Golang实现请求限流的几种办法

目录

简单的并发控制

使用计数器实现请求限流

使用golang官方包实现httpserver频率限制

使用Token Bucket(令牌桶算法)实现请求限流


简单的并发控制

利用 channel 的缓冲设定,我们就可以来实现并发的限制。我们只要在执行并发的同时,往一个带有缓冲的 channel 里写入点东西(随便写啥,内容不重要)。让并发的 goroutine在执行完成后把这个 channel 里的东西给读走。这样整个并发的数量就讲控制在这个 channel的缓冲区大小上。

比如我们可以用一个 bool 类型的带缓冲 channel 作为并发限制的计数器。

chLimit := make(chan bool, 1)

 然后在并发执行的地方,每创建一个新的 goroutine,都往 chLimit 里塞个东西。

for i, sleeptime := range input {
    chs[i] = make(chan string, 1)
    chLimit <- true
    go limitFunc(chLimit, chs[i], i, sleeptime, timeout)
}

这里通过 go 关键字并发执行的是新构造的函数。他在执行完后,会把 chLimit的缓冲区里给消费掉一个。

limitFunc := func(chLimit chan bool, ch chan string, task_id, sleeptime, timeout int) {
    Run(task_id, sleeptime, timeout, ch)
    <-chLimit
}

这样一来,当创建的 goroutine 数量到达 chLimit 的缓冲区上限后。主 goroutine 就挂起阻塞了,直到这些 goroutine 执行完毕,消费掉了 chLimit 缓冲区中的数据,程序才会继续创建新的 goroutine 。我们并发数量限制的目的也就达到了。

以下是完整代码:

package main

import (
    "fmt"
    "time"
)

func Run(task_id, sleeptime, timeout int, ch chan string) {
    ch_run := make(chan string)
    go run(task_id, sleeptime, ch_run)
    select {
    case re := <-ch_run:
        ch <- re
    case <-time.After(time.Duration(timeout) * time.Second):
        re := fmt.Sprintf("task id %d , timeout", task_id)
        ch <- re
    }
}

func run(task_id, sleeptime int, ch chan string) {

    time.Sleep(time.Duration(sleeptime) * time.Second)
    ch <- fmt.Sprintf("task id %d , sleep %d second", task_id, sleeptime)
    return
}

func main() {
    input := []int{3, 2, 1}
    timeout := 2
    chLimit := make(chan bool, 1)
    chs := make([]chan string, len(input))
    limitFunc := func(chLimit chan bool, ch chan string, task_id, sleeptime, timeout int) {
        Run(task_id, sleeptime, timeout, ch)
        <-chLimit
    }
    startTime := time.Now()
    fmt.Println("Multirun start")
    for i, sleeptime := range input {
        chs[i] = make(chan string, 1)
        chLimit <- true
        go limitFunc(chLimit, chs[i], i, sleeptime, timeout)
    }

    for _, ch := range chs {
        fmt.Println(<-ch)
    }
    endTime := time.Now()
    fmt.Printf("Multissh finished. Process time %s. Number of task is %d", endTime.Sub(startTime), len(input))
}

运行结果:

Multirun start
task id 0 , timeout
task id 1 , timeout
task id 2 , sleep 1 second
Multissh finished. Process time 5s. Number of task is 3

如果修改并发限制为2:

chLimit := make(chan bool, 2)

运行结果:


Multirun start
task id 0 , timeout
task id 1 , timeout
task id 2 , sleep 1 second
Multissh finished. Process time 3s. Number of task is 3

