数据结构第七次试验

一、实验题目

设计一个程序exp7-6.cpp,构造一棵哈夫曼树,输出对应的哈夫曼编码和平均查找长度。并用表7.8所示的数据进行验证。

表7.8 单词及出现的频度

单词

The

of

a

to

and

in

that

he

is

at

on

for

His

are

be

出现频度

1192

677

541

518

462

450

242

195

190

181

174

157

138

124

123

 

二、实验目的

掌握哈夫曼树的构造过程和哈夫曼编码的产生方法;灵活运用二叉树这种数据结构解决一些综合应用问题。

三、实验要求

针对程序exp7-6.cpp,输出结果如下:

#include <iostream>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <cstring>
#define N 50
#define M 2*N-1
using namespace std;
typedef struct
{
    string data;
    double weight;
    int parent;
    int lchild;
    int rchild;
}HTNode;
typedef struct
{
    char cd[N];
    int start;
}HCode;
void CreateHT(HTNode ht[],int n)
{
    int i,k,lnode,rnode;
    double min1,min2;
    for(i=0;i<2*n-1;i++)
    {
        ht[i].parent=ht[i].lchild=ht[i].rchild=-1;
    }
    for(i=n;i<2*n-1;i++)
    {
        min1=min2=32767;
        lnode=rnode=-1;
        for(k=0;k<=i-1;k++)
        {
            if(ht[k].parent==-1)
            {
                if(ht[k].weight<min1)
                {
                    min2=min1;rnode=lnode;
                    min1=ht[k].weight;lnode=k;
                }
                else if(ht[k].weight<min2)
                {
                    min2=ht[k].weight;rnode=k;
                }
            }
        }
        ht[i].weight=ht[lnode].weight+ht[rnode].weight;
        ht[i].lchild=lnode;ht[i].rchild=rnode;
        ht[lnode].parent=i;ht[rnode].parent=i;
    }
}
void DispHCode(HTNode ht[],HCode hcd[],int n)
{
	int i,k;
	int sum=0,m=0,j;
	cout<<"输出哈夫曼编码:"<<endl; //输出哈夫曼编码
	for (i=0;i<n;i++)
	{
		j=0;
		cout<<ht[i].data<<'\t';
		for (k=hcd[i].start;k<=n;k++)
		{
			cout<<hcd[i].cd[k];
			j++;
		}
		m+=ht[i].weight;
		sum+=ht[i].weight*j;
		cout<<endl;
	}
	cout<<"平均长度=";
	cout<<1.0*sum/m;
}
void CreateHCode(HTNode ht[],HCode hcd[],int n)
{
    int i,f,c;
    HCode hc;
    for(i=0;i<n;i++)
    {
        hc.start=n;c=i;
        f=ht[i].parent;
        while(f!=-1)
        {
            if(ht[f].lchild==c)
                hc.cd[hc.start--]='0';
            else
                hc.cd[hc.start--]='1';
            c=f;f=ht[f].parent;
        }
        hc.start++;
        hcd[i]=hc;
    }
}

int main()
{
    int n=15,i;
	string str[]={"The","of","a","to","and","in","that","he","is","at","on","for","His","are","be"};
	int fnum[]={1192,677,541,518,462,450,242,195,190,181,174,157,138,124,123};
	HTNode ht[M];
	HCode hcd[N];
	for (i=0;i<n;i++)
	{
		ht[i].data=str[i];
		ht[i].weight=fnum[i];
	}
	CreateHT(ht,n);
	CreateHCode(ht,hcd,n);
	DispHCode(ht,hcd,n);
	return 0;
}


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