英语二学习笔记

英语二学习笔记:

  1. thought 想法,though 虽然,through 通过
# 第一到三集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
 1) evaluate  // 估计,评价 
 2)integrate  // 使合并,使成为一体
  integrate with  // 使与...结合
  integrate into  // 成为一体,融入,使...并入
 3) authority  // 专家
   local authority  // 地方当局,地方政权
   work of authorities  // 权威著作
 4) consistent  // adj 相符的,符合的
   consistent quality  // 始终如一的质量
   consistent policy  // 一贯的政策
   consistent principle  // 一致性原则 
   A be consistent with B  // 符合,与...一致
 5) identify  // 找到
   identity  // 身份
   identification  // 鉴别
 6) considerably  // adv 相当的
   consider  // 考虑
   considerate  // 体贴的
   considerable  // 大量的
 7) apply to  // 适用于
   # This should apply to any project
 8) apply for // 申请
 9) make a staement  // 陈述
   # The government has made a statement denying these rumors
 10) take sth into account // 考虑
    take into account sth 
# 第四集—————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————    
 11) be consistent with  // 与...一致  
 12) stated  // 陈述的
 13in order to  // 为了能够 
 14) once  // 一旦
 15) identify  // 鉴定,发现,找到   # indentify证明 # 
 16)  whatever  // 不管什么样的,任何,无论   
 17)  evaluate  // 评估,计算
 18)  be certain  // 确认
 19)  be relevant to // 与...有关 
 20) take sth into account // 把...考虑进去
 21) being  // 成为
 22) that 从句 
    (1)由连词 that 引导的主语从句,引导词 that 无含义,在句中不做成分
       # That you will win the medal seems unlikely  // 你想获得奖牌是不可能的2)用连词 whether 引导的主语从句:whatever 有含义(是否),不可以省
       # Whether she is coming or not doesn't matter too much  // 是否他来或者不来没有太大关系3)用连接代词引导的主语从句(在由连接代词 who,whose,whom,which,what,whoever,whomever,whichever,whatever)其连接代词在句中充当一定的成分
       # What you need is more practice  
     (4) 用连接副词 when,where,why,how 引导的名词性从句(其连接副词有含义,在句中作状语)
       # When they will come hasn't been made pubic  // 他们什么时候来还不知道
 23with a grain of salt // 有保留的,持怀疑态度的
 24) be informed of  // 被告知,获悉
 25) inform sb of sht  // 告知某人某事
 26) confidence  // 信任,把握,信心,知心话
 27) mastery  // 掌握,精通
      # Mastery over/of  // 对...的掌握   
 28) destiny   // 命运
      # It is desting that brings people together, or is it accident ? // 人们的相遇是天意还是偶然?
 29) dramatically  // 戏剧的,引人注目的
 30) be qualified for // 适合格,胜
 # 第五集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————   
 31) subconscious // 潜意识的,下意识的
 32) to please  // 使满意,原意,取悦
 33) command  // 命令,指挥
      # It's very important to command a certain number of vocabularies  // 掌握一定的单词量是很重要的  
 34) knowingly  // 故意的
 35) hava/make impact on // 对...有影响
 36) matter  // 事情,问题,关于...的事情,重要性
      # in the matter of sth // 在sth的事情上 
      # Dose it matter 关系重大吗  
 37) confident  // 自信的,有信心
 38) sense  // 感官 
     sense of humor/direction  // 幽默感/方向感
 39) eliminate  // 剔除,除去,忽视,淘汰
 40) disempower  // 剥夺,使失去权力
 41) allow  // 让,允许,承认
 42) self-esteem  // 自尊,自负
 43) infinite  无穷的,无限的
 44) stifle  // 使窒息,抑制
 45) creativity  // 创造力,创造
 46) insignificant // 无关紧要,不重要
 47) commonly // 一般地,通常的,普通的
 48) alternative // 两者择一。供选择的,非主流的
 49) fabulous  // 极好的,据巨大的,传说的
 50) 动名词作主语:
      # Seeing is believing  // 眼见为实 
# 第六集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————       
 51) it 形式主语
      (1) It + be + 形容词 + for sb + 动词不定式
      # It's necessary for the young to master two foreign languages // 掌握两门外语对年轻人来说是必要的   2) It + be + 形容词 + of sb + 动词不定式 = 这类形容词表示心理品质,性格特征 eg: kind,nice ,clever
      # It's very kind of you to help me with the work == you are kind of help me // 你帮助我的工作非常贴心3) It + be + 名词词组 + 动词不定式
      # It is not a good habit to stay up too late  // 太晚睡觉不是一个好的习惯s4) It + be + 名词或形容词 + 动名词  eg: good,no good,no use,a waste of(浪费),useless(无用的)
      # It's a waste of time talking to her any more  // 再跟她谈下去是浪费时间5) It + take (sb) + 时间(金钱)+ 动词不定式
      # It took the workers almost three years to finish building the dam  // 完成这个大坝几乎花费了三年6) It + be + 形容词 + 主语从句
      # It is uncertain whether he can come to Jenny's birthday part or not  // 是否能完成 Jenny 的生日聚会他说不确定的7) It + be + 动名词组 + 主语从句 eg: a fact, a pity, a shame, an honour ,a question
      # It's a pity that you missed the exciting football match  // 他错过兴奋的足球比赛是遗憾的8) It + be + 过去分词 + 主语从句 eg: announced, believed,expected, hoped, decided, reported, said, shown