使用计数器实现请求限流

限流的要求是在指定的时间间隔内,server 最多只能服务指定数量的请求。实现的原理是我们启动一个计数器,每次服务请求会把计数器加一,同时到达指定的时间间隔后会把计数器清零;这个计数器的实现代码如下所示:

type RequestLimitService struct {
	Interval time.Duration
	MaxCount int
	Lock     sync.Mutex
	ReqCount int
}

func NewRequestLimitService(interval time.Duration, maxCnt int) *RequestLimitService {
	reqLimit := &RequestLimitService{
		Interval: interval,
		MaxCount: maxCnt,
	}

	go func() {
		ticker := time.NewTicker(interval)
		for {
			<-ticker.C
			reqLimit.Lock.Lock()
			fmt.Println("Reset Count...")
			reqLimit.ReqCount = 0
			reqLimit.Lock.Unlock()
		}
	}()

	return reqLimit
}

func (reqLimit *RequestLimitService) Increase() {
	reqLimit.Lock.Lock()
	defer reqLimit.Lock.Unlock()

	reqLimit.ReqCount += 1
}

func (reqLimit *RequestLimitService) IsAvailable() bool {
	reqLimit.Lock.Lock()
	defer reqLimit.Lock.Unlock()

	return reqLimit.ReqCount < reqLimit.MaxCount
}

在服务请求的时候, 我们会对当前计数器和阈值进行比较,只有未超过阈值时才进行服务:

var RequestLimit = NewRequestLimitService(10 * time.Second, 5)

func helloHandler(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
	if RequestLimit.IsAvailable() {
		RequestLimit.Increase()
		fmt.Println(RequestLimit.ReqCount)
		io.WriteString(w, "Hello world!\n")
	} else {
		fmt.Println("Reach request limiting!")
		io.WriteString(w, "Reach request limit!\n")
	}
}

func main() {
	fmt.Println("Server Started!")
	http.HandleFunc("/", helloHandler)
	http.ListenAndServe(":8000", nil)
}

 完整代码url:https://github.com/hiberabyss/JustDoIt/blob/master/RequestLimit/request_limit.go

使用golang官方包实现httpserver频率限制

使用golang来编写httpserver时,可以使用官方已经有实现好的包:

import(
    "fmt"
    "net"
    "golang.org/x/net/netutil"
)

func main() {
    l, err := net.Listen("tcp", "127.0.0.1:0")
    if err != nil {
        fmt.Fatalf("Listen: %v", err)
    }
    defer l.Close()
    l = LimitListener(l, max)
    
    http.Serve(l, http.HandlerFunc())
    
    //bla bla bla.................
}

源码如下(url : https://github.com/golang/net/blob/master/netutil/listen.go),基本思路就是为连接数计数,通过make chan来建立一个最大连接数的channel, 每次accept就+1,close时候就-1. 当到达最大连接数时,就等待空闲连接出来之后再accept。

// Copyright 2013 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.

// Package netutil provides network utility functions, complementing the more
// common ones in the net package.
package netutil // import "golang.org/x/net/netutil"

import (
    "net"
	"sync"
)

// LimitListener returns a Listener that accepts at most n simultaneous
// connections from the provided Listener.
func LimitListener(l net.Listener, n int) net.Listener {
	return &limitListener{
		Listener: l,
		sem:      make(chan struct{}, n),
		done:     make(chan struct{}),
	}
}

type limitListener struct {
	net.Listener
	sem       chan struct{}
	closeOnce sync.Once     // ensures the done chan is only closed once
	done      chan struct{} // no values sent; closed when Close is called
}

// acquire acquires the limiting semaphore. Returns true if successfully
// accquired, false if the listener is closed and the semaphore is not
// acquired.
func (l *limitListener) acquire() bool {
	select {
	case <-l.done:
		return false
	case l.sem <- struct{}{}:
		return true
	}
}
func (l *limitListener) release() { <-l.sem }

func (l *limitListener) Accept() (net.Conn, error) {
    //如果sem满了,就会阻塞在这
	acquired := l.acquire()
	// If the semaphore isn't acquired because the listener was closed, expect
	// that this call to accept won't block, but immediately return an error.
	c, err := l.Listener.Accept()
	if err != nil {
		if acquired {
			l.release()
		}
		return nil, err
	}
	return &limitListenerConn{Conn: c, release: l.release}, nil
}

func (l *limitListener) Close() error {
	err := l.Listener.Close()
	l.closeOnce.Do(func() { close(l.done) })
	return err
}

type limitListenerConn struct {
	net.Conn
	releaseOnce sync.Once
	release     func()
}

func (l *limitListenerConn) Close() error {
	err := l.Conn.Close()
    //close时释放占用的sem
	l.releaseOnce.Do(l.release)
	return err
}

