极客时间《设计模式之美》笔记---观察者模式

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观察者模式(Observer Design Pattern)

在对象之间定义一个一对多的依赖,当一个对象状态改变的时候,所有依赖的对象都会自动收到通知。

一般情况下,被依赖的对象叫作被观察者(Observable),依赖的对象叫作观察者(Observer)。不过,在实际的项目开发中,这两种对象的称呼是比较灵活的,有各种不同的叫法,比如:Subject-Observer、Publisher-Subscriber、Producer-Consumer、EventEmitter-EventListener、Dispatcher-Listener。不管怎么称呼,只要应用场景符合刚刚给出的定义,都可以看作观察者模式。

该模式有很多实现的方式。比如:有同步阻塞的实现方式,也有异步非阻塞的实现方式;有进程内的实现方式,也有跨进程的实现方式。

同步阻塞的实现

public interface Subject {
  void registerObserver(Observer observer);
  void removeObserver(Observer observer);
  void notifyObservers(Message message);
}

public interface Observer {
  void update(Message message);
}

public class ConcreteSubject implements Subject {
  private List observers = new ArrayList();

  @Override
  public void registerObserver(Observer observer) {
    observers.add(observer);
  }

  @Override
  public void removeObserver(Observer observer) {
    observers.remove(observer);
  }

  @Override
  public void notifyObservers(Message message) {
    for (Observer observer : observers) {
      observer.update(message);
    }
  }
}

public class ConcreteObserverOne implements Observer {
  @Override
  public void update(Message message) {
    //TODO: 获取消息通知,执行自己的逻辑...
    System.out.println("ConcreteObserverOne is notified.");
  }
}

public class ConcreteObserverTwo implements Observer {
  @Override
  public void update(Message message) {
    //TODO: 获取消息通知,执行自己的逻辑...
    System.out.println("ConcreteObserverTwo is notified.");
  }
}

public class Demo {
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    ConcreteSubject subject = new ConcreteSubject();
    subject.registerObserver(new ConcreteObserverOne());
    subject.registerObserver(new ConcreteObserverTwo());
    subject.notifyObservers(new Message());
  }
}

实际上,设计模式要干的事情就是解耦。创建型模式是将创建和使用代码解耦,结构型模式是将不同功能代码解耦,行为型模式是将不同的行为代码解耦,具体到观察者模式,它是将观察者和被观察者代码解耦。借助设计模式,我们利用更好的代码结构,将一大坨代码拆分成职责更单一的小类,让其满足开闭原则、高内聚松耦合等特性,以此来控制和应对代码的复杂性,提高代码的可扩展性

场景:一个P2P投资理财系统,用户注册成功之后,我们会给用户发放投资体验金。

public interface RegObserver {
  void handleRegSuccess(long userId);
}

public class RegPromotionObserver implements RegObserver {
  private PromotionService promotionService; // 依赖注入

  @Override
  public void handleRegSuccess(long userId) {
    promotionService.issueNewUserExperienceCash(userId);
  }
}

public class RegNotificationObserver implements RegObserver {
  private NotificationService notificationService;

  @Override
  public void handleRegSuccess(long userId) {
    notificationService.sendInboxMessage(userId, "Welcome...");
  }
}

public class UserController {
  private UserService userService; // 依赖注入
  private List regObservers = new ArrayList<>();

  // 一次性设置好,之后也不可能动态的修改
  public void setRegObservers(List observers) {
    regObservers.addAll(observers);
  }

  public Long register(String telephone, String password) {
    //省略输入参数的校验代码
    //省略userService.register()异常的try-catch代码
    long userId = userService.register(telephone, password);

    for (RegObserver observer : regObservers) {
      observer.handleRegSuccess(userId);
    }
    return userId;
  }
}

如何实现一个异步非阻塞的EventBus框架?