      # It's not decided who will give the operation to the patient // 还没有决定谁要为这位病人作手术
 52) hava effect on  // 对...有影响
 53) carry out  // 执行
 54) be up to  // 由...决定
      # Then, how we make money is up to us // 接下来,如何赚钱是我们的事了
 55) put whole heart into  // 全身心的投入
      # Put your heart and soul into the family,and your whole life into your career  // 全身心的投入你的家庭和事业
 56) a shese of determination // 决心
 57) eliminate ... from  // 消除
      # It is time to eliminte fear and to clear out hidden fears from your subconscious // 是时候消除恐惧,从你的潜意识仲消除
 58) instead of  // 而不是
      # why don't you play football install of just looking on?  // 你为什么不打篮球而不是去看看呢
 59) be in control of // 控制
     # It is very important to control what you think if you wish to be in control of you life // 如果你希望控制你的生活,重要的是控制你的思想
# 第七集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————      
 60) respond to ...  // 对什么作出反应
      # I offered him a drink but he didn't respond to my offer  // 我想请他喝一杯,但他不理睬我
 61) take off  // 起飞,出去,拿掉,移送
 62) It occurred to me that ...  // 我从没有想到
     # It never occurred to me that I had seen her before somewhere  // 我想不起以前那里我见过她
 63get [take] a grip on  // 紧紧的抓住... have a grip on 对...有吸引力,掌握
     # The child would not let go his grip on Tom  // 这个孩子紧紧的抓住 Tom 不放
 64) be content with  // 对 sth 很满意
     # I am very contecnt with my me at present
 65) veritable  // 十足的,名副其实
 66) make discovery of  // 对 sth 发现
# 第八集 ————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— 
 67) heard of // 关于...的事情,听说
      # He could not bear to see anyone sorrowing or ever to hear of it  // 他不忍承受看到任何人难过或者甚至是听到 
 68) It's no use doing  // 做...事没有用的
      # It's no use arguing with him  // 跟他争论是没有用的
 69in  this manner  // 用这样的方式
      # She smiled again in  a friendly manner // 她又微笑用一个友好的方式
 70) make bearkthrough  // 取得突破
      # Only surpassing yourselvess can you make breakthough in your enterprises  // 唯有超过自己,企业才能突破
 71) much more ... than  // 比...更...的多
      # Real world business process are typically much more complex than this  // 真实的业务流程往往比这个复杂的多 
 72set ... apart from  // 与...区分开
      # In very way possible I was set apart from my classmates  // 我的同学千方百计的把我孤立起来
 73) lose grip  // 失去控制,没有抓住
      # one of the students lost his grip on his classmates and all them were in danger // 同学中一个学生失去控制然后使所有同学陷入危险中
 74) yall at  // 对... 吼叫
      # It is not considered polite to yell at people to get their attention  // 对别人吼叫引起别人的注意是不礼貌的
 75) give sb a lecture  // 给某人一个训斥/演讲
 76) 强调句
     (1)陈叙句的强调句型:It is/was + 被强调的部分(主,宾,状)+ that/who(当强调主语,指人)+ 其他部分
      # It was yesterday that he met Li Ping  // 他昨天遇到李平2)强调句例句:针对 I met Li Ping at railway station yesterday 
          > 强调主语:It was (Ithat (who) me Li Ming at railway station yesterday 
          > 强调宾语:It was(Li Ping) that I mat at railway station yesterday
          > 强调地点状语:It was(at railway station) that I mat Li Ping yesterday
          > 强调时间状语:It was(yesterday) that I mat Li Ping at railway station 
          > 强调原因和方式:
                 1. It is (through  the pain of confronting and resolving problems) that we learn
                 2. It is (in this whole process of meeting and solving problems) that life has its meaning
                 3. It is (for this reason)that wise people learn xxx
          it was me that He scared
 77) even if  // 引导的是让步状语
     # Even if she does something you do not like , you will still love her // 所以即使他做了一些你不喜欢的是你任然爱她
 78)the way + 句子  // 按照...的方法
     # Sometimes we taech our children the way our parents educate us  // 有时候我们教育我们的好在按照我们父母的方法
  # 第九集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
 79get in touch with sb // 与莫人保持联系  
 80) explode // 爆发 , explosion 爆炸,explosion 炸药
 81) off-balance  // 不平衡的
 82) significance  // 重要的意义 ,significant 有重大意义的,significantly 极大的
 83) frustration  // 令人懊恼    
 84) sacrifice  // 牺牲,舍弃
     sacrifice A for B  // 为B牺牲A
     make self-sacrifice  // 做出自我牺牲
 85) responsibility  // 责任,负责 responsible adj 重要的 irresponsible 不负责任  
 86) silently  //adv 静静的  v 安静 n 沉默 
  # 第十集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
 87) form scratch/ start form the scratch  // 从零开始
      # If we have to start from the scratch then it all takes time  // 如果我们从零开始将花费全部时间        