使用Token Bucket(令牌桶算法)实现请求限流

在开发高并发系统时有三把利器用来保护系统:缓存、降级和限流!为了保证在业务高峰期,线上系统也能保证一定的弹性和稳定性,最有效的方案就是进行服务降级了,而限流就是降级系统最常采用的方案之一。

这里为大家推荐一个开源库https://github.com/didip/tollbooth,但是,如果您想要一些简单的、轻量级的或者只是想要学习的东西,实现自己的中间件来处理速率限制并不困难。今天我们就来聊聊如何实现自己的一个限流中间件

首先我们需要安装一个提供了 Token bucket (令牌桶算法)的依赖包,上面提到的toolbooth 的实现也是基于它实现的:

$ go get golang.org/x/time/rate

先看Demo代码的实现:

package main

import (
    "net/http"
    "golang.org/x/time/rate"
)

var limiter = rate.NewLimiter(2, 5)
func limit(next http.Handler) http.Handler {
    return http.HandlerFunc(func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
        if limiter.Allow() == false {
            http.Error(w, http.StatusText(429), http.StatusTooManyRequests)
            return
        }
        next.ServeHTTP(w, r)
    })
}

func main() {
    mux := http.NewServeMux()
    mux.HandleFunc("/", okHandler)
    // Wrap the servemux with the limit middleware.
    http.ListenAndServe(":4000", limit(mux))
}

func okHandler(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
    w.Write([]byte("OK"))
}

然后看看 rate.NewLimiter的源码:

算法描述:用户配置的平均发送速率为r,则每隔1/r秒一个令牌被加入到桶中(每秒会有r个令牌放入桶中),桶中最多可以存放b个令牌。如果令牌到达时令牌桶已经满了,那么这个令牌会被丢弃;

// Copyright 2015 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
// Package rate provides a rate limiter.
package rate

import (
	"fmt"
	"math"
	"sync"
	"time"

	"golang.org/x/net/context"
)

// Limit defines the maximum frequency of some events.
// Limit is represented as number of events per second.
// A zero Limit allows no events.
type Limit float64

// Inf is the infinite rate limit; it allows all events (even if burst is zero).
const Inf = Limit(math.MaxFloat64)

// Every converts a minimum time interval between events to a Limit.
func Every(interval time.Duration) Limit {
	if interval <= 0 {
		return Inf
	}
	return 1 / Limit(interval.Seconds())
}

// A Limiter controls how frequently events are allowed to happen.
// It implements a "token bucket" of size b, initially full and refilled
// at rate r tokens per second.
// Informally, in any large enough time interval, the Limiter limits the
// rate to r tokens per second, with a maximum burst size of b events.
// As a special case, if r == Inf (the infinite rate), b is ignored.
// See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Token_bucket for more about token buckets.
//
// The zero value is a valid Limiter, but it will reject all events.
// Use NewLimiter to create non-zero Limiters.
//
// Limiter has three main methods, Allow, Reserve, and Wait.
// Most callers should use Wait.
//
// Each of the three methods consumes a single token.
// They differ in their behavior when no token is available.
// If no token is available, Allow returns false.
// If no token is available, Reserve returns a reservation for a future token
// and the amount of time the caller must wait before using it.
// If no token is available, Wait blocks until one can be obtained
// or its associated context.Context is canceled.
//
// The methods AllowN, ReserveN, and WaitN consume n tokens.
type Limiter struct {
	//maximum token, token num per second
	limit Limit
	//burst field, max token num
	burst int
	mu    sync.Mutex
	//tokens num, change
	tokens float64
	// last is the last time the limiter's tokens field was updated
	last time.Time
	// lastEvent is the latest time of a rate-limited event (past or future)
	lastEvent time.Time
}

// Limit returns the maximum overall event rate.
func (lim *Limiter) Limit() Limit {
	lim.mu.Lock()
	defer lim.mu.Unlock()
	return lim.limit
}

