SpringFramework(2)

 

一、Spring基础

1、核心

1IoC/Dependency Injection

l         IoC/Dependency Injection(依赖注入):Beans不依赖于框架;容器注入依赖

l         轻量级Spring容器:配置和管理Beans

2BeanFactory

l         轻量级Bean容器

l         载入Bean定义,包括:

?         id/name

?         class

?         singleton或原型

?         属性

?         构造参数

?         初始化方法

?         析构方法

3XmlBeanFactory

l         BeanFactory实现

l         Beans定义的例子:

<beans>
       
<bean id="exampleBean" class="eg.ExampleBean"/>
       
<bean id="anotherExample" class="eg.ExampleBeanTwo"/>
       
</beans>
       

l         使用的例子:

InputStream input = new FileInputStream("beans.xml");
       
BeanFactory factory = new XmlBeanFactory(input);
       
ExampleBean eb = (ExampleBean)factory.getBean("exampleBean");
       
ExampleBeanTwo eb2 = (ExampleBeanTwo)factory.getBean("anotherExample");
       

可能会抛出NoSuchBeanDefinitionException

ExampleBean eb = (ExampleBean)factory.getBean("exampleBean", ExampleBean.class);
       

可能会抛出BeanNotOfRequiredTypeException

4Bean协作者

l         你的Bean工作所需要的其它Bean

package eg;
       
public class ExampleBean {
       
private AnotherBean beanOne;
       
private YetAnotherBean beanTwo;
       
public void setBeanOne(AnotherBean b) { beanOne = b; }
       
public void setBeanTwo(YetAnotherBean b) { beanTwo = b; }
       
}
       
 
       
<bean id="exampleBean" class="eg.ExampleBean">
       
<property name="beanOne"><ref bean="anotherExampleBean"/></property>
       
<property name="beanTwo"><ref bean="yetAnotherBean"/></property>
       
</bean>
       
<bean id="anotherExampleBean" class="eg.AnotherBean"/>
       
<bean id="yetAnotherBean" class="eg.YetAnotherBean"/>
       

5Bean属性

l         设置Bean属性

package eg;
       
public class ExampleBean {
       
private String s;
       
private int i;
       
public void setStringProperty(String s) { this.s = s; }
       
public void setIntegerProperty(int i) { this.i = i; }
       
}
       
<bean id="exampleBean" class="eg.ExampleBean">
       
<property name="stringProperty"><value>Hi!</value></property>
       
<property name="integerProperty"><value>1</value></property>
       
</bean>
       

6)属性编辑器

l         转换String类型为各种对象类型

l         实现java.beans.PropertyEditor

l         标准Java类型:BoolByteColorDoubleFloatFontIntLongShortString

l         标准Spring类型:ClassFileLocalePropertiesStringArrayURL

l         定制Spring类型:CustomBooleanCustomDateCustomNumberCustomStringTrimmer

7)标准属性编辑器

l         例子:

<property name="intProperty"><value>7</value></property>
       
<property name="doubleProperty"><value>0.25</value></property>
       
<property name="booleanProperty"><value>true</value></property>
       
<property name="colorProperty"><value>0,255,0</value></property>
       

java.awt.Color是用RGB值来初始化的

8Spring属性编辑器

l         例子:

<property name="classProperty">
       
<value>java.lang.Object</value>
       
</property>
       
<property name="fileProperty">
       
<value>/home/ziba/file.txt</value>
       
</property>
       
<property name="localeProperty">
       
<value>pt_BR</value>
       
</property>
       
<property name="urlProperty">
       
<value>http://java.net</value>
       
</property>
       
<property name="stringArrayProperty">
       
<value>foo,bar,baz</value>
       
</property>
       

9)定制属性编辑器

l         Date例子:

DateFormat fmt = new SimpleDateFormat("d/M/yyyy");
       
CustomDateEditor dateEditor = new CustomDateEditor(fmt, false);
       
beanFactory.registerCustomEditor(java.util.Date.class, dateEditor);
       
 
       
<property name="date"><value>19/2/2004</value></property>
       

l         StringTrimming例子:Trim字符串,转换空串为null

StringTrimmerEditor trimmer = new StringTrimmerEditor(true);
       
beanFactory.registerCustomEditor(java.lang.String.class, trimmer);
       
 
       
<property name="string1"><value> hello </value></property>
       
<property name="string2"><value></value></property>
       
 
       
<property name="string2"><null/></property>
       

10java.util.Properties

l         Properties的例子:

<property name="propertiesProperty">
       
<value>
       
foo=1
       
bar=2
       
baz=3
       
</value>
       
</property>
       
 
       