 88) run out of  // 用光
 89) It was first time in  // 注意时态
      eg1: It/This/That /*will be*/ the first time they /*have met*/ each other
      eg2: It/This/That /*is*/ the third time he /*has seen*/ an Englisg film
      eg2: It/This/That /*was*/ the last time he /*had done*/ such a strange thing
 90) by the time  // 当什么的时候 
 91) be anxious for  // 焦急的等待
      # She is anxious to enter for the competition  // 她很渴望参加比赛    
 92) position ... in  // 把...放置在
      # you'd better position the books where you can find it // 你最好把书放在你能找到的地方 
 93) cleaning up after yourself  // 把你自己收拾干净
      # How many times have I taked to you about cleaning up after yourself // 多少次我告诉你要把自己收拾干净
 94) slip in  // 悄悄溜入
      # You can slip in after this piece of music is played  //  这首曲子演奏完成之后你可以悄悄进去
 95) would have none of it  // 不接受,不允许
      # Mary asked him to help us during his free time ,but he would have none of it  
 86) made it all the way to  // 达到什么的目的     
      # With a head start in  business, you can make it all the way to the top //做生意抢到先机,才能达到顶峰 
 97) stay up  // 熬夜
      # I am going to stay up late to finish my paper   // 我将熬夜完成我的报告
 98) 现在分词作状语
     (1) doing sth  // 作时间状语   = 当
         # 从句里面的主语和主句的主语是共用的,我们可以把从句里面的主语省略掉,然后再考虑主句里面的动词和从句里面的动词是主动还是被动,主动 + ing,被动 + ed
          + ing 省略了I,缺少主语所以是时间状语 
         # (I) Seeing my parents waving in the crowd , I want running to them // 我的父母向我挥手,我在向他们跑去
          + ed
         # Crossing the read ,the old man was knocked over by a car   // 过马路的时候,这个老人被一辆车给撞了2) doing sth  // 作原因状语   = 因为
         # Being a teacher, you should help your student in every way  // 作为老师,您应该帮助你的学生在每个方面3) doing sth  // 作结果状语   = 使
         # There is mud and water everywhere,making it difficult to travel from place to place // 到处是水和尼玛使我们的出现困难4) doing sth  // 作条件状语   = 如果
         # Listening to English everery day, you'll learn it well step by step  // 每天学习英语,你会越来越好5) doing sth  // 作让步状语   = 虽然
         # Living miles away , he attended the course  // 住在几公里以外,他任坚持上课  
 99)suffer from  // 遭受
     # She is sufferign from unspeakable pain  // 她正在遭受难以形容的痛苦
 100)inablity to  // 不能去做
     # Her inablity to pay the rents caused trouble  //  她无力支付房租
 101) account for  // 解释,什么...原因
     # Can you accout for your inabilty to pay the debt  // 你能解释你无法偿还的原因吗
 102) be blind to  // 对...视而不见
     # He is blind to her bad behavior  // 她对她的不良行为视而不见
  # 第十一集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————      
 103) thought  // 想法
 104) pay a deposit of  // 预付定金
 105) current account  // 活期账户
 106) deposit account  // 定期存款账户
 107) well - being // 健康,快乐
 108) exploit  // 利用,开发  n 英勇的行为
 109) assure sb of sth // 向某人保证某事 ,assure sb that 向某人保证找这个
 110) stands for // 代表什么
 111)generation gap  // 代沟
  # 第十二集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
 112)consist of  // 由 ... 构成
      # All electronic computers consisit of five units although they are of different kinds // 所有的电子计算机由5个组件组成,但他们是不同种类
 113)stick by  // 坚持
      # In spite of any condition ,  he will stick by his principles  // 在任何刁难的情况下,他都坚持自己原则 
 114)lead to 导致
      # Too much work and too little rest often lead to illness  // 太多工作和太少的休息会导致疾病
 115)summary fine  // 罚金
 116)share with  // 与...分享
     # I will also share them with my staff at Shen Zhen  // 我也会把它分享到我深圳的朋友们
 117)engage in  // 从事
     # They engage in the study of music  // 他从事音乐研究
 118)gossip about  // 八卦
     # Dont't gossip about a person's right and wrong behind his back  
 119)more than likely  // 很有可能
     # You'll find you father in the pub , more than likely // 你会发现你父亲很可能在酒吧
 120)fast-talking  // 能言善变
     # Salesmen often use fast talking to manipulate the buyer  // 销售员通常用能言善变操纵买家
 121)be challenged by  // 被...挑战
     # The tyrant's domination was challenged by the rebels  // 暴君的统治被反叛者挑战
 122)well-being  // 幸福
 123)be akin to  // 与 ... 相似
     # What she feels for him is akin to worship  // 她对他的感情近似崇拜
 124)making a deposit  // 存款
     # You will have to stand in line to make a deposit  // 存款需要排队
 126)more often than not  // 经常
     # Nancy comes to work early more offten than not  // Nancy 经常很早来上班
 127)In essence  // 在本质上
    # Affiance is a contract in essence    // 婚约在本质上是一个合同
