DSS中的RTP打包传输h264时获取h264的sps和pps信息
在使用DSS点播MP4文件时,使用wireshark抓包,查看RTP的打包信息,通过分析RTP包,使用的FU-A打包方式;
由于dss在rtp传输时没有传输SPS(序列参数集)和PPS(图像参数集)信息,但是可以通过RTSP时的DESCRIBE时的SDP信息中的spror-parameter-sets获取;
SDP中的H.264的SPS和PPS串,包含了初始化H.264解码器所需要的信息参数,包括编码所用的profile,level,图像的宽和高,deblock滤波器等;
在H264中,SPS和PPS存在于NALU header中,而在MP4文件中,SPS和PPS存在于AVCDecoderConfigurationRecord, 首先要定位avcC;
序列参数集SPS作用于一系列连续的编码图像,而图像参数集PPS作用于编码视频序列中一个或多个独立的图像。
如果解码器没能正确接收到这两个参数集,那么其他NALU 也是无法解码的。因此它们一般在发送其它 NALU 之前发送,并且使用不同的信道或者更加可靠的传输协议(如TCP)进行传输,也可以重复传输;

关于AVCDecoderConfigurationRecord结构定义为  



 H264基本码流由一些列的NALU组成。原始的NALU单元组成:[start code] + [NALU header] + [NALU payload];

H264基本码流结构分两层:视频编码层VCL和网络适配层NAL,这样使信号处理和网路传输分离;

NALU header

+---------------+

|0|1|2|3|4|5|6|7|

+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

|F|NRI| Type |

+---------------+



由于SDP中的sps和pps信息是用的base64存储的,可以使用live555中的base64中进行解析获取;
下边是live555中的base64文件中的源代码:

static char base64DecodeTable[256];

static void initBase64DecodeTable() {
  int i;
  for (i = 0; i < 256; ++i) base64DecodeTable[i] = (char)0x80;
      // default value: invalid

  for (i = 'A'; i <= 'Z'; ++i) base64DecodeTable[i] = 0 + (i - 'A');
  for (i = 'a'; i <= 'z'; ++i) base64DecodeTable[i] = 26 + (i - 'a');
  for (i = '0'; i <= '9'; ++i) base64DecodeTable[i] = 52 + (i - '0');
  base64DecodeTable[(unsigned char)'+'] = 62;
  base64DecodeTable[(unsigned char)'/'] = 63;
  base64DecodeTable[(unsigned char)'='] = 0;
}

unsigned char* base64Decode(char const* in, unsigned& resultSize,
                   Boolean trimTrailingZeros) {
  static Boolean haveInitedBase64DecodeTable = False;
  if (!haveInitedBase64DecodeTable) {
    initBase64DecodeTable();
    haveInitedBase64DecodeTable = True;
  }

  unsigned char* out = (unsigned char*)strDupSize(in); // ensures we have enough space
  int k = 0;
  int const jMax = strlen(in) - 3;
     // in case "in" is not a multiple of 4 bytes (although it should be)
  for (int j = 0; j < jMax; j += 4) {
    char inTmp[4], outTmp[4];
    for (int i = 0; i < 4; ++i) {
      inTmp[i] = in[i+j];
      outTmp[i] = base64DecodeTable[(unsigned char)inTmp[i]];
      if ((outTmp[i]&0x80) != 0) outTmp[i] = 0; // pretend the input was 'A'
    }

    out[k++] = (outTmp[0]<<2) | (outTmp[1]>>4);
    out[k++] = (outTmp[1]<<4) | (outTmp[2]>>2);
    out[k++] = (outTmp[2]<<6) | outTmp[3];
  }

  if (trimTrailingZeros) {
    while (k > 0 && out[k-1] == '\0') --k;
  }
  resultSize = k;
  unsigned char* result = new unsigned char[resultSize];
  memmove(result, out, resultSize);
  delete[] out;

  return result;
}

static const char base64Char[] =
"ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+/";

char* base64Encode(char const* origSigned, unsigned origLength) {
  unsigned char const* orig = (unsigned char const*)origSigned; // in case any input bytes have the MSB set
  if (orig == NULL) return NULL;

  unsigned const numOrig24BitValues = origLength/3;
  Boolean havePadding = origLength > numOrig24BitValues*3;
  Boolean havePadding2 = origLength == numOrig24BitValues*3 + 2;
  unsigned const numResultBytes = 4*(numOrig24BitValues + havePadding);
  char* result = new char[numResultBytes+1]; // allow for trailing '\0'

  // Map each full group of 3 input bytes into 4 output base-64 characters:
  unsigned i;
  for (i = 0; i < numOrig24BitValues; ++i) {
    result[4*i+0] = base64Char[(orig[3*i]>>2)&0x3F];
    result[4*i+1] = base64Char[(((orig[3*i]&0x3)<<4) | (orig[3*i+1]>>4))&0x3F];
    result[4*i+2] = base64Char[((orig[3*i+1]<<2) | (orig[3*i+2]>>6))&0x3F];
    result[4*i+3] = base64Char[orig[3*i+2]&0x3F];
  }

  // Now, take padding into account.  (Note: i == numOrig24BitValues)
  if (havePadding) {
    result[4*i+0] = base64Char[(orig[3*i]>>2)&0x3F];
    if (havePadding2) {
      result[4*i+1] = base64Char[(((orig[3*i]&0x3)<<4) | (orig[3*i+1]>>4))&0x3F];
      result[4*i+2] = base64Char[(orig[3*i+1]<<2)&0x3F];
    } else {
      result[4*i+1] = base64Char[((orig[3*i]&0x3)<<4)&0x3F];
      result[4*i+2] = '=';
    }
    result[4*i+3] = '=';
  }

  result[numResultBytes] = '\0';
  return result;
}
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DSS中的RTP打包传输h264时获取h264的sps和pps信息

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