// Burst returns the maximum burst size. Burst is the maximum number of tokens
// that can be consumed in a single call to Allow, Reserve, or Wait, so higher
// Burst values allow more events to happen at once.
// A zero Burst allows no events, unless limit == Inf.
func (lim *Limiter) Burst() int {
	return lim.burst
}

// NewLimiter returns a new Limiter that allows events up to rate r and permits
// bursts of at most b tokens.
func NewLimiter(r Limit, b int) *Limiter {
	return &Limiter{
		limit: r,
		burst: b,
	}
}

// Allow is shorthand for AllowN(time.Now(), 1).
func (lim *Limiter) Allow() bool {
	return lim.AllowN(time.Now(), 1)
}

// AllowN reports whether n events may happen at time now.
// Use this method if you intend to drop / skip events that exceed the rate limit.
// Otherwise use Reserve or Wait.
func (lim *Limiter) AllowN(now time.Time, n int) bool {
	return lim.reserveN(now, n, 0).ok
}

// A Reservation holds information about events that are permitted by a Limiter to happen after a delay.
// A Reservation may be canceled, which may enable the Limiter to permit additional events.
type Reservation struct {
	ok     bool
	lim    *Limiter
	tokens int
	//This is the time to action
	timeToAct time.Time
	// This is the Limit at reservation time, it can change later.
	limit Limit
}

// OK returns whether the limiter can provide the requested number of tokens
// within the maximum wait time.  If OK is false, Delay returns InfDuration, and
// Cancel does nothing.
func (r *Reservation) OK() bool {
	return r.ok
}

// Delay is shorthand for DelayFrom(time.Now()).
func (r *Reservation) Delay() time.Duration {
	return r.DelayFrom(time.Now())
}

// InfDuration is the duration returned by Delay when a Reservation is not OK.
const InfDuration = time.Duration(1<<63 - 1)

// DelayFrom returns the duration for which the reservation holder must wait
// before taking the reserved action.  Zero duration means act immediately.
// InfDuration means the limiter cannot grant the tokens requested in this
// Reservation within the maximum wait time.
func (r *Reservation) DelayFrom(now time.Time) time.Duration {
	if !r.ok {
		return InfDuration
	}
	delay := r.timeToAct.Sub(now)
	if delay < 0 {
		return 0
	}
	return delay
}

// Cancel is shorthand for CancelAt(time.Now()).
func (r *Reservation) Cancel() {
	r.CancelAt(time.Now())
	return
}

// CancelAt indicates that the reservation holder will not perform the reserved action
// and reverses the effects of this Reservation on the rate limit as much as possible,
// considering that other reservations may have already been made.
func (r *Reservation) CancelAt(now time.Time) {
	if !r.ok {
		return
	}
	r.lim.mu.Lock()
	defer r.lim.mu.Unlock()
	if r.lim.limit == Inf || r.tokens == 0 || r.timeToAct.Before(now) {
		return
	}
	// calculate tokens to restore
	// The duration between lim.lastEvent and r.timeToAct tells us how many tokens were reserved
	// after r was obtained. These tokens should not be restored.
	restoreTokens := float64(r.tokens) - r.limit.tokensFromDuration(r.lim.lastEvent.Sub(r.timeToAct))
	if restoreTokens <= 0 {
		return
	}
	// advance time to now
	now, _, tokens := r.lim.advance(now)
	// calculate new number of tokens
	tokens += restoreTokens
	if burst := float64(r.lim.burst); tokens > burst {
		tokens = burst
	}
	// update state
	r.lim.last = now
	r.lim.tokens = tokens
	if r.timeToAct == r.lim.lastEvent {
		prevEvent := r.timeToAct.Add(r.limit.durationFromTokens(float64(-r.tokens)))
		if !prevEvent.Before(now) {
			r.lim.lastEvent = prevEvent
		}
	}
	return
}

// Reserve is shorthand for ReserveN(time.Now(), 1).
func (lim *Limiter) Reserve() *Reservation {
	return lim.ReserveN(time.Now(), 1)
}

