JAVA IO流(二) 处理流

一、缓冲流

缓冲流可以提高文件操作的效率,实际应用中,基本不用节点流,都是用缓冲流对文件进行操作。

package com.atguigu.java;

import java.io.BufferedInputStream;
import java.io.BufferedOutputStream;
import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.BufferedWriter;
import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.io.FileReader;
import java.io.FileWriter;
import java.io.IOException;

import org.junit.Test;

/*
 * 抽象基类			节点流(文件流)                                缓冲流(处理流的一种,可以提升文件操作的效率)
 * InputStream		FileInputStream			BufferedInputStream
 * OutputStream		FileOutputStream		BufferedOutputStream  (flush())
 * Reader			FileReader				BufferedReader  (readLine())
 * Writer			FileWriter				BufferedWriter  (flush())
 */
public class TestBuffered {
	@Test
	public void testBufferedReader(){
		BufferedReader br = null;
		BufferedWriter bw = null;
		try {
			File file = new File("dbcp.txt");
			File file1 = new File("dbcp3.txt");
			FileReader fr = new FileReader(file);
			
			FileWriter fw = new FileWriter(file1);
			br = new BufferedReader(fr);
			bw = new BufferedWriter(fw);
//			char[] c = new char[1024];
//			int len;
//			while((len = br.read(c))!= -1){
//				String str = new String(c, 0, len);
//				System.out.print(str);
//			}
			
			String str;
			while((str = br.readLine()) != null){
//				System.out.println(str);
				bw.write(str + "\n");
//				bw.newLine();
				bw.flush();
			}
		}catch (IOException e) {
			// TODO Auto-generated catch block
			e.printStackTrace();
		}finally{
			if(bw != null){
				try {
					bw.close();
				} catch (IOException e) {
					// TODO Auto-generated catch block
					e.printStackTrace();
				}
				
			}
			if(br != null){
				try {
					br.close();
				} catch (IOException e) {
					// TODO Auto-generated catch block
					e.printStackTrace();
				}
				
			}
			
		}
	}
	
	@Test
	public void testCopyFile(){
		long start = System.currentTimeMillis();
//		String src = "C:\\Users\\shkstart\\Desktop\\1.avi";
//		String dest = "C:\\Users\\shkstart\\Desktop\\3.avi";
		String src = "C:\\Users\\shkstart\\Desktop\\实验.doc";
		String dest = "C:\\Users\\shkstart\\Desktop\\实验1.doc";
		copyFile(src,dest);
		long end = System.currentTimeMillis();
		System.out.println("花费的时间为:" + (end - start));//746
	}
	
	//使用缓冲流实现文件的复制的方法
	public void copyFile(String src,String dest){
		BufferedInputStream bis = null;
		BufferedOutputStream bos = null;
		try {
			//1.提供读入、写出的文件
			File file1 = new File(src);
			File file2 = new File(dest);
			//2.想创建相应的节点流:FileInputStream、FileOutputStream
			FileInputStream fis = new FileInputStream(file1);
			FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream(file2);
			//3.将创建的节点流的对象作为形参传递给缓冲流的构造器中
			bis = new BufferedInputStream(fis);
			bos = new BufferedOutputStream(fos);
			//4.具体的实现文件复制的操作
			byte[] b = new byte[1024];
			int len;
			while((len = bis.read(b)) != -1){
				bos.write(b, 0, len);
				bos.flush();
			}
		}catch (IOException e) {
			// TODO Auto-generated catch block
			e.printStackTrace();
		}finally{
			//5.关闭相应的流
			if(bos != null){
				try {
					bos.close();
				} catch (IOException e) {
					// TODO Auto-generated catch block
					e.printStackTrace();
				}
				
			}
			if(bis != null){
				try {
					bis.close();
				} catch (IOException e) {
					// TODO Auto-generated catch block
					e.printStackTrace();
				}
				
			}
			
		}
	}
	
	
	//使用BufferedInputStream和BufferedOutputStream实现非文本文件的复制
	@Test
	public void testBufferedInputOutputStream(){
		BufferedInputStream bis = null;
		BufferedOutputStream bos = null;
		try {
			//1.提供读入、写出的文件
			File file1 = new File("1.jpg");
			File file2 = new File("2.jpg");
			//2.想创建相应的节点流:FileInputStream、FileOutputStream
			FileInputStream fis = new FileInputStream(file1);
			FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream(file2);
			//3.将创建的节点流的对象作为形参传递给缓冲流的构造器中
			bis = new BufferedInputStream(fis);
			bos = new BufferedOutputStream(fos);
			//4.具体的实现文件复制的操作
			byte[] b = new byte[1024];
			int len;
			while((len = bis.read(b)) != -1){
				bos.write(b, 0, len);
				bos.flush();
			}
		}catch (IOException e) {
			// TODO Auto-generated catch block
			e.printStackTrace();
		}finally{
			//5.关闭相应的流
			if(bos != null){
				try {
					bos.close();
				} catch (IOException e) {
					// TODO Auto-generated catch block
					e.printStackTrace();
				}
				
