使用决策树预测隐形眼镜类型

前言

本节学习从一堆原始数据中构造决策树。

决策树是一种树形结构,其中每个内部节点表示一个属性上的测试,每个分支代表一个测试输出,每个叶节点代表一种类别。

使用决策树预测隐形眼镜类型

我们有一堆原始数据(lenses.txt)
young	myope	no	reduced	no lenses
young	myope	no	normal	soft
young	myope	yes	reduced	no lenses
young	myope	yes	normal	hard
young	hyper	no	reduced	no lenses
young	hyper	no	normal	soft
young	hyper	yes	reduced	no lenses
young	hyper	yes	normal	hard
pre	myope	no	reduced	no lenses
pre	myope	no	normal	soft
pre	myope	yes	reduced	no lenses
pre	myope	yes	normal	hard
pre	hyper	no	reduced	no lenses
pre	hyper	no	normal	soft
pre	hyper	yes	reduced	no lenses
pre	hyper	yes	normal	no lenses
presbyopic	myope	no	reduced	no lenses
presbyopic	myope	no	normal	no lenses
presbyopic	myope	yes	reduced	no lenses
presbyopic	myope	yes	normal	hard
presbyopic	hyper	no	reduced	no lenses
presbyopic	hyper	no	normal	soft
presbyopic	hyper	yes	reduced	no lenses
presbyopic	hyper	yes	normal	no lenses
* 特征有四个(前4列):age(年龄)、prescript(症状)、astigmatic(是否散光)、tearRate(眼泪数量)

* 隐形眼镜类别有三类(最后一列):硬材质(hard)、软材质(soft)、不适合佩戴隐形眼镜(no lenses)

构造决策树代码(trees.py)
# coding:utf-8
from math import log
import operator
import treePlotter
"""
计算香农熵
"""
def calcShannonEnt(dataSet):
    numEntries = len(dataSet)
    labelCounts = {}
    #为所有可能分类创建字典
    for featVec in dataSet: #the the number of unique elements and their occurance
        currentLabel = featVec[-1]
        if currentLabel not in labelCounts.keys(): labelCounts[currentLabel] = 0
        labelCounts[currentLabel] += 1
    shannonEnt = 0.0
    #以2为底求对数, prob为选择该分类的概率
    for key in labelCounts:
        prob = float(labelCounts[key])/numEntries
        shannonEnt -= prob * log(prob,2) #log base 2
    return shannonEnt

"""
按照给定特征划分数据集
输入:dataSet-待划分数据集
     axis-划分数据集特征
     value-特征返回值
"""
def splitDataSet(dataSet, axis, value):          #会把dataSet[axis]==value的那些组数据保留(并去除value值)
    retDataSet = []
    for featVec in dataSet:
        if featVec[axis] == value:
            reducedFeatVec = featVec[:axis]     #chop out axis used for splitting
            reducedFeatVec.extend(featVec[axis+1:])
            retDataSet.append(reducedFeatVec)
    return retDataSet

"""
选择最好的数据集划分方式
"""
def chooseBestFeatureToSplit(dataSet):
    numFeatures = len(dataSet[0]) - 1      #the last column is used for the labels
    baseEntropy = calcShannonEnt(dataSet)
    bestInfoGain = 0.0; bestFeature = -1
    for i in range(numFeatures):        #iterate over all the features
        featList = [example[i] for example in dataSet]#create a list of all the examples of this feature
        uniqueVals = set(featList)       #get a set of unique values
        newEntropy = 0.0
        for value in uniqueVals:      #uniqueVals中保存的是我们某个样本的特征值的所有的取值的可能性
            subDataSet = splitDataSet(dataSet, i, value)
            # 在这里划分数据集,比如说第一个特征的第一个取值得到一个子集,第一个特征的特征又会得到另一个特征。当然这是第二次循环
            # 我们以第一个特征来说明,根据第一个特征可能的取值划分出来的子集的概率
            prob = len(subDataSet)/float(len(dataSet))
            # 根据这个代码就可以计算出划分子集的熵(数学期望)
            newEntropy += prob * calcShannonEnt(subDataSet)
        # 计算出信息增益
        infoGain = baseEntropy - newEntropy     #calculate the info gain; ie reduction in entropy
        if (infoGain > bestInfoGain):       #compare this to the best gain so far
            bestInfoGain = infoGain         #if better than current best, set to best
            bestFeature = i
    return bestFeature                      #returns an integer

"""
返回出现次数最多的分类名称
"""
def majorityCnt(classList):
    classCount={}
    for vote in classList:
        if vote not in classCount.keys(): classCount[vote] = 0
        classCount[vote] += 1
    sortedClassCount = sorted(classCount.iteritems(), key=operator.itemgetter(1), reverse=True)
    return sortedClassCount[0][0]


"""
递归构建决策树
"""
def createTree(dataSet,labels):
    classList = [example[-1] for example in dataSet]  #classList保存标签
    if classList.count(classList[0]) == len(classList):
        return classList[0]#stop splitting when all of the classes are equal
    if len(dataSet[0]) == 1: #stop splitting when there are no more features in dataSet
        return majorityCnt(classList)
    bestFeat = chooseBestFeatureToSplit(dataSet)
    bestFeatLabel = labels[bestFeat]
    myTree = {bestFeatLabel:{}}
    del(labels[bestFeat])
    featValues = [example[bestFeat] for example in dataSet]
    uniqueVals = set(featValues)   # 得到列表包含所有属性值
    for value in uniqueVals:
        subLabels = labels[:]       #copy all of labels, so trees don't mess up existing labels
        myTree[bestFeatLabel][value] = createTree(splitDataSet(dataSet, bestFeat, value),subLabels)
    return myTree

if __name__ == '__main__':
    # del表示删除,与remove区别如下
    nums = [1,0, 2 ,0 ,3,0,0]
    nums.remove(0)
    print nums #[1, 2, 0, 3, 0, 0]
    del(nums[0])
    print(nums)