// ReserveN returns a Reservation that indicates how long the caller must wait before n events happen.
// The Limiter takes this Reservation into account when allowing future events.
// ReserveN returns false if n exceeds the Limiter's burst size.
// Usage example:
//   r, ok := lim.ReserveN(time.Now(), 1)
//   if !ok {
//     // Not allowed to act! Did you remember to set lim.burst to be > 0 ?
//   }
//   time.Sleep(r.Delay())
//   Act()
// Use this method if you wish to wait and slow down in accordance with the rate limit without dropping events.
// If you need to respect a deadline or cancel the delay, use Wait instead.
// To drop or skip events exceeding rate limit, use Allow instead.
func (lim *Limiter) ReserveN(now time.Time, n int) *Reservation {
	r := lim.reserveN(now, n, InfDuration)
	return &r
}

// Wait is shorthand for WaitN(ctx, 1).
func (lim *Limiter) Wait(ctx context.Context) (err error) {
	return lim.WaitN(ctx, 1)
}

// WaitN blocks until lim permits n events to happen.
// It returns an error if n exceeds the Limiter's burst size, the Context is
// canceled, or the expected wait time exceeds the Context's Deadline.
func (lim *Limiter) WaitN(ctx context.Context, n int) (err error) {
	if n > lim.burst {
		return fmt.Errorf("rate: Wait(n=%d) exceeds limiter's burst %d", n, lim.burst)
	}
	// Check if ctx is already cancelled
	select {
	case <-ctx.Done():
		return ctx.Err()
	default:
	}
	// Determine wait limit
	now := time.Now()
	waitLimit := InfDuration
	if deadline, ok := ctx.Deadline(); ok {
		waitLimit = deadline.Sub(now)
	}
	// Reserve
	r := lim.reserveN(now, n, waitLimit)
	if !r.ok {
		return fmt.Errorf("rate: Wait(n=%d) would exceed context deadline", n)
	}
	// Wait
	t := time.NewTimer(r.DelayFrom(now))
	defer t.Stop()
	select {
	case <-t.C:
		// We can proceed.
		return nil
	case <-ctx.Done():
		// Context was canceled before we could proceed.  Cancel the
		// reservation, which may permit other events to proceed sooner.
		r.Cancel()
		return ctx.Err()
	}
}

// SetLimit is shorthand for SetLimitAt(time.Now(), newLimit).
func (lim *Limiter) SetLimit(newLimit Limit) {
	lim.SetLimitAt(time.Now(), newLimit)
}

// SetLimitAt sets a new Limit for the limiter. The new Limit, and Burst, may be violated
// or underutilized by those which reserved (using Reserve or Wait) but did not yet act
// before SetLimitAt was called.
func (lim *Limiter) SetLimitAt(now time.Time, newLimit Limit) {
	lim.mu.Lock()
	defer lim.mu.Unlock()
	now, _, tokens := lim.advance(now)
	lim.last = now
	lim.tokens = tokens
	lim.limit = newLimit
}

// reserveN is a helper method for AllowN, ReserveN, and WaitN.
// maxFutureReserve specifies the maximum reservation wait duration allowed.
// reserveN returns Reservation, not *Reservation, to avoid allocation in AllowN and WaitN.
func (lim *Limiter) reserveN(now time.Time, n int, maxFutureReserve time.Duration) Reservation {
	lim.mu.Lock()
	defer lim.mu.Unlock()
	if lim.limit == Inf {
		return Reservation{
			ok:        true,
			lim:       lim,
			tokens:    n,
			timeToAct: now,
		}
	}
	now, last, tokens := lim.advance(now)
	// Calculate the remaining number of tokens resulting from the request.
	tokens -= float64(n)
	// Calculate the wait duration
	var waitDuration time.Duration
	if tokens < 0 {
		waitDuration = lim.limit.durationFromTokens(-tokens)
	}
	// Decide result
	ok := n <= lim.burst && waitDuration <= maxFutureReserve
	// Prepare reservation
	r := Reservation{
		ok:    ok,
		lim:   lim,
		limit: lim.limit,
	}
	if ok {
		r.tokens = n
		r.timeToAct = now.Add(waitDuration)
	}
	// Update state
	if ok {
		lim.last = now
		lim.tokens = tokens
		lim.lastEvent = r.timeToAct
	} else {
		lim.last = last
	}
	return r
}