 128)exploit ... to // 利用,开发
    # You should exploit this opportunity to go abroad  // 您应该利用这个机会去国外
 129)the traits of  // ...的特点
    # What are the traits of successful leaders  // 成功的领导人的特点是什么
 130)be warned of  // 被告知,警告
    # The passengers were warned of the passible delay  // 乘客被告知可能会延迟
 131)Turn upside down  // 倒置
    # He turned the glass upside down  // 他把被子倒过来
# 第十三集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————     
 132)prosperity  // 兴旺,繁荣,成功,昌盛 prosper v 兴隆  properous adj 成功
 133)groud  // 警卫 
     security groud  // 保镖
     lifeguard  // 救生员
     bodygroud  // 护卫
 134)pursue  // 追求
     pursuit  // n  追求
     in hot pursuit of sb/sth  // 对...热切地
# 第十四集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————    
 135)Turn against  // 背叛
     # No one would turn against his own country  // 没有人会背叛他的国家
 136)Trust with  // 信得过,信托
     # I'd trust him with my life  我把命交给他放心
 137)ill-considered // 欠考虑的
 138)are prone to  // 易于
     # Weak people are prone to catch cold  // 虚弱的人容易感冒
 139)fall on their knees
 140do sb honor  // 像某人敬意
     # You do us a great honour by attending  // 你肯出席我很荣幸
 141)stand of  // 袖手旁观,准备行动,忠于,支持
     # How can you stand by and let him treat his dog like that?  // 你怎么能袖手旁观,让他那样对待他的狗呢
 142in prosperity and in poverty  // 同甘共苦
     # we apprecitate fellowship in prosperity and adversity  // 我们同甘共苦的友谊
 143if only  // 要是...多好,虚拟语气1)一般过去式,if only 之后,就表示一种与现在事实相反的愿望
      # If only my frined was here with me  // 要是我的朋友这时和我在一起就好了2)过去完成,if only 之后,可表示与过去事实相反的愿望
      # If only I hadn't gone there last night  // 如果我昨晚没有去就好了3)would/could + v 与将来事实相反的状况
      # If only I could see once  // 我只要再见到他一次就好了  
 142)encounter with  // 遭遇
      # His encounter with the guard dog had completely unnerved him  // 他遭遇到警犬,把他吓坏了
 143as if //就好像 1)以 as ifas though)引导的方式状语从句或表语从句,有时用虚拟语气,若表示与现在事实想反,谓语动词用过去式
          # She works hard as if she nver know fatigue  // 他的工作,仿佛不知匹配2)若表示与过去事实相反,用过去完成时
          # he talks as if he had been abroad // 他说的好像出过国外      
 144)fall to pieces  // 摔成碎片
 145)accompany sb to do  // 陪伴某人做某事
      # Who will accompany me to inspect the engine-room  // 谁陪我去发动机房 
 # 第十五集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
  146)committed  // 尽力的
      commit an error  // 犯错
      commit a crime //  犯罪
      commit suicide  // 自杀
  147)depression  n  //经济衰退
      depress  v // 使沮丧
      depressed  adj //沮丧的
  148)illegal   // 不合法的
     # il,im 是in的变体,否对前缀,比如
       irregular(不整齐),irresponsible(不负责任), imbalanced(不平滑),impossible(不可能) 
  149)immigrant  // 移民 (指人)
       immigration  // 移民(指这个事情)
  150)quit  // 放弃(主动放弃)
      give up  // 放弃(被动放弃)
 # 第十六集 ————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— 
  151)live on  // 以...为生
       # The proportion of Americans living on welfare rose  // 靠福利生活的美国人的比例上升了
      make a living  // 谋生 
      eke out a living  // 勉强维持生活
  152)bing in  // 带来,赚
      # I have three part-time jobs,which bring in about 2400 a year
  153)having to  // 不得不
  154)complain to sb about sth
      # She felt (感觉) she could not complain to her father directly 
  155)sink on  // 沉没,被理解
      # Wood(木头) does not sink in water
      # It took many years for the teacher's words to sink in 
  156)a privilege for  // 对于...的荣幸
      # It's a tremendous honor and a privilege for me to be here with all of you  // 于大家相聚是我最大的荣幸
  157)look forward to   // 期待
      # I look forward to signing the contract when we meet next week  // 当我们下次相遇,我期待签署这个合约
  158)start out  // 出发
      # I got through it knowing that at least my morning would start out right  // 我通过它知道, 至少我的早晨开始的时候是愉快的
  159)an obligation to  // 对...的义务
      # It's one that all of us have an obligation to meet  // 这个是每个人都需要履行的义务
  160)a way of life  // 生活方式
     # Calculated risk taking is way of life for bold people  // 技术风险是大胆的人生活方式
  161)stay / be committed to  // 致力于
     # He has been committed to working for the people heart and soul for more than twenty years  // 20年以来他全心全意为人民服务
  162)put...out of work  // 让...失去工作
     # Sandy had been put out of work for months scince the wreck because of his wounded wrist.  // Sandy因为他的手受伤而失业了几个月
  163as 意为 “虽然”,用于倒装,句式如下:     
