linux 新建分区 挂载分区 LVM创建

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  • GPT:GUID partition table,全局唯一标识磁盘分区表
    • 可以支持无限个分区
    • 可以支持EB级别的硬盘

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新建分区,格式化分区,挂载分区:
fdisk新建分区:

NAME
       fdisk - Partition table manipulator for Linux
[root@centos6 ~]#fdisk /dev/sda

Command (m for help): n        //新建分区
First cylinder (5492-6528, default 5492):   //使用默认起始柱面
Using default value 5492
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (5492-6528, default 6528): +5G  //分区大小为5G

Command (m for help): w     //保存设置退出
The partition table has been altered!

[root@centos6 ~]#
[root@centos6 ~]#partx -a /dev/sda   //新建分区后需要让内核重读分区表,这里需要执行两次
BLKPG: Device or resource busy
error adding partition 1
BLKPG: Device or resource busy
error adding partition 2
BLKPG: Device or resource busy
error adding partition 3
BLKPG: Device or resource busy
error adding partition 4
BLKPG: Device or resource busy
error adding partition 5
BLKPG: Device or resource busy
error adding partition 6
BLKPG: Device or resource busy
error adding partition 7
[root@centos6 ~]#lsblk
NAME   MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sr0     11:0    1   3.7G  0 rom  
sda      8:0    0    50G  0 disk 
├─sda1   8:1    0     1G  0 part /boot
├─sda2   8:2    0  19.5G  0 part /
├─sda3   8:3    0  19.5G  0 part /data
├─sda4   8:4    0  31.5K  0 part 
├─sda5   8:5    0     2G  0 part [SWAP]
├─sda6   8:6    0 343.5K  0 part 
└─sda7   8:7    0     5G  0 part     //内核已识别到新建的分区

mke2fs:ext系列文件系统管理工具,格式化分区
-t  {ext2|ext3|ext4}: 指定文件系统
-b {1024|2048|4096}: 指定分区块大小
-L : 指定分区卷标名
-m : 指定分区预留空间百分比,默认为5
 

//格式化新建的分区为ext4格式,块大小为2048,卷标为‘mydata’,预留空间20%的分区
[root@centos6 ~]#mke2fs -t ext4 -b 2048 -L 'mydata' -m 20 /dev/sda7 
mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
Filesystem label=mydata
OS type: Linux
Block size=2048 (log=1)
Fragment size=2048 (log=1)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
328440 inodes, 2625440 blocks
525088 blocks (20.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=540016640
161 block groups
16384 blocks per group, 16384 fragments per group
2040 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks: 
        16384, 49152, 81920, 114688, 147456, 409600, 442368, 802816, 1327104, 
        2048000

Writing inode tables: done                            
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

This filesystem will be automatically checked every 35 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first.  Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.
[root@centos6 ~]#
[root@centos6 ~]#tune2fs -l /dev/sda7   //查看分区具体信息
tune2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
Filesystem volume name:   mydata   //卷标
Last mounted on:          <not available>
Filesystem UUID:          02bbf8a1-84a1-4d06-8bdf-b395dd40e7ff
Filesystem magic number:  0xEF53
Filesystem revision #:    1 (dynamic)
Filesystem features:      has_journal ext_attr resize_inode dir_index filetype extent flex_bg sparse_super huge_file uninit_bg dir_nlink extra_isize
Filesystem flags:         signed_directory_hash 
Default mount options:    (none)
Filesystem state:         clean
Errors behavior:          Continue
Filesystem OS type:       Linux
Inode count:              328440
Block count:              2625440
Reserved block count:     525088    //预留空间525088/2625440=20%
Free blocks:              2545609
Free inodes:              328429
First block:              0
Block size:               2048    //块大小
Fragment size:            2048
Reserved GDT blocks:      512
Blocks per group:         16384
Fragments per group:      16384
Inodes per group:         2040
Inode blocks per group:   255
Flex block group size:    16
Filesystem created:       Sat May 25 14:44:07 2019
Last mount time:          n/a
Last write time:          Sat May 25 14:44:08 2019
Mount count:              0
Maximum mount count:      35
Last checked:             Sat May 25 14:44:07 2019
Check interval:           15552000 (6 months)
Next check after:         Thu Nov 21 14:44:07 2019
Lifetime writes:          145 MB
Reserved blocks uid:      0 (user root)
Reserved blocks gid:      0 (group root)
First inode:              11
Inode size:               256
Required extra isize:     28
Desired extra isize:      28
Journal inode:            8
Default directory hash:   half_md4
Directory Hash Seed:      787f19b5-5bca-4591-99fd-e4b2fefd1cb6
Journal backup:           inode blocks
[root@centos6 ~]#blkid /dev/sda7    //查看块设备属性
/dev/sda7: LABEL="mydata" UUID="02bbf8a1-84a1-4d06-8bdf-b395dd40e7ff" TYPE="ext4"  