// advance calculates and returns an updated state for lim resulting from the passage of time.
// lim is not changed.
func (lim *Limiter) advance(now time.Time) (newNow time.Time, newLast time.Time, newTokens float64) {
	last := lim.last
	if now.Before(last) {
		last = now
	}
	// Avoid making delta overflow below when last is very old.
	maxElapsed := lim.limit.durationFromTokens(float64(lim.burst) - lim.tokens)
	elapsed := now.Sub(last)
	if elapsed > maxElapsed {
		elapsed = maxElapsed
	}
	// Calculate the new number of tokens, due to time that passed.
	delta := lim.limit.tokensFromDuration(elapsed)
	tokens := lim.tokens + delta
	if burst := float64(lim.burst); tokens > burst {
		tokens = burst
	}
	return now, last, tokens
}

// durationFromTokens is a unit conversion function from the number of tokens to the duration
// of time it takes to accumulate them at a rate of limit tokens per second.
func (limit Limit) durationFromTokens(tokens float64) time.Duration {
	seconds := tokens / float64(limit)
	return time.Nanosecond * time.Duration(1e9*seconds)
}

// tokensFromDuration is a unit conversion function from a time duration to the number of tokens
// which could be accumulated during that duration at a rate of limit tokens per second.
func (limit Limit) tokensFromDuration(d time.Duration) float64 {
	return d.Seconds() * float64(limit)
}

虽然在某些情况下使用单个全局速率限制器非常有用,但另一种常见情况是基于IP地址或API密钥等标识符为每个用户实施速率限制器。我们将使用IP地址作为标识符。简单实现代码如下:

package main
import (
    "net/http"
    "sync"
    "time"
    "golang.org/x/time/rate"
)
// Create a custom visitor struct which holds the rate limiter for each
// visitor and the last time that the visitor was seen.
type visitor struct {
    limiter  *rate.Limiter
    lastSeen time.Time
}
// Change the the map to hold values of the type visitor.
var visitors = make(map[string]*visitor)
var mtx sync.Mutex
// Run a background goroutine to remove old entries from the visitors map.
func init() {
    go cleanupVisitors()
}
func addVisitor(ip string) *rate.Limiter {
    limiter := rate.NewLimiter(2, 5)
    mtx.Lock()
    // Include the current time when creating a new visitor.
    visitors[ip] = &visitor{limiter, time.Now()}
    mtx.Unlock()
    return limiter
}
func getVisitor(ip string) *rate.Limiter {
    mtx.Lock()
    v, exists := visitors[ip]
    if !exists {
        mtx.Unlock()
        return addVisitor(ip)
    }
    // Update the last seen time for the visitor.
    v.lastSeen = time.Now()
    mtx.Unlock()
    return v.limiter
}
// Every minute check the map for visitors that haven't been seen for
// more than 3 minutes and delete the entries.
func cleanupVisitors() {
    for {
        time.Sleep(time.Minute)
        mtx.Lock()
        for ip, v := range visitors {
            if time.Now().Sub(v.lastSeen) > 3*time.Minute {
                delete(visitors, ip)
            }
        }
        mtx.Unlock()
    }
}
func limit(next http.Handler) http.Handler {
    return http.HandlerFunc(func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
        limiter := getVisitor(r.RemoteAddr)
        if limiter.Allow() == false {
            http.Error(w, http.StatusText(429), http.StatusTooManyRequests)
            return
        }
        next.ServeHTTP(w, r)
    })
}

 

 

 

发布了6 篇原创文章 · 获赞 8 · 访问量 2万+
展开阅读全文

没有更多推荐了,返回首页

©️2019 CSDN 皮肤主题: 大白 设计师: CSDN官方博客

分享到微信朋友圈

×

扫一扫,手机浏览