异步非阻塞实现:

// 第一种实现方式,其他类代码不变,就没有再重复罗列
public class RegPromotionObserver implements RegObserver {
  private PromotionService promotionService; // 依赖注入

  @Override
  public void handleRegSuccess(Long userId) {
    Thread thread = new Thread(new Runnable() {
      @Override
      public void run() {
        promotionService.issueNewUserExperienceCash(userId);
      }
    });
    thread.start();
  }
}

// 第二种实现方式,其他类代码不变,就没有再重复罗列
public class UserController {
  private UserService userService; // 依赖注入
  private List regObservers = new ArrayList<>();
  private Executor executor;

  public UserController(Executor executor) {
    this.executor = executor;
  }

  public void setRegObservers(List observers) {
    regObservers.addAll(observers);
  }

  public Long register(String telephone, String password) {
    //省略输入参数的校验代码
    //省略userService.register()异常的try-catch代码
    long userId = userService.register(telephone, password);

    for (RegObserver observer : regObservers) {
      executor.execute(new Runnable() {
        @Override
        public void run() {
          observer.handleRegSuccess(userId);
        }
      });
    }
    return userId;
  }
}

EventBus框架功能需求介绍

EventBus 翻译为“事件总线”,它提供了实现观察者模式的骨架代码。我们可以基于此框架,非常容易地在自己的业务场景中实现观察者模式,不需要从零开始开发。其中,Google Guava EventBus就是一个比较著名的EventBus框架,它不仅仅支持异步非阻塞模式,同时也支持同步阻塞模式

现在,我们就通过例子来看一下,Guava EventBus具有哪些功能。还是那个用户注册的例子,我们用Guava EventBus重新实现一下,代码如下所示:

public class UserController {
  private UserService userService; // 依赖注入

  private EventBus eventBus;
  private static final int DEFAULT_EVENTBUS_THREAD_POOL_SIZE = 20;

  public UserController() {
    //eventBus = new EventBus(); // 同步阻塞模式
    eventBus = new AsyncEventBus(Executors.newFixedThreadPool(DEFAULT_EVENTBUS_THREAD_POOL_SIZE)); // 异步非阻塞模式
  }

  public void setRegObservers(List observers) {
    for (Object observer : observers) {
      eventBus.register(observer);
    }
  }

  public Long register(String telephone, String password) {
    //省略输入参数的校验代码
    //省略userService.register()异常的try-catch代码
    long userId = userService.register(telephone, password);

    eventBus.post(userId);

    return userId;
  }
}
public class RegPromotionObserver {
  private PromotionService promotionService; // 依赖注入

  @Subscribe
  public void handleRegSuccess(Long userId) {
    promotionService.issueNewUserExperienceCash(userId);
  }
}

public class RegNotificationObserver {
  private NotificationService notificationService;

  @Subscribe
  public void handleRegSuccess(Long userId) {
    notificationService.sendInboxMessage(userId, "...");
  }
}

手把手实现一个EventBus框架

在这里插入图片描述
在这里插入图片描述

1.Subscribe

Subscribe是一个注解,用于标明观察者中的哪个函数可以接收消息。

@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Target(ElementType.METHOD)
@Beta
public @interface Subscribe {}

2.ObserverAction

ObserverAction类用来表示@Subscribe注解的方法,其中,target表示观察者类,method表示方法。它主要用在ObserverRegistry观察者注册表中。

public class ObserverAction {
  private Object target;
  private Method method;

  public ObserverAction(Object target, Method method) {
    this.target = Preconditions.checkNotNull(target);
    this.method = method;
    this.method.setAccessible(true);
  }

  public void execute(Object event) { // event是method方法的参数
    try {
      method.invoke(target, event);
    } catch (InvocationTargetException | IllegalAccessException e) {
      e.printStackTrace();
    }
  }
}