mount:挂载分区
-r : readonly,只读挂载
-w :read and write,读写挂载 
-L : 以卷标方式指定设备
-o option:
               atime/noatime:文件和目录被访问时是否更新访问时间戳
               async/sync: 异步IO/同步IO
               exec/noexec: 是否允许执行此设备上的二进制程序文件
               remount: 重新挂载,不卸载的情况下重新挂载
               acl : 在此设备上是否支持facl,默认不支持
默认挂载选项: rw, suid, dev, exec, auto, nouser, async

[root@centos6 ~]#mkdir /mydata
[root@centos6 ~]#mount -o noexec,noatime /dev/sda7 /mydata/  
[root@centos6 ~]#mount
/dev/sda2 on / type ext4 (rw)
proc on /proc type proc (rw)
sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw)
devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,rootcontext="system_u:object_r:tmpfs_t:s0")
/dev/sda1 on /boot type ext4 (rw)
/dev/sda3 on /data type ext4 (rw)
none on /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc type binfmt_misc (rw)
/dev/sda7 on /mydata type ext4 (rw,noexec,noatime)  //显示已挂载成功

开机自动挂载:在/etc/fstab配置文件中修改数据,开启就能自动挂载

*********************************************************************************************************************

创建swap分区,并启动
fdisk新建分区

[root@centos6 ~]#fdisk /dev/sda

Command (m for help): n     //新建分区
First cylinder (6146-6528, default 6146): 
Using default value 6146
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (6146-6528, default 6528): +1G  //分区大小1G

Command (m for help): t    //修改分区id,swap分区id为82,可以输入'l'查看
Partition number (1-8): 8
Hex code (type L to list codes): 82
Changed system type of partition 8 to 82 (Linux swap / Solaris)

Command (m for help): w    //保存设置退出
The partition table has been altered!
[root@centos6 ~]#partx -a /dev/sda   //把分区表重新加载到内核
BLKPG: Device or resource busy
error adding partition 1
BLKPG: Device or resource busy
error adding partition 2
BLKPG: Device or resource busy
error adding partition 3
BLKPG: Device or resource busy
error adding partition 4
BLKPG: Device or resource busy
error adding partition 5
BLKPG: Device or resource busy
error adding partition 6
BLKPG: Device or resource busy
error adding partition 7
BLKPG: Device or resource busy
error adding partition 8
[root@centos6 ~]#lsblk
NAME   MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sr0     11:0    1   3.7G  0 rom  
sda      8:0    0    50G  0 disk 
├─sda1   8:1    0     1G  0 part /boot
├─sda2   8:2    0  19.5G  0 part /
├─sda3   8:3    0  19.5G  0 part /data
├─sda4   8:4    0  31.5K  0 part 
├─sda5   8:5    0     2G  0 part [SWAP]
├─sda6   8:6    0 343.5K  0 part 
├─sda7   8:7    0     5G  0 part /mydata
└─sda8   8:8    0     1G  0 part          //新建分区内核已设备
[root@centos6 ~]#

  mkswap格式化分区

[root@centos6 ~]#mkswap /dev/sda8
Setting up swapspace version 1, size = 1060252 KiB
no label, UUID=bc7769b6-6132-4025-83e7-5fd8fe7f8e4f
[root@centos6 ~]#blkid /dev/sda8 
/dev/sda8: UUID="bc7769b6-6132-4025-83e7-5fd8fe7f8e4f" TYPE="swap" 
[root@centos6 ~]#

激活swap分区:
swapon: 激活swap分区
swapoff: 禁用swap分区

[root@centos6 ~]#swapon /dev/sda8
[root@centos6 ~]#lsblk
NAME   MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sr0     11:0    1   3.7G  0 rom  
sda      8:0    0    50G  0 disk 
├─sda1   8:1    0     1G  0 part /boot
├─sda2   8:2    0  19.5G  0 part /
├─sda3   8:3    0  19.5G  0 part /data
├─sda4   8:4    0  31.5K  0 part 
├─sda5   8:5    0     2G  0 part [SWAP]
├─sda6   8:6    0 343.5K  0 part 
├─sda7   8:7    0     5G  0 part /mydata
└─sda8   8:8    0     1G  0 part [SWAP]     //swap分区已被激活
[root@centos6 ~]#