<property name="propertiesProperty">
       
<props>
       
<prop key="foo">1</prop>
       
<prop key="bar">2</prop>
       
<prop key="baz">3</prop>
       
</props>
       
</property>
       

11java.util.List

l         List的例子:

<property name="listProperty">
       
<list>
       
<value>a list element</value>
       
<ref bean="otherBean"/>
       
<ref bean="anotherBean"/>
       
</list>
       
</property>
       

12java.util.Set

l         Set的例子:

<property name="setProperty">
       
<set>
       
<value>a set element</value>
       
<ref bean="otherBean"/>
       
<ref bean="anotherBean"/>
       
</set>
       
</property>
       

13java.util.Map

l         Map的例子:

<property name="mapProperty">
       
<map>
       
<entry key="yup an entry">
       
<value>just some string</value>
       
</entry>
       
<entry key="yup a ref">
       
<ref bean="otherBean"/>
       
</entry>
       
</map>
       
</property>
       

14)构造方法

l         构造方法的例子:

public class ExampleBean {
       
private AnotherBean beanOne;
       
private YetAnotherBean beanTwo;
       
private int i;
       
public ExampleBean(AnotherBean b1, YetAnotherBean b2, int i) {
       
this.beanOne = b1;
       
this.beanTwo = b2;
       
this.i = i;
       
}
       
}
       
 
       
<bean id="exampleBean" class="eg.ExampleBean">
       
<constructor-arg><ref bean="anotherExampleBean"/></constructor-arg>
       
<constructor-arg><ref bean="yetAnotherBean"/></constructor-arg>
       
<constructor-arg><value>1</value></constructor-arg>
       
</bean>
       
<bean id="anotherExampleBean" class="eg.AnotherBean"/>
       
<bean id="yetAnotherBean" class="eg.YetAnotherBean"/>
       

15Bean生命周期

l         Beans在它第一次使用时,能够被factory初始化

public class ExampleBean {
       
public void init() {
       
// do some initialization work
       
}
       
}
       
 
       
<bean id="exampleBean" class="eg.ExampleBean" init-method="init"/>
       

l         Beans在不再使用时,能够被清除

public class ExampleBean {
       
public void cleanup() {
       
// do some destruction work
       
}
       
}
       
 
       
<bean id="exampleBean" class="eg.ExampleBean" destroy-method="cleanup"/>
       

16PropertyPlaceholderConfigurer

l         从外部Properties文件中并入属性

<bean id="dataSource"
       
class="org.apache.commons.dbcp.BasicDataSource"
       
destroy-method="close">
       
<property name="driverClassName">
       
<value>${jdbc.driverClassName}</value>
       
</property>
       
<property name="url"><value>${jdbc.url}</value></property>
       
<property name="username"><value>${jdbc.username}</value></property>
       
<property name="password"><value>${jdbc.password}</value></property>
       
</bean>
       

jdbc.properties

jdbc.driverClassName=org.hsqldb.jdbcDriver
       
jdbc.url=jdbc:hsqldb:hsql://production:9002
       
jdbc.username=sa
       
jdbc.password=root
       

l         安装Configurer

InputStream input = new FileInputStream("beans.xml");
        
XmlBeanFactory factory = new XmlBeanFactory(input);
Properties props = new Properties();
props.load(new FileInputStream("jdbc.properties"));
PropertyPlaceholderConfigurer cfg = new PropertyPlaceholderConfigurer();
       
cfg.setProperties(props);
       
cfg.postProcessBeanFactory(factory);
       
DataSource ds = (DataSource)factory.getBean("dataSource");

17MethodInvokingFactoryBean

l         暴露使用Singleton模式的Bean

package eg;
public class MySingleton {
private static MySingleton instance = new MySingleton();
private MySingleton() {}
public static MySingleton getInstance() {
return instance;
}
}
 
       
<bean name="mySingleton"
class="...beans.factory.config.MethodInvokingFactoryBean">
<property name="staticMethod">
<value>eg.MySingleton.getInstance</value>
</property>
</bean>

FactoryBean代表另一个类创建Bean

18FactoryBean引用

l         获得FactoryBean自己的引用:

MySingleton singleton = (MySingleton)ctx.getBean("mySingleton");
       

获得由factory创建的Bean

FactoryBean factory = (FactoryBean)ctx.getBean("&mySingleton");

获得factory

19)高级特性

l         单例/原型

l         Autowiring:对于type,要求每种需要的类型具有单实例;对于name,要求匹配每个属性名字的Bean名字(对非简单属性)

l         依赖检查

l         BeanWrapper

l         InitializingBean/DisposableBean接口

l         BeanFactoryAware/BeanNameAware接口

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