3.ObserverRegistry

ObserverRegistry类就是前面讲到的Observer注册表,是最复杂的一个类,框架中几乎所有的核心逻辑都在这个类中。

public class ObserverRegistry {
  private ConcurrentMap<Class<?>, CopyOnWriteArraySet<ObserverAction>> registry = new ConcurrentHashMap<>();

  public void register(Object observer) {
    Map<Class<?>, Collection<ObserverAction>> observerActions = findAllObserverActions(observer);
    for (Map.Entry<Class<?>, Collection<ObserverAction>> entry : observerActions.entrySet()) {
      Class<?> eventType = entry.getKey();
      Collection<ObserverAction> eventActions = entry.getValue();
      CopyOnWriteArraySet<ObserverAction> registeredEventActions = registry.get(eventType);
      if (registeredEventActions == null) {
        registry.putIfAbsent(eventType, new CopyOnWriteArraySet<>());
        registeredEventActions = registry.get(eventType);
      }
      registeredEventActions.addAll(eventActions);
    }
  }

  public List<ObserverAction> getMatchedObserverActions(Object event) {
    List<ObserverAction> matchedObservers = new ArrayList<>();
    Class<?> postedEventType = event.getClass();
    for (Map.Entry<Class<?>, CopyOnWriteArraySet<ObserverAction>> entry : registry.entrySet()) {
      Class<?> eventType = entry.getKey();
      Collection<ObserverAction> eventActions = entry.getValue();
      if (postedEventType.isAssignableFrom(eventType)) {
        matchedObservers.addAll(eventActions);
      }
    }
    return matchedObservers;
  }

  private Map<Class<?>, Collection<ObserverAction>> findAllObserverActions(Object observer) {
    Map<Class<?>, Collection<ObserverAction>> observerActions = new HashMap<>();
    Class<?> clazz = observer.getClass();
    for (Method method : getAnnotatedMethods(clazz)) {
      Class<?>[] parameterTypes = method.getParameterTypes();
      Class<?> eventType = parameterTypes[0];
      if (!observerActions.containsKey(eventType)) {
        observerActions.put(eventType, new ArrayList<>());
      }
      observerActions.get(eventType).add(new ObserverAction(observer, method));
    }
    return observerActions;
  }

  private List<Method> getAnnotatedMethods(Class<?> clazz) {
    List<Method> annotatedMethods = new ArrayList<>();
    for (Method method : clazz.getDeclaredMethods()) {
      if (method.isAnnotationPresent(Subscribe.class)) {
        Class<?>[] parameterTypes = method.getParameterTypes();
        Preconditions.checkArgument(parameterTypes.length == 1,
                "Method %s has @Subscribe annotation but has %s parameters."
                        + "Subscriber methods must have exactly 1 parameter.",
                method, parameterTypes.length);
        annotatedMethods.add(method);
      }
    }
    return annotatedMethods;
  }
}

4.EventBus

EventBus实现的是阻塞同步的观察者模式。看代码你可能会有些疑问,这明明就用到了线程池Executor啊。实际上,MoreExecutors.directExecutor()是Google Guava提供的工具类,看似是多线程,实际上是单线程。之所以要这么实现,主要还是为了跟AsyncEventBus统一代码逻辑,做到代码复用。

public class EventBus {
  private Executor executor;
  private ObserverRegistry registry = new ObserverRegistry();

  public EventBus() {
    this(MoreExecutors.directExecutor());
  }

  protected EventBus(Executor executor) {
    this.executor = executor;
  }

  public void register(Object object) {
    registry.register(object);
  }

  public void post(Object event) {
    List observerActions = registry.getMatchedObserverActions(event);
    for (ObserverAction observerAction : observerActions) {
      executor.execute(new Runnable() {
        @Override
        public void run() {
          observerAction.execute(event);
        }
      });
    }
  }
}

5.AsyncEventBus

有了EventBus,AsyncEventBus的实现就非常简单了。为了实现异步非阻塞的观察者模式,它就不能再继续使用MoreExecutors.directExecutor()了,而是需要在构造函数中,由调用者注入线程池。

public class AsyncEventBus extends EventBus {
  public AsyncEventBus(Executor executor) {
    super(executor);
  }
}
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