Android 系统提供的常用命令工具

Android提供了不少命令行工具,方便我们调试和查看信息.下面是frameworks/base/cmds(android 6.0.1)中的命令.
treecmdsL1cmdsamappopsappprocessappwidgetbackupbmgrbootanimationbucontentdpmhididmapimeinputinterruptermediapmrequestsyncscreencapsettingssmsvctelecomuiautomatorwm/.svcpower,data,wifi,usb,nfc.(am,appops,ime,input,pm,screencap,settings,svc,uiautomator,wm)..imeime,/,. adb shell ime list -s
com.sohu.inputmethod.sogou/.SogouIME
com.google.android.inputmethod.pinyin/.PinyinIME
com.sohu.inputmethod.sogou.xiaomi/.SogouIME

input
input命令可以模拟输入
比如我们想在输入框内输入123
adb shell input text 123
注意,要满足几点,首先要聚焦在输入框,另外最好使用原生输入法

我们也可以模拟系统按键,比如返回键
adb shell input keyevent KEYCODE_BACK
我们也可以模拟点击事件,比如点击x=900,y=150
$ adb shell input tap 900 150

wm
wm命令可以获得分辨率/屏幕密度等
adbshellwmsizePhysicalsize:1080x1920 adb shell wm density
Physical density: 480
还可以修改显示输入图像的比例,不过不知道有什么用,大家可以试试这个命令.
wmoverscan10,10,100,100 wm overscan reset
试过之后记得执行reset

screencap
screencap用来截屏
adbshellscreencaphusage:screencap[hp][ddisplayid][FILENAME]h:thismessagep:savethefileasapng.d:specifythedisplayidtocapture,default0.IfFILENAMEendswith.pngitwillbesavedasapng.IfFILENAMEisnotgiven,theresultswillbeprintedtostdout. adb shell screencap -p | sed 's/\r//>screen.pngsd adb shell ‘cd sdcard; screencap -p screen.png’
$ adb shell ls -l sdcard/screen.png
-rw-rw—- root sdcard_rw 197116 2016-06-21 11:49 screen.png

uiautomator
uiautomator可以用来做UI测试,也可以dump出当前UI结构.如果觉得hierarchy不好用,也可以试试这个命令.只不过结果是xml形式,信息也很全.
$ adb shell uiautomator
Usage: uiautomator [options]

Available subcommands:

help: displays help message

runtest: executes UI automation tests
runtest [options]
: < -c | -e class >
: a list of jar files containing test classes and dependencies. If
the path is relative, it’s assumed to be under /data/local/tmp. Use
absolute path if the file is elsewhere. Multiple files can be
specified, separated by space.
: a list of test class names to run, separated by comma. To
a single method, use TestClass#testMethod format. The -e or -c option
may be repeated. This option is not required and if not provided then
all the tests in provided jars will be run automatically.
options:
–nohup: trap SIG_HUP, so test won’t terminate even if parent process
is terminated, e.g. USB is disconnected.
-e debug [true|false]: wait for debugger to connect before starting.
-e runner [CLASS]: use specified test runner class instead. If
unspecified, framework default runner will be used.
-e : other name-value pairs to be passed to test classes.
May be repeated.
-e outputFormat simple | -s: enabled less verbose JUnit style output.

dump: creates an XML dump of current UI hierarchy
dump [–verbose][file]
[–compressed]: dumps compressed layout information.
[file]: the location where the dumped XML should be stored, default is
/sdcard/window_dump.xml

events: prints out accessibility events until terminated
dump当前UI结构
adb shell uiautomator dump sdcard/test.xml

settings
settings可以修改/获取系统设置信息
$ adb shell settings
usage: settings [–user NUM] get namespace key
settings [–user NUM] put namespace key value
settings [–user NUM] delete namespace key
settings [–user NUM] list namespace

‘namespace’ is one of {system, secure, global}, case-insensitive
If ‘–user NUM’ is not given, the operations are performed on the owner user.
比如我们想查看android_id
adbshellsettingsgetsecureandroidid1dbbe170f8995d89wifi adb shell settings get global wifi_on
1
查看日期是否是24小时制
$ adb shell settings get system time_12_24
24

svc
svc下面有一组命令,power, data, wifi, usb, nfc,可以控制其开关
例如:
$ svc wifi
svc wifi
Control the Wi-Fi manager

usage: svc wifi [enable|disable]
Turn Wi-Fi on or off.
控制移动网络数据开关
adbshellsvcdatadisable adb shell svc data enable

appops
appops可以查看/修改权限相关信息
$ adb shell appops get com.android.phone
VIBRATE: allow; time=+1d3h57m1s111ms ago; duration=+63ms
READ_CONTACTS: allow; time=+2h10m59s285ms ago
READ_SMS: allow; time=+2h10m49s858ms ago
WRITE_SMS: allow; time=+3m46s339ms ago
READ_ICC_SMS: allow; time=+2h10m49s859ms ago
WRITE_CLIPBOARD: allow; time=+10d2h24m17s819ms ago
WAKE_LOCK: allow; time=+5s122ms ago; duration=+14ms
READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE: allow; time=+14h31m4s898ms ago
WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE: allow; time=+14h31m4s898ms ago

$ adb shell appops get com.android.phone READ_CONTACTS
READ_CONTACTS: allow; time=+2h28m33s274ms ago

am和pm这两个命令应该算是最复杂也是最常用的了.我们可以通过am启动页面,发送广播等,可以通过pm列出手机中的app,启用禁用app等.当然有一些是需要root权限的.这里就不再介绍了.
android手机中的命令行工具不只这些,在frameworks/native/cmds中也有一些命令,比如我们常用的dumpsys,在我之前的blog中也介绍过.

了解了这些工具,我们就可以写一些脚本来获取手机和app信息, 省去了log也方便查看和调试.

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