			}
			if(bis != null){
				try {
					bis.close();
				} catch (IOException e) {
					// TODO Auto-generated catch block
					e.printStackTrace();
				}
				
			}
			
		}
	}
	
}

总归就是在BufferedReader中增加了一个readline方法返回到一个String类型的数组里,在BufferedWriter中增加了一个write(String str)的方法,以及在两个写入缓冲流(BufferedFileOutputStream以及BufferedWriter)中增加了flush()功能。

二、转换流


 * 如何实现字节流与字符流之间的转换:
	 * 转换流:InputStreamReader  OutputStreamWriter
	 * 编码:字符串  --->字节数组
	 * 解码:字节数组--->字符串
	 */
	@Test
	public void test1(){
		BufferedReader br = null;
		BufferedWriter bw = null;
		try {
			//解码
			File file = new File("dbcp.txt");
			FileInputStream fis = new FileInputStream(file);
			InputStreamReader isr = new InputStreamReader(fis, "GBK");//GBK是一种编码方式
			br = new BufferedReader(isr);
			//编码
			File file1 = new File("dbcp4.txt");
			FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream(file1);
			OutputStreamWriter osw = new OutputStreamWriter(fos, "GBK");//GBK是一种编码方式
			bw = new BufferedWriter(osw);
			String str;
			while((str = br.readLine()) != null){
				bw.write(str);
				bw.newLine();
				bw.flush();
			}
		}catch (IOException e) {
			// TODO Auto-generated catch block
			e.printStackTrace();
		}finally{
			if(bw != null){
				try {
					bw.close();
				} catch (IOException e) {
					// TODO Auto-generated catch block
					e.printStackTrace();
				}
				
			}
			if(br != null){
				try {
					br.close();
				} catch (IOException e) {
					// TODO Auto-generated catch block
					e.printStackTrace();
				}
				
			}
		}
		
	}

IO流(flush和close方法的区别)
flush()方法: 用来刷新缓冲区的,刷新后可以再次写出(字节缓冲流内置缓冲区,如果没有读取出来,可以使用flush()刷新来)
close()方法:用来关闭流释放资源的的,如果是带缓冲区的流对象的close()方法,不但会关闭流,还会再关闭流之前刷新缓冲区,关闭后不能再写出

三、对象流

ObjectInputStream和OjbectOutputSteam

序列化(Serialize):用ObjectOutputStream类将一个Java对象写入IO流中

反序列化(Deserialize):用ObjectInputStream类从IO流中恢复该Java对象

注意(ObjectOutputStream和ObjectInputStream不能序列化static和transient修饰的成员变量)

2)如果想让一个对象实现序列化过程,则必须让其类是可序列化的,所以,需要序列化对象的那个类必须要继承Serializable或者Externalizable 接口

凡是实现Serializable接口的类都有一个表示序列化版本标识符的静态变量:

private static final long serialVersionUID;

下面是实例

package com.atguigu.java;

import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.io.FileNotFoundException;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.ObjectInputStream;
import java.io.ObjectOutputStream;
import java.io.Serializable;

import org.junit.Test;

public class TestObjectInputOutputStream {
	// 对象的反序列化过程:将硬盘中的文件通过ObjectInputStream转换为相应的对象
	@Test
	public void testObjectInputStream() {
		ObjectInputStream ois = null;
		try {
			ois = new ObjectInputStream(new FileInputStream(
					"person.txt"));
			
			Person p1 = (Person)ois.readObject();
			System.out.println(p1);
			Person p2 = (Person)ois.readObject();
			System.out.println(p2);
		}catch (Exception e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}finally{
			if(ois != null){
				
				try {
					ois.close();
				} catch (IOException e) {
					// TODO Auto-generated catch block
					e.printStackTrace();
				}
			}
		}
		
	}

	// 对象的序列化过程:将内存中的对象通过ObjectOutputStream转换为二进制流,存储在硬盘文件中
	@Test
	public void testObjectOutputStream() {

		Person p1 = new Person("小米", 23,new Pet("花花"));
		Person p2 = new Person("红米", 21,new Pet("小花"));

		ObjectOutputStream oos = null;
		try {
			oos = new ObjectOutputStream(new FileOutputStream("person.txt"));

			oos.writeObject(p1);
			oos.flush();
			oos.writeObject(p2);
			oos.flush();
		} catch (IOException e) {
			// TODO Auto-generated catch block
			e.printStackTrace();
		} finally {
			if (oos != null) {
				try {
					oos.close();
				} catch (IOException e) {
					// TODO Auto-generated catch block
					e.printStackTrace();
				}