     # Though he is very young, he is very learned == Young as he is , he is very learned(学问)
  164)social unrest  // 社会动荡   
  165)human trafficking  // 人口贩卖   
  166)contribute to  // 捐献    
      # You will get involved, be part of that school. Do something to conreibute to your school as weel as to help yourself
  167)quit doing  // 放弃做
      # Quit doing what you've been doing, it's time to change, it's time to grow up!
  168)be propared for  // 准备做,为什么准备
      # We need to be propared for different possibilities 
  169get to do  // 开始做什么,应该做什么
      # Each day focus on what you get to do, not what you have to go  // 每一天,关注你该什么,而不是你不得不做什么
 # 第十七集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————      
  170)prioritize  // 按重要性排列,划分优先顺序
      prior  // 先前的
      priority  // 优先第一位 
  171)strategy  // 策划,规划,部署,统筹安排    
      marketing strategy  // 市场规划
      grand strategy  // 大战略
      logistics strategy  //  物流战略
  172)competitor  // 竞争
      compete with/against sb for sth  //  跟某人竞争
      competitive  // 有竞争力的
      competitor  // 竞争者
      competition  // 竞争
  173)find  // 未找到
      found  // 找到了
  174in charge of  // 负责
  175)down payment  // 定价
  176)trash can  // 垃圾桶
      garbage can  // 垃圾桶
      trash bin  // 垃圾桶
  177break down  // 破裂
  178)it may also be necessary  // 它也有可能是必要的
  179)made believe  // 假装
 # 第十八集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
  180)liv in  // 存在于
      # I have done everything that lies in my power  // 我已经尽了最大的努力
  181)bargain for  // 预料,为购买(某物)讨价还价,考虑到
      # You'll get more than you bargain for  // 你比预料的获得的更多
  182)feel privileged to  // 感到荣幸,有...特权
       # It's a great privilege to be working here and we feel we part of a team that is dedicated to the same goal
       // 很荣幸在这里工作,我们团队的每一个部分致力于同样的目标
  183in that  // 是一种固定搭配,意为“因为”,与 for the reason that, beacuse 同义,可用于引导原因状语从句
       # I'm in a slightly awkward position in that he's not arriving until the 10th  // 我的处境有点尴尬,因为他10号才来
  184)bing ... to the table  // 带来好处,拿的上台面
       # The new manager has a lot of international experience to bing to the table 
  185)keep sth in plain sight  // 显而易见,一览无余
       # How could you not notice that girl? She was in plain sight all night 
  186)stay focused on  // 关注于
       # Instead of giving up, I stay foucused on my goal  // 我没有放弃,而是关注于目标
  187)at|in|to the front end  //处于前列
  188)down payment  // 首付
  189get it up  // 安排,组织
  190)alleviate the burden  // 减轻压力
  191)financial  // 财政
  192)examine  // 检验,审查,考试
  193)seek out  // 寻找,查询
       # I will seek them out 
  194)aspire to  // 渴求,励志
       # We should aspire to do something benefit to society  // 我们应该励志做一些对社会有益的事情 
  195)etc  // 等等
  196)owning  //获得
  197)have...in place  // 准备就绪,各就各位
      # She likes to have everything in place 
  198)apply for  // 申请
      # She applied to the manageer for a job as clerk  // 她向经理申请一个办事员的工作
 # 第十九集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
  199)noisily  adv // 喧闹地
      noise  n //  噪声,大声说话
      noisy  adj // 喧闹的,嘈杂的  
  200)belief  n  // 相信
      believe  v  // 相信,认为
      believable  adj // 可相信的
      disbelief  n  // 不相信,怀疑
  201)guilt  // 内疚
      guilty // 有罪的
      be guilty of  // 犯有...罪
      be / fell guilty about  // 感到愧疚
  202)despair  // 绝望
      in despair  // 绝望地
  203)made  // 让
      # And looking uncomfortable made me look terrible  // 不舒服自在的穿着,使我看起来糟糕
  # 第二十集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————   
  204)同位语从句:
       同位语从句和定语从句区别:
       # 定语从句由关系代词或关系副词引导,关系词在从句中担当相应的句子成分,作宾语时经常被省略。同位语从句主要有连词that引导,在从句中不担当成分
       eg: news,idea, fact, promise, question, doubt, thought, hope, message, suggestion, words(消息),possiblility,等抽象名词都可用
       # I’ve come from Mr.Wang with a message that he won't be able to see you this afternoon.  // 我从王先生哪里来,他让我告诉你他今天下午不能来看你
       英语中引导同位语从句的词通常有连词
       eg:that, whether, 连接代词 what, who  连接副词 how, when, where 等(注:if, which 不能引导同位语从句)
