buddy:742: group 1, 1 clusters in bitmap, 2 in gd


检查方法:

1、开机log,如上log就是开机时,kernel监测到文件系统错误;

2、比如要检查的分区是/dev/mmcblk0p2,如下红色字体部分就是系统错误的信息。

~# tune2fs -l /dev/mmcblk0p2
tune2fs 1.42.9 (4-Feb-2014)
Filesystem volume name:   <none>
Last mounted on:          /
Filesystem UUID:          ab013911-6048-465f-8a1a-cf1420c7bb01
Filesystem magic number:  0xEF53
Filesystem revision #:    1 (dynamic)
Filesystem features:      ext_attr resize_inode dir_index filetype extent flex_bg sparse_super large_file huge_file uninit_bg dir_nlink extra_isize
Filesystem flags:         unsigned_directory_hash
Default mount options:    user_xattr acl
Filesystem state:         not clean with errors
Errors behavior:          Continue
Filesystem OS type:       Linux
Inode count:              393216
Block count:              1572864
Reserved block count:     78643
Free blocks:              289870
Free inodes:              169990
First block:              0
Block size:               4096
Fragment size:            4096
Reserved GDT blocks:      383
Blocks per group:         32768
Fragments per group:      32768
Inodes per group:         8192
Inode blocks per group:   512
Flex block group size:    16
Filesystem created:       Sat Sep 12 11:55:02 2015
Last mount time:          Mon Oct  5 00:56:20 2015
Last write time:          Mon Oct  5 00:56:32 2015
Mount count:              49
Maximum mount count:      -1
Last checked:             Sat Sep 12 11:55:02 2015
Check interval:           0 (<none>)
Lifetime writes:          5936 MB
Reserved blocks uid:      0 (user root)
Reserved blocks gid:      0 (group root)
First inode:              11
Inode size:               256
Required extra isize:     28
Desired extra isize:      28
Default directory hash:   half_md4
Directory Hash Seed:      37b6421d-4697-4ff5-a68e-4a1e1ea81c0e
Journal backup:           inode blocks
<span style="color:#ff0000;">FS Error count:           5
First error time:         Mon Oct  5 00:52:47 2015
First error function:     ext4_mb_generate_buddy
First error line #:       742
First error inode #:      0
First error block #:      0
Last error time:          Mon Oct  5 00:56:32 2015
Last error function:      ext4_mb_generate_buddy
Last error line #:        742
Last error inode #:       0
Last error block #:       0</span>


修复方法:

1、手动修复:借助其他完整系统启动,对所在磁盘分区卸载,比如要修复/dev/mmcblk0p2,

执行命令 fsck.ext4 /dev/mmcblk0p2 可检查修复系统;


2、自动修复:

条件:

(1)、 自动修复要保证,bootloader参数bootargs 生命挂载以制度方式挂载根文件系统

             console=tty1 console=ttySAC2,115200n8 root=UUID=e139ce78-9841-40fe-8823-96a304a09859 rootwait ro

  如果最后ro是rw,将不能完成自动修复。

(2)、  编辑/etc/fstab 挂载最后一个选项设置为1,标明启动时自动检测文件系统,如下:

UUID=e139ce78-9841-40fe-8823-96a304a09859       /       ext4    errors=remount-ro,noatime,nodiratime            0 1

(3)、 编辑 /etc/default/rcS 最后一个选项(其他linux系统有区别)

# automatically repair filesystems with inconsistencies during boot
FSCKFIX=yes

然后,可以参考/etc/init/mountall.conf

description     "Mount filesystems on boot"

start on startup
stop on starting rcS

expect daemon
task

emits virtual-filesystems
emits local-filesystems
emits remote-filesystems
emits all-swaps
emits filesystem
emits mounting
emits mounted

script
    . /etc/default/rcS || true
    [ -f /forcefsck ] && force_fsck="--force-fsck"
    [ "$FSCKFIX" = "yes" ] && fsck_fix="--fsck-fix"

    # Doesn't work so well if mountall is responsible for mounting /proc, heh.
    if [ -e /proc/cmdline ]; then
        read line < /proc/cmdline
        for arg in $line; do
            case $arg in
                -q|--quiet|-v|--verbose|--debug)
                    debug_arg=$arg
                    ;;
            esac
        done < /proc/cmdline
    fi
    # set $LANG so that messages appearing in plymouth are translated
    if [ -r /etc/default/locale ]; then
        . /etc/default/locale || true
        export LANG LANGUAGE LC_MESSAGES LC_ALL
    fi
    exec mountall --daemon $force_fsck $fsck_fix $debug_arg
end script
post-stop script
    rm -f /forcefsck 2>dev/null || true
end script
(4)、 系统检测到分区有问题时,会再根目录下创建一个空文件/forcefsck,重启后,执行mountall,自动进行修复,然后删除forcefsck,也可以手动创建/forcefsck,系统同样会在下次启动时强制检查修复文件系统;


Log:

系统启动检查修复过程的log,不在/var/log/fsck/目录下,而是在/var/log/upstart/目录下,文件为 mountall.log,如下:

# cat mountall.log
mount: mount point /media/boot does not exist
mountall: mount /media/boot [382] terminated with status 32
mountall: Filesystem could not be mounted: /media/boot
Skipping /media/boot at user request
Skipping /media/boot at user request
Skipping /media/boot at user request
fsck from util-linux 2.20.1
e2fsck 1.42.9 (4-Feb-2014)
/dev/mmcblk0p2: clean, 223220/393216 files, 1282976/1572864 blocks

其他:

也可以通过设置 系统挂载的次数来自动检查修复文件系统

比如:

tune2fs -c 30 /dev/mmcblk0p2 系统每启动30次,就会检查修复一次。


修复完成后,通过 tune2fs -l /dev/mmcblk0p2看到没有错误信息,如下:

~# tune2fs -l /dev/mmcblk0p2
tune2fs 1.42.9 (4-Feb-2014)
Filesystem volume name:   <none>
Last mounted on:          /
Filesystem UUID:          ab013911-6048-465f-8a1a-cf1420c7bb01
Filesystem magic number:  0xEF53
Filesystem revision #:    1 (dynamic)
Filesystem features:      ext_attr resize_inode dir_index filetype extent flex_bg sparse_super large_file huge_file uninit_bg dir_nlink extra_isize
Filesystem flags:         unsigned_directory_hash
Default mount options:    user_xattr acl
Filesystem state:         not clean
Errors behavior:          Continue
Filesystem OS type:       Linux
Inode count:              393216
Block count:              1572864
Reserved block count:     78643
Free blocks:              289888
Free inodes:              169996
First block:              0
Block size:               4096
Fragment size:            4096
Reserved GDT blocks:      383
Blocks per group:         32768
Fragments per group:      32768
Inodes per group:         8192
Inode blocks per group:   512
Flex block group size:    16
Filesystem created:       Sat Sep 12 11:55:02 2015
Last mount time:          Mon Oct  5 00:58:56 2015
Last write time:          Mon Oct  5 00:58:41 2015
Mount count:              1
Maximum mount count:      -1
Last checked:             Mon Oct  5 00:58:41 2015
Check interval:           0 (<none>)
Lifetime writes:          5938 MB
Reserved blocks uid:      0 (user root)
Reserved blocks gid:      0 (group root)
First inode:              11
Inode size:               256
Required extra isize:     28
Desired extra isize:      28
Default directory hash:   half_md4
Directory Hash Seed:      37b6421d-4697-4ff5-a68e-4a1e1ea81c0e
Journal backup:           inode blocks






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