ORACLE多表更新数据

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本文链接:https://blog.csdn.net/lufeng4321/article/details/83484221
$ sqlplus user/pass

SQL*Plus: Release 9.2.0.6.0 - Production on Wed Aug 2 17:38:39 2006

Copyright (c) 1982, 2002, Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle9i Enterprise Edition Release 9.2.0.6.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP and Oracle Data Mining options
JServer Release 9.2.0.6.0 - Production

SQL> select * from wwm2; --要更新的表
TOWN ID
-------------------- ----------
222 222
111 111
ww'jj 111
llll 1111
dddd 2222
lllldf 111
lllldf 111
dsafdf 111
3435 111
ljjjjj 222
dsafdf 111
TOWN ID
-------------------- ----------
3435 111
ljjjjj 222

SQL> select * from wwm5; --更新的条件表
TOWN ID
-------------------- ----------
lllldf 111
test 9984
SQL> select wwm2.* from wwm2,wwm5 where wwm2.id=wwm5.id
2 /
TOWN ID
-------------------- ----------
111 111
ww'jj 111
lllldf 111
lllldf 111
dsafdf 111
3435 111
dsafdf 111
3435 111
8 rows selected.
所以,每次需要更新8条数据就是正确的.
相信程序员是通过以下类似的SQL更新的,这是错误的,因为没有加WHERE
SQL> update wwm2 set wwm2.town=(select wwm5.town from wwm5 where wwm5.id=wwm2.id)
2 /
13 rows updated.
SQL> select * from wwm2;
TOWN ID
-------------------- ----------
222
lllldf 111
lllldf 111
1111
2222
lllldf 111
lllldf 111
lllldf 111
lllldf 111
222
lllldf 111
TOWN ID
-------------------- ----------
lllldf 111
222
13 rows selected.
可以看到13条记录被更新,符合条件的更新正确,不符合条件的也更新为NULL.以下是正确的方法
方法一:
SQL> update wwm2
2 set town=(select town from wwm5 where wwm5.id=wwm2.id)
3 where id=(select wwm5.id from wwm5 where wwm5.id=wwm2.id)
4 /
8 rows updated.
方法二: 与方法一道理相同,这里需要掌握EXIST的相关用法.
SQL> update wwm2
set town=(select town from wwm5 where wwm5.id=wwm2.id)
where exists (select 1 from wwm5 where wwm5.id=wwm2.id)
8 rows updated.
方法三:
SQL> update (select a.town atown,a.id aid,b.town btown,b.id bid from wwm2 a,wwm5 b where a.id=b.id)
2 set atown=btown
3 /
set atown=btown
*
ERROR at line 2:
ORA-01779: cannot modify a column which maps to a non key-preserved table
1* alter table wwm5 add primary key (id)
SQL> /
Table altered.
1 update (select a.town atown,a.id aid,b.town btown,b.id bid from wwm2 a,wwm5 b where a.id=b.id)
2* set atown=btown
SQL> /
8 rows updated.
这种方法的局限性就是需要PRIMARY 的支持.
方法四:
1 declare
2 cursor cur_wwm is select town,id from wwm5;
3 begin
4 for my_wwm in cur_wwm loop
5 update wwm2 set town=my_wwm.town
6 where id=my_wwm.id;
7 end loop;
8* end;
SQL> /
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
SQL> select * from wwm2;
TOWN ID
-------------------- ----------
222 222
lllldf 111
lllldf 111
llll 1111
dddd 2222
lllldf 111
lllldf 111
lllldf 111
lllldf 111
ljjjjj 222
lllldf 111
TOWN ID
-------------------- ----------
lllldf 111
ljjjjj 222
这个方法是最灵活的了.
方法五:
注意,方法五只能适用于WWM5是WWM2的子集的时候.
1 merge into wwm2
2 using (select town,id from wwm5) b
3 on (wwm2.id=b.id)
4 when matched then update set town=b.town
5* when not matched then insert (town,id) values (null,null)
SQL> /
9 rows merged.
SQL> select * from wwm2;
TOWN ID
-------------------- ----------
---注意这个地方,被插入了一个空值.因为WWM5的ID=9984在WWM2中不能匹配,根本原因是ORACLE9必须有WHEN NOT MATCHED子句,但是ORACLE10可以不许要,也就是ORACLE10可以不写WHEN NOT MATCHED ,就不必插入NULL值了,为解决这个问题,下一步会DELETE WWM5的ID=9984,这样一来就不会执行WHEN NOT MATCHED
222 222
lllldf 111
lllldf 111
llll 1111
dddd 2222
lllldf 111
lllldf 111
lllldf 111
lllldf 111
ljjjjj 222
TOWN ID
-------------------- ----------
lllldf 111
lllldf 111
ljjjjj 222
14 rows selected.
SQL> delete from wwm5 where id=9984;
1 row deleted.
SQL> 1 merge into wwm2
SQL> 2 using (select town,id from wwm5) b
SQL> 3 on (wwm2.id=b.id)
SQL> 4 when matched then update set town=b.town
SQL> 5* when not matched then insert (town,id) values (null,null)
SQL> /
8 rows merged.

转自http://blog.csdn.net/confessant/archive/2008/12/08/3476936.aspx
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