       # He must answer the question whether he agrees to it ot not 
       eg: 隔开的情况come to动词隔开
       # The thought come to him that maybe the enemy had fled the city
  205)more or less  // 或多或少
       # So far, they are all more or less on track  // 到目前为止,他们全部或多或少在轨道(计划)上
       # Everyone of us, more or less, is benefited from watching TV  // 每个人或多或少从电视上获得益处
  206)the enormity of  // 极其艰巨的   those lies ahead 摆在我们面前的
       # You did it since you understand the enormit of the task those lies ahead  // 你这样做是因为你理解这个任务是艰巨的
  207do my share  // 做分内的是事
       # I do my share of the housework  // 我做我该做的那份家务
  208)a series of  // 一系列
       # The challenger delivered a series of punches to the champion  // 挑战者向冠军发动一连串的攻击
  209) moan about  // 抱怨
  210with // 具有
        # without discipline we can solve nothing, with only some descipline we can only some problems.    
  # 第二十一集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
  211)主句从句与形式主语it
      (1)对于以连词 that 引导的主语从句,通常用形式主语代主语从句
          # It's a pity that he didn't come   
      (2)对于以连接代词(副词)引导的主语从句,可以使用形式主语代主语从句,也可以直接在句首使用主语从句
            Whether 句首
          # (Whether they would support us) was a problem
            句尾
          # It was a problem (whether they would support us)
      (3)对关系代词 what 引导的主语从句,通常直接将主语从句放在句首 
          # What we need is money  
          # What I want to know is this4)逗号的形式主语
          # It is difficut, to say the least, to offer words of hope when all they feel is hopelessness  
  213)cutting edge  // 边缘
  # 第二十二集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————        
  214)imagine  // 想象
      imageintive adj  // 想象力
      imaginary adj // 想象的,虚构的
      unimaginable  // 不能想象
      imageination  // 美好的幻想
  215)desert  // n 沙漠 v 抛弃 adj 无人的     
  216catch  // n  总捕获量  v 抓住,接住  adj 有趣味的
  217)confrontation // 对抗
  218)It seem that  // 看起来
      # It seems that in our busy lives nowadays many of us have forgotten how to appreciate others 
        // 似乎在我们当今忙碌的生活中,许多人忘记如何感激别人
  219)turn to sb for sth  // 求助于
      turn to sb for comfort  // 向某人需求安慰
      turn to sb for help / advice  // 向某人寻求帮助,建议
      # She didn't know whom to turn to for advice 
  220)On one's feet  // 站立着,恢复健康
      back on one's feet  // 完全恢复
  221)struggle with  // 和...做斗争
      struggle away with  // 努力做
      struggle  against  with  // 与...做斗争
      # Even to this day, I sometimes struggle with fear and perfection  // 时至今日,我有时候会挣扎在害怕与完美之中  
  222)keep your chin up   // 别灰心,抬起你的下巴
      # But don't be said... try to keep your chin up 
      # I know this must be hard for you but try to keep your chin up  
  223)walk out on  // 遗弃
      # never did he walk out on the contract  // 他从来没有违反合同 
  224)bring about  // 带来
  225)be through with // 完成,结束
      # When will you be through with your work 
      # Mary and Tom  are through
      be through with sb  // 与某人断绝关系
      be through with drinking/smoking  // 不再吸烟喝酒
  226)fight  back  // 反抗,反击
      # She fought back the tears   // 他忍住了眼泪
  # 第二十三集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————   
 227)fare  // 车费
     # Let me go shares with you in the taxi fare  
 228)lump sum   // 一次总付的钱款
     # He paid for his car in one lump sum 
 229)overspend  // 花钱过的,花得多,超支      
     overeat  // 吃过量
     overdo  // 做或者表现得过分   
     oversleep  // 睡过头  
     overweight // 超重
 230)outeat  // 吃得比...多
     outdo  // 超过
     outlive  // 比...活得长
     outshine  // 优于,发光
 231)opt // 选择,挑选
      opt for  // 选择
      option  // n 选择 v 购买
      optional  // 可选择的,自由的
  
 242)differentiate  v  // 区分
     differ v // 分歧
     different adj // 不同
     difference  adj  // 差异
 243)resist  v // 忍住
     resistant  adj  // 抵抗的
     resistance  n  //  抵抗,阻力  
  244)scheme  // 计划
  245)present  // n 目前,礼物 adj 存在,出席 v 出现,赠送,显示,提交
  # 第二十四集 ————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— 
  246in different way  // 不同的方式,方法
      # Our tenet is to create dissmilar style in  different way  // 我们宗旨是在不同的方式创造不同的风格
  247)on a daily basis  // 每天
      # On a daily basis, reporters can get information from the president's surrogates, most often from has press secretary
       // 每天,记者可以获得信息从总统的工作人员,而最经常的是从他的秘书
  248)the way(in which/that)sth is done  // 用这样的方法被完成 
  249)be termed as  // 被称为
      # Given that many live in conditions which Britain would be termed as poverty,it's impossible not to be touched
      // 考虑到许多人生活在英国被称为贫困的条件下,不被触动是不可能的
  250)be trusted with  // 被信任
      # Fred is a loud mouth who cannot be trusted with sectets  // Fred是一个爱唠叨的人不能相信让能保守密码
  251)places responsibilities of + n / on sb  // 给...的重任  
  252)bubgeting on  // 预算,安排
      # Do you have some good tips on budgeting time  // 你在安排时间上有什么建议  
  253)overindulging in  // 沉溺于
      # Overindulging in alochol will do damage to your liver as well as your brain  // 酗酒将损坏你的肝脏和大脑
  254)results in  // 结果
      # He expects results in a year or so  // 他期望的结果在一年左右出来
  255)be meant to  // 意味着
      # The first daays of school are meant to orientate freshment to compus life  // 开学学校有意让学生熟悉学校得生活  
  256)differentiate between needs and wants  // 你需要的和你想要的区别
  257)inculcate sth in|into sb,inculcate sb with sth  // 向某人灌输... , 用...教育某人
  258)stand then in good stead  // 对某人有好处
       # Those experiences will stand them in good stead   
  260)pocket money  // 零花钱
  261)比较
      (1)否定词和比较级连用相当于最高级  
       # There is no better way to teach childern to manage money than to start with their pocket money
         本句等同于 To start with their pocket money is the best way to teach children manage money 
