Java源码之HashMap

源码阅读 同时被 2 个专栏收录
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特征

HashMap是一个存储K-V的数据结构,key可以为null 时间复杂度为O(1),空间复杂度为O(n)

存储实现

HashMap底层存储实现是通过数组链表实现的
![在这里插入图片描述](https://img-blog.csdnimg.cn/20201019110841748.jpg?x-oss-process=image/watermark,type_ZmFuZ3poZW5naGVpdGk,shadow_10,text_aHR0cHM6Ly9ibG9nLmNzZG4ubmV0L25vbmdmdXl1bWlu,size_16,color_FFFFFF,t_70#pic_center)

源码分析

构造方法

    /**
     * Constructs an empty <tt>HashMap</tt> with the specified initial
     * capacity and the default load factor (0.75).
     *
     * @param  initialCapacity the initial capacity.
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity is negative.
     */
    public HashMap(int initialCapacity) {
        this(initialCapacity, DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR);
    }
    
      /**
     * Constructs an empty <tt>HashMap</tt> with the specified initial
     * capacity and load factor.
     *
     * @param  initialCapacity the initial capacity
     * @param  loadFactor      the load factor
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity is negative
     *         or the load factor is nonpositive
     */
    public HashMap(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor) {
        if (initialCapacity < 0)
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal initial capacity: " +
                                               initialCapacity);
        if (initialCapacity > MAXIMUM_CAPACITY)
            initialCapacity = MAXIMUM_CAPACITY;
        if (loadFactor <= 0 || Float.isNaN(loadFactor))
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal load factor: " +
                                               loadFactor);

        this.loadFactor = loadFactor;
        threshold = initialCapacity;
        init();
    }

put方法

    /**
     * Associates the specified value with the specified key in this map.
     * If the map previously contained a mapping for the key, the old
     * value is replaced.
     *
     * @param key key with which the specified value is to be associated
     * @param value value to be associated with the specified key
     * @return the previous value associated with <tt>key</tt>, or
     *         <tt>null</tt> if there was no mapping for <tt>key</tt>.
     *         (A <tt>null</tt> return can also indicate that the map
     *         previously associated <tt>null</tt> with <tt>key</tt>.)
     */
    public V put(K key, V value) {
        if (table == EMPTY_TABLE) {
            inflateTable(threshold);
        }
        if (key == null)
            return putForNullKey(value);
        int hash = hash(key);
        int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);
        for (Entry<K,V> e = table[i]; e != null; e = e.next) {
            Object k;
            if (e.hash == hash && ((k = e.key) == key || key.equals(k))) {
                V oldValue = e.value;
                e.value = value;
                e.recordAccess(this);
                return oldValue;
            }
        }

        modCount++;
        addEntry(hash, key, value, i);
        return null;
    }
    /**
     * Inflates the table.
     */
    private void inflateTable(int toSize) {
        // Find a power of 2 >= toSize
        int capacity = roundUpToPowerOf2(toSize);

        threshold = (int) Math.min(capacity * loadFactor, MAXIMUM_CAPACITY + 1);
        table = new Entry[capacity];
        initHashSeedAsNeeded(capacity);
    }

inflateTable方法主要是初始化HashMap的存储空间,capacity 会初始化为2^n,这样做的目的是代替取模运算,计算速度较快
当出现key的hash冲突时,Hashmap通过链表法解决哈希冲突

get方法

    public V get(Object key) {
        if (key == null)
            return getForNullKey();
        Entry<K,V> entry = getEntry(key);

        return null == entry ? null : entry.getValue();
    }
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