*********************************************************************************************************************
脚本实现:给脚本传入一个文件名,计算此文件第10行和第20行id号之和:

[root@centos6 test]#vi test.sh             

  1 #!/bin/bash
  2 #
  3 #
  4 
  5 if [ $# -ne 1 ];then    #未给脚本传入参数或者参数多于1个时报错退出
  6     echo 'no file'
  7     exit 1
  8 fi
  9 
 10 if ! [ -f $1 ];then     #传入的文件不存在或者不是普通文件时报错退出
 11     echo 'not file.'
 12     exit 1
 13 fi
 14 
 15 testnum=$(head -20 $1 | wc -l)   #判断给的文件是否至少有20行
 16 
 17 if [ $testnum -ge 20 ];then    
 18     num1=$(head -10 $1 | tail -1 | cut -d: -f3)
 19     num2=$(head -20 $1 | tail -1 | cut -d: -f3)
 20     let 'sum = num1 + num2'
 21 else                         #文件没有20行时退出
 22     echo "the file no 20 line."
 23     exit 1
 24 fi
 25 
 26 echo "the 10-line and 20 line id sum is: $sum"
 27 

*********************************************************************************************************************
脚本实现:判断,当主机名为空或者为localhost时给主机名赋值为newname

 #!/bin/bash
  2 #
  3 #
  4 
  5 hostName=$(hostname)
  6 
    #$hostName必须加引号,不然当hostName为空时,下面一行将会被解析为
     #[ -z -o == 'localhost' ],然后报错加上引号则被解析为[ -z '' -o '' == 'localhost' ]
     #这里还可以写成 [ -z "$hostName" ] || [ "$hostName" == 'localhost' ]
  7 if [ -z "$hostName" -o "$hostName" == 'localhost' ];then  
  8     hostname newname
  9 fi
              

*********************************************************************************************************************
脚本实现:给脚本传入一个用户名,判断用户名id是奇数还是偶数:

 1 #!/bin/bash
  2 #
  3 #
  4 
  5 if [ $# -ne 1 ];then      #未给脚本传入参数时报错退出
  6     echo "input error."
  7     exit 1
  8 fi
  9 
 10 id $1
 11 
 12 if [ $? -eq 0 ];then   #判断是否存在此用户名
 13     num=$(id -u $1)
 14     let 'i = num % 2'
 15     if [ $i -eq 0 ];then
 16         echo '偶数'
 17     else
 18         echo '奇数'
 19     fi
 20 else
 21     echo 'no this user.'
 22     exit 1
 23 fi

*********************************************************************************************************************
LVM:Logical Volume Manager,逻辑卷管理
LVM的重点在于可以弹性的调整filesystem的容量,如此一来,整个磁盘空间的使用就具有了弹性!
LVM将一些零碎的磁盘分区(PV)合并成一个较大的磁盘(VG),然后再根据需要对整个较大的
磁盘(VG)进行划分成不同的小分区(LV),这些小分区(LV)是可以动态的扩展与缩小的。

LVM的实现,先创建PV:
pvcreate: 将实体partition创建成为PV
pvscan: 搜寻目前系统里面任何具有PV的磁盘
pvdisplay: 显示出目前系统上面的PV状态
pvremove: 将PV属性移除,让partition不再具有PV属性

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sda: 53.7 GB, 53687091200 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6527 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000b767d

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *           1         131     1048576   83  Linux
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/sda2             131        2681    20480000   83  Linux
/dev/sda3            2681        5230    20480000   83  Linux
/dev/sda4            5230        6528    10419200    5  Extended
/dev/sda5            5231        5492     2097152   82  Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda6            5230        5230         343+  83  Linux
/dev/sda7            5492        5753     2102141   8e  Linux LVM    #id为8e
/dev/sda8            5754        6146     3156741   8e  Linux LVM

[root@newname ~]#pvcreate /dev/sda7     
  Physical volume "/dev/sda7" successfully created
[root@newname ~]#pvcreate /dev/sda8
  Physical volume "/dev/sda8" successfully created
[root@newname ~]#pvdisplay
  "/dev/sda7" is a new physical volume of "2.00 GiB"
  --- NEW Physical volume ---
  PV Name               /dev/sda7
  VG Name               
  PV Size               2.00 GiB
  Allocatable           NO
  PE Size               0   
  Total PE              0
  Free PE               0
  Allocated PE          0
  PV UUID               qK5yjj-mhA9-XPg3-oGut-iKAh-LwgM-xz7EMf
   