       # His words couldn't be more encouraging  == His words were the most encouraging
  # 第二十五集 ————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— 
   262)greedy adj  //贪婪的
        greed  n // 贪婪
   263)finnacially // 经济上
       finance  // 金融
       finnacial  // 金融的
   264)available  adj // 可获得的
       # 修饰的时候要放在名词后使用  Do you have room available  
       be available to sb 
       availability  // 有效,有用,有益,可得到的人
   265)abundant // 大量的
       be abundant in sth
       abundance  // 丰富
   266)originally  adv // 原来的
       origin  n // 原来
       original  adj // 原始的,最初的,起源
   267)stimulate  // 促进
      stimulant // n 兴奋剂 adj 幸福的
      stimulating  // 刺激的
   268)enconomy  // 经济
       econemical  // 节俭的
       econemics  // 经济学
       economist  // 经济学家
       economize v // 节约,节省
       economically  adv  // 经济上的,节约的
   269)balance  // 均衡,平衡
       balanced  // 均衡的,平衡的,平稳的
       imbalanced  // 不平衡,失调
   270)expect to  //  期望
   271)attract into  // 吸引
       # Everything that's coming into your life, you are attract into your life // 你生活中发生的事,都是你吸引来的 
   272)go around  // 运作,分配
       # Let's go around the town, not through it. 
   273)quality time  // 美好的时光
       # Spend more quality time with her children  
   274)the root of  // ...根源
       # idlenesss is the root of all evil  // 懒惰是万恶之源  
   275)deep down  // 实质上
       # deep down, she was still a rebel  // 实质上,她还是一个叛逆者
   276)have nothing | something | a little / much to do sth  //      
   277)now that  // 既然
       # Now that I am free, I can enjoy music for a while // 既然有空,我可以享受一下音乐 
   278)whereby  // 借以,通过,与...一致
       # He devised a plan whereby he might excape  // 他想出了一个可以逃脱的办法
   279)on the other hand  // 另一个方面
        # One one hand, I hava no time,on the other hand ,I have on money // 一方面,我没有时间,另一方面,我没有钱 
   280)come back to  // 回到
        # It's come back to me now: it be 12:30 when the door bell ring  // 现在我渐渐想起来了,门铃响的时候正是12点半  
   281)go with the flow  // 顺应潮流
        # Like the water in a river, Pisces people can go with the flow  // 双鱼座的人像河水一样,他们会顺应潮流
# 第二十七集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————        
   282)procisely  adv  // 准确地,恰好地
       procise adj // 精确的
       precision  n // 精确的
   283)small talk  // 寒暄    
       # We should not talk away our valuable time  // 不要把我们宝贵的时间浪费在闲聊上 
   284)take away // 拿走
   286)hesitation  n // 犹豫
       hesitate  v  // 犹豫,不情愿,口吃
       hesitant  adj  // 迟疑的
       hesitancy n // 犹豫 
   287)wonder why // 想知道为什么        
   288)despite  // 即使,尽管
       # Despite all our efforts we still lose the game  // 警告我们尽力了,我们还是输了比赛 
   289)address  //  v 写(收信人地址)姓名地址  n 地址
       # Could you help me address these envelopes // 你能帮我这些信封写上地址吗?
   290)attach  v  // 把...固定,把...附(在...上)     
       # I attach a copy of my notes for your information  // 我把复制的一个笔记供你参考
       attach...to.. // 附着...在...上面
       atttached  // 依恋的,附加的,附属的
       attachment  // 依恋,附件
# 第二十八集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————       
   291get dressed  // 穿好衣服
       # He showered quicly before he got dressed  
   292)leave for  // 动身去...
       # Do not you think we'd leave for the concert now  // 你不认为我们现在应该去音乐会吗?
   293)bombard sb with questions  // 不断向某人人提问
       # The lecturer was bombarded with questions  // 演讲者遭到不断的提问
   294)the last thing...  // 最不想...的事情
       # He is the last preson I want to work with 
       # Lying is the last thing he'll do  
   295for some reason  // 由于某种
       # I always have a felling that for some reason she bears a grudge against me  // 我总是感觉由于某种原因她怀恨在心
   296)lose in his thoughts  // 陷入沉思
       # Michael seemed lost in his own thoughts, so I never pried  // Michael 似乎失神在它自己的思考里,所以我一直没有去过问
   297)look down towards  // 瞧不起
       # Her parents told her not to look down upon countrymen    
   298)prompting to  // 提出,鼓动    
       # She prompting me to call my relatives  // 她鼓动我去访问我的亲戚  
   299)start a conversation with  // 与某人谈话
       # He is an introvert,he never tires to start a conversation with anyone // 他是一个内向的人,从不与别人谈话 
   300)there was no  way  // 没有办法
       # There was no way to break it gently  // 没有办法轻轻打破它
   301)find 在里面接现在分词短语作宾补,还可以接过去分词(I found myself wondering what this man thinking about)
        # When he come to, he found himself lying in hospital 
   302)that he must have been really upset  // 对过去的情况一种肯定的猜测,翻译为(我)肯定(他)特别焦虑
   303)现代分词作定语/despite 让步状语:
        # He had red eyes and still had some tears (rolling down the side of has face) (despite his feeble attempt to ) 
   304break down  // 出故障,分解,失败,垮掉
        # The machine must break dowm at this busy hour 
   305)come up with  // 提出,想出
        # The progrmmer come up with a solution to the system problem  // 程序员想出了一个解决问题的办法    
   306)come down with  // 病倒。染上
        # The manager , who has come down with a bad cold  // 经理患重感冒病倒了
   307with 的用法(动词在前表示原因)
        # heavy with pain   // 因为痛苦而沉重