    # 预测隐形眼镜类型
    fr=open('lenses.txt')
    lenses=[inst.strip().split('\t') for inst in fr.readlines()]
    lensesLabels=['age', 'prescript', 'astigmatic', 'tearRate']
    lensesTree=createTree(lenses, lensesLabels)
    print lensesTree
    treePlotter.createPlot(lensesTree)  #绘图,treePlotter.py文件如下

绘图代码(treePlotter.py)
# coding: utf-8
"""
使用Matplotlib绘图
"""
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

decisionNode = dict(boxstyle="sawtooth", fc="0.8")
leafNode = dict(boxstyle="round4", fc="0.8")
arrow_args = dict(arrowstyle="<-")         # 定义文本框和箭头格式

# def createPlot():
#    fig = plt.figure(1, facecolor='white')
#    fig.clf()
#    createPlot.ax1 = plt.subplot(111, frameon=False) #ticks for demo puropses
#    plotNode('a decision node', (0.5, 0.1), (0.1, 0.5), decisionNode)
#    plotNode('a leaf node', (0.8, 0.1), (0.3, 0.8), leafNode)
#    plt.show()

def createPlot(inTree):
    fig = plt.figure(1, facecolor='white')
    fig.clf()
    axprops = dict(xticks=[], yticks=[])
    createPlot.ax1 = plt.subplot(111, frameon=False, **axprops)    #no ticks
    #createPlot.ax1 = plt.subplot(111, frameon=False) #ticks for demo puropses
    plotTree.totalW = float(getNumLeafs(inTree))
    plotTree.totalD = float(getTreeDepth(inTree))
    plotTree.xOff = -0.5/plotTree.totalW; plotTree.yOff = 1.0;
    plotTree(inTree, (0.5,1.0), '')
    plt.show()

def plotNode(nodeTxt, centerPt, parentPt, nodeType):
    createPlot.ax1.annotate(nodeTxt, xy=parentPt,  xycoords='axes fraction',  # 绘制带箭头的图解
             xytext=centerPt, textcoords='axes fraction',
             va="center", ha="center", bbox=nodeType, arrowprops=arrow_args )

"""
获取叶节点数目
"""
def getNumLeafs(myTree):
    numLeafs = 0
    firstStr = myTree.keys()[0]
    secondDict = myTree[firstStr]
    for key in secondDict.keys():
        if type(secondDict[key]).__name__=='dict':#test to see if the nodes are dictonaires, if not they are leaf nodes
            numLeafs += getNumLeafs(secondDict[key])
        else:   numLeafs +=1
    return numLeafs

"""
获取树层数
"""
def getTreeDepth(myTree):
    maxDepth = 0
    firstStr = myTree.keys()[0]
    secondDict = myTree[firstStr]
    for key in secondDict.keys():
        if type(secondDict[key]).__name__=='dict':#test to see if the nodes are dictonaires, if not they are leaf nodes
            thisDepth = 1 + getTreeDepth(secondDict[key])
        else:   thisDepth = 1
        if thisDepth > maxDepth: maxDepth = thisDepth
    return maxDepth

def retrieveTree(i):
    listOfTrees =[{'no surfacing': {0: 'no', 1: {'flippers': {0: 'no', 1: 'yes'}}}},
                  {'no surfacing': {0: 'no', 1: {'flippers': {0: {'head': {0: 'no', 1: 'yes'}}, 1: 'no'}}}}
                  ]
    return listOfTrees[i]

"""
父子节点间填充文本信息
"""
def plotMidText(cntrPt, parentPt, txtString):
    xMid = (parentPt[0]-cntrPt[0])/2.0 + cntrPt[0]
    yMid = (parentPt[1]-cntrPt[1])/2.0 + cntrPt[1]
    createPlot.ax1.text(xMid, yMid, txtString, va="center", ha="center", rotation=30)

def plotTree(myTree, parentPt, nodeTxt):#if the first key tells you what feat was split on
    numLeafs = getNumLeafs(myTree)  #this determines the x width of this tree
    depth = getTreeDepth(myTree)
    firstStr = myTree.keys()[0]     #the text label for this node should be this
    cntrPt = (plotTree.xOff + (1.0 + float(numLeafs))/2.0/plotTree.totalW, plotTree.yOff)
    plotMidText(cntrPt, parentPt, nodeTxt)
    plotNode(firstStr, cntrPt, parentPt, decisionNode)
    secondDict = myTree[firstStr]
    plotTree.yOff = plotTree.yOff - 1.0/plotTree.totalD
    for key in secondDict.keys():
        if type(secondDict[key]).__name__=='dict':#test to see if the nodes are dictonaires, if not they are leaf nodes
            plotTree(secondDict[key],cntrPt,str(key))        #recursion
        else:   #it's a leaf node print the leaf node
            plotTree.xOff = plotTree.xOff + 1.0/plotTree.totalW
            plotNode(secondDict[key], (plotTree.xOff, plotTree.yOff), cntrPt, leafNode)
            plotMidText((plotTree.xOff, plotTree.yOff), cntrPt, str(key))
    plotTree.yOff = plotTree.yOff + 1.0/plotTree.totalD
#if you do get a dictonary you know it's a tree, and the first element will be another dict

if __name__ == '__main__':
    # 获取叶子节点数,层数测试
    mytree = retrieveTree(0)
    print mytree
    print getNumLeafs(mytree)
    print getTreeDepth(mytree)

    #createPlot(mytree) #绘图测试

    mytree['no surfacing'][3]='maybe'
    createPlot(mytree) #绘图测试
隐形眼镜类别决策树

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