			}
		}
	}
}

/*
 * 要实现序列化的类: 1.要求此类是可序列化的:实现Serializable接口
 * 2.要求类的属性同样的要实现Serializable接口
 * 3.提供一个版本号:private static final long serialVersionUID
 * 4.使用static或transient修饰的属性,不可实现序列化
 */
class Person implements Serializable {
	private static final long serialVersionUID = 23425124521L;
	static String name;
	transient Integer age;
	Pet pet;
	public Person(String name, Integer age,Pet pet) {
		this.name = name;
		this.age = age;
		this.pet = pet;
	}
	@Override
	public String toString() {
		return "Person [name=" + name + ", age=" + age + ", pet=" + pet + "]";
	}

	
}
class Pet implements Serializable{
	String name;
	public Pet(String name){
		this.name = name;
	}
	@Override
	public String toString() {
		return "Pet [name=" + name + "]";
	}
	
}

四、随机读取流

RandomAccessFile 类

构造器
public RandomAccessFile(File file, String mode) 
public RandomAccessFile(String name, String mode)
 

package com.atguigu.java;

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileNotFoundException;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.RandomAccessFile;

import org.junit.Test;

/*
 * RandomAccessFile:支持随机访问
 * 1.既可以充当一个输入流,有可以充当一个输出流
 * 2.支持从文件的开头读取、写入
 * 3.支持从任意位置的读取、写入(插入)
 */
public class TestRandomAccessFile {
	//相较于test3,更通用
	@Test
	public void test4(){
		RandomAccessFile raf = null;
		try {
			raf = new RandomAccessFile(new File("hello1.txt"),"rw");
			
			raf.seek(4);
			byte[] b = new byte[10];
			int len;
			StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer();
			while((len = raf.read(b)) != -1){
				sb.append(new String(b,0,len));
			}
			raf.seek(4);
			raf.write("xy".getBytes());
			raf.write(sb.toString().getBytes());
		}catch (IOException e) {
			// TODO Auto-generated catch block
			e.printStackTrace();
		}finally{
			if(raf != null){
				try {
					raf.close();
				} catch (IOException e) {
					// TODO Auto-generated catch block
					e.printStackTrace();
				}
				
			}
		}
	}
	
	//实现插入的效果:在d字符后面插入“xy”
	@Test
	public void test3(){
		RandomAccessFile raf = null;
		try {
			raf = new RandomAccessFile(new File("hello1.txt"),"rw");
			
			raf.seek(4);
			String str = raf.readLine();//efg123456
//			long l = raf.getFilePointer();
//			System.out.println(l);
			
			raf.seek(4);
			raf.write("xy".getBytes());
			raf.write(str.getBytes());
		}catch (IOException e) {
			// TODO Auto-generated catch block
			e.printStackTrace();
		}finally{
			if(raf != null){
				try {
					raf.close();
				} catch (IOException e) {
					// TODO Auto-generated catch block
					e.printStackTrace();
				}
				
			}
		}
	}
	
	//实现的实际上是覆盖的效果
	@Test
	public void test2(){
		RandomAccessFile raf = null;
		try {
			raf = new RandomAccessFile(new File("hello1.txt"),"rw");
			
			raf.seek(4);
			raf.write("xy".getBytes());
		}catch (IOException e) {
			// TODO Auto-generated catch block
			e.printStackTrace();
		}finally{
			if(raf != null){
				try {
					raf.close();
				} catch (IOException e) {
					// TODO Auto-generated catch block
					e.printStackTrace();
				}
				
			}
		}
	}
	
	//进行文件的读、写
	@Test
	public void test1(){
		RandomAccessFile raf1 = null;
		RandomAccessFile raf2 = null;
		try {
			raf1 = new RandomAccessFile(new File("hello.txt"), "r");
			raf2 = new RandomAccessFile(new File("hello1.txt"),"rw");
			
			byte[] b = new byte[20];
			int len;
			while((len = raf1.read(b)) != -1){
				raf2.write(b, 0, len);
			}
		} catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
			// TODO Auto-generated catch block
			e.printStackTrace();
		} catch (IOException e) {
			// TODO Auto-generated catch block
			e.printStackTrace();
		}finally{
			if(raf2 != null){
				try {
					raf2.close();
				} catch (IOException e) {
					// TODO Auto-generated catch block
					e.printStackTrace();
				}
			}
			if(raf1 != null){
				try {
					raf1.close();
				} catch (IOException e) {
					// TODO Auto-generated catch block
					e.printStackTrace();
				}
				
			}
		}
	}
}

五、总结

字节流-缓冲流(重点)
输入流InputStream-FileInputStream-BufferedInputStream
输出流OutputStream-FileOutputStream-BufferedOutputStream
字符流-缓冲流(重点)
输入流Reader-FileReader-BufferedReader
输出流Writer-FileWriter-BufferedWriter
转换流
InputSteamReader和OutputStreamWriter
对象流ObjectInputStream和ObjectOutputStream(难点)
序列化
反序列化
随机存取流RandomAccessFile(掌握读取、写入)

阅读更多
想对作者说点什么?

博主推荐

换一批

没有更多推荐了,返回首页