  "/dev/sda8" is a new physical volume of "3.01 GiB"
  --- NEW Physical volume ---
  PV Name               /dev/sda8
  VG Name               
  PV Size               3.01 GiB
  Allocatable           NO
  PE Size               0   
  Total PE              0
  Free PE               0
  Allocated PE          0
  PV UUID               n6nVW2-R1kq-lyUN-NQHE-V6bf-lUZM-g3L9AW
   
[root@newname ~]#

创建VG:
vgcreate: 创建VG
vgscan: 搜寻系统上面是否有VG存在
vgdispaly: 显示目前系统上面的VG状态
vgextend: 在VG内添加额外的PV
vgreduce: 在VG内移除PV
vgchange: 配置VG是否启动
vgremove: 删除VG

[root@newname ~]#vgcreate test_vg /dev/sda7 /dev/sda8
  Volume group "test_vg" successfully created
[root@newname ~]#vgdisplay
  --- Volume group ---
  VG Name               test_vg
  System ID             
  Format                lvm2
  Metadata Areas        2
  Metadata Sequence No  1
  VG Access             read/write
  VG Status             resizable
  MAX LV                0
  Cur LV                0
  Open LV               0
  Max PV                0
  Cur PV                2
  Act PV                2
  VG Size               5.01 GiB
  PE Size               4.00 MiB    #PE未默认的4M
  Total PE              1282
  Alloc PE / Size       0 / 0   
  Free  PE / Size       1282 / 5.01 GiB
  VG UUID               mFSOK3-X3S1-Ayns-qnCE-ATjC-RaJa-zitZmr

创建LV:
lvcreate: 创建LV
lvscan:查询系统上面的LV
lvdisplay: 显示系统上面LV的状态
lvextend: 在LV里面扩展容量
lvreduce: 在LV里面缩减容量
lvremove: 从VG中移除LV
lvresize: 对LV进行容量大小调整

[root@newname ~]#lvcreate -L 1.5G -n lv1 test_vg
  Logical volume "lv1" created.
[root@newname ~]#lvcreate -L 1G -n lv2 test_vg
  Logical volume "lv2" created.
[root@newname ~]#lvdisplay
  --- Logical volume ---
  LV Path                /dev/test_vg/lv1
  LV Name                lv1
  VG Name                test_vg
  LV UUID                Ic3b3N-hpjR-ehoB-0lqM-T2DL-DsWi-TeLqij
  LV Write Access        read/write
  LV Creation host, time newname, 2019-05-26 04:56:59 +0800
  LV Status              available
  # open                 0
  LV Size                1.50 GiB
  Current LE             384
  Segments               1
  Allocation             inherit
  Read ahead sectors     auto
  - currently set to     256
  Block device           253:0
   
  --- Logical volume ---
  LV Path                /dev/test_vg/lv2
  LV Name                lv2
  VG Name                test_vg
  LV UUID                FfnDyL-Lrcv-f3hl-uP1q-L840-MtHu-ZawlXF
  LV Write Access        read/write
  LV Creation host, time newname, 2019-05-26 04:57:15 +0800
  LV Status              available
  # open                 0
  LV Size                1.00 GiB
  Current LE             256
  Segments               1
  Allocation             inherit
  Read ahead sectors     auto
  - currently set to     256
  Block device           253:1
   
[root@newname ~]#
[root@newname ~]#lvresize -L+1G test_vg/lv2  #增加lv2容量
  Size of logical volume test_vg/lv2 changed from 1.00 GiB (256 extents) to 2.00 GiB (512 extents).
  Logical volume lv2 successfully resized.

[root@newname ~]#lvresize -L-1G /dev/test_vg/lv2   #减小lv2容量
  WARNING: Reducing active logical volume to 1.00 GiB.
  THIS MAY DESTROY YOUR DATA (filesystem etc.)
Do you really want to reduce test_vg/lv2? [y/n]: y
  Size of logical volume test_vg/lv2 changed from 2.00 GiB (512 extents) to 1.00 GiB (256 extents).
  Logical volume lv2 successfully resized.

要真正使用LVM还得格式化LV,并挂载。

扩容LVM:lvresize先扩容lv,然后resize2fs扩容文件系统
缩减LVM:先umount,resize2fs缩减文件系统,然后再lvresize LV

LVM还可以用 lvcreate  -s 来创建快照

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