        # be wet with sweat  // 因为出汗了所以湿了
        # shake with laughter  // 因为好笑而颤抖 
   308)take one's life  // 拿走某人的生命
        # He knew that almost everybody hated him, and so he was alway in dread lost someone should take his life
          // 他知道很多人都恨他,然后他总是提防别人取他性命
   309in desperation // 绝望的
        # The ruffian laid about in desperation  // 歹徒在绝望中向四周乱打一气  
   310)现在分词作状语,表示原因,在这里注意的是非谓语动词的否定形式,要在前面加not,not having done sth ,而不是having not done sth
        # Not having finished his homework in time, he was criticized the teacher 
   311)pleasing  adj  // 令人高兴的,令人满意的
        # ed 指人,ing 指物
   312)tell one's fortune  
       fortunate adj  // 幸运的,侥幸的
       misfortunate  n  // 不幸
       unfortunate  adj  // 不幸的
       unfortunately  adv  // 不幸地   
# 第二十九集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————   
   313)boredom  // 无聊
       bore   // v 使厌烦,开凿,钻孔,挖掘,盯着看  n 讨厌的人,麻烦事,钻孔
       bored  adj  // 无聊的,厌烦的,郁闷的
       boring adj  // 令人厌烦的,乏味的
   314)tension n // 紧张,烦躁
       tense adj  // 紧张的,绷紧的,拉紧的  
   315)scowl  // 怒视
       scowl  // 怒视
       face scowl  // 满脸愁容
       frown scowl  // 皱眉头    
# 第三十集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————  
   316)inherit money  // 继承财产
        # You will inherit money and jewelry  // 你将继承钱和首饰
   317)be eager to  // 渴望
        # I was eager to shift the weight from my back // 我急切地想把这个重物从背上挪开  
   318)hava (a certain look) on one's face 流露(某种神态)
        # He had a broad grin on his face  // 他满脸笑容 
   319)whatsoever(也作whatever)adv  // 用在 no + 名词,nothing,none 等之后,以加强语气
       # There can be no doubt whatever about it //  这是毫无疑问的
   320)actions speak louder than words. and ...  // 事实胜于雄辩,行动比语言更有说服里
   321)make such a hit  // 留下好印象 
   324)tell of  // 讲述,讲到
        # He bagan to tell of the fighters heroic exploits  // 他开始讲述战士们的英雄事迹   
   325)have their pets inoculated  // 给狗接种,给狗打预防针
       hava sth done  
       he will have one's hair cut  // 让她的头发减掉
   326)he will have one's hair cut  // 染发
   327)struck up a conversation with  // 和某人攀谈起来
        # I struck up a conversation with this old woman in the shop  // 我在商店里与这位老妇人攀谈起来  
   328)be characteristic of // 典型的,独特的
        # The main characteristic of the strike has been its longevity  // 这次罢工的主要特点是持续时间长 
   329)were converted into  // 转变成
        # Water is converted into steam if it is boiled  // 把水煮沸,水就变成蒸汽
   330in the ways of the world  // 人情世故
        # He was learned in the ways of the world  // 他精通人情事故
# 第三十一集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————         
   331)explanation n // 解释,说明
       explain  n  // 说明,解释
       explanatory  adj  // 说明的,解释的
   332)imperfect adj  // 有缺陷的,不完全的,不完美的
       perfect  // adj  完美的,完全的  v 完美
       prefection  //  n 完美,完善
   333)disability  n // 缺陷,障碍
       able adj // 能够的,有
       ability n  // 能力,才能
       unable  adj  // 不能的,不会的 
   334)inspire  // 激动,鼓舞
       inspiration  // 灵感,鼓舞人心,吸气
       inspring  // adj 令人振奋 
   335)effective  // adj  有效的
       efficient  // adj  效率高的
       ineffective   // adj  无效果的,不起作用的,不奏效的
       inefficient   // adj  效率低的,能力差的,浪费的  
   336)altitude  // 海拔
       altitude  sickness // 高山反应
   337)persistence  // n  坚持,锲而不舍
       persist  // v 坚持,坚决做...
       persisitent  // adj 坚持的,连续的,固执的   
   338)perseverance  // n 毅力
       persever // v  坚持
       perseverant   // adj 坚持的,锲而不舍
   339)define  // v 阐明,明确,定义
       definition  // n  定义,阐释
       definite  // 明确的,确定的   
   340)incredible  // adj  不能相信的,难以置信的
       unbelievable  //  adj 难以置信的 
# 第三十二集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————      
   341)imagine doing  // 想象    
        # I con't imagine doing that with them  // 我不能想象和他们一起做那件事
   342)wrapped  around  // 围围巾 
        # A scarf was wrapped around the his neck  // 一条围巾围绕在他的脖子上
   343)分词的用法(speaking,judging from )
        # Strictly speaking, noboady is allowed in here  // 严格的讲,没有人允许在这里
        # Judging from his accent, he must be from the South   // 从他的口音来看,他一定来自南方
   342)only to find...  // 不定式表示结果
        # They rushed to the cinema, only to find the tickets left at home 
   343)否定词放在句首句子倒装,
        # rarely,seldom,in no case, by no means,little, hardly 等 
   344)all walks of life  // 社会各阶层
        # They launched a fund drive on all walks of life  
   345)on his own  // 靠自己
        # He did it on his own account, not for anyone else 
   355)adapt to  // 适应
        # I hope you can adapt to the new environment(环境) quickly  // 
   366)be elected  // 被选举
        # Jones will be elected because many powerful men are back of him  // Jones被选举,因为很多人支持他
   367)major in  // 主修
        # Mr.Lee said he would major in history and he mean business 
   368)encounter in  // 遭遇
        # What are you problem you have encounter in your job?
   369)there is something to /in sth   // ...有意义,有道理
   370)live a full life  // 生活充实
   371)cease to do sth  // 停止做某事,不再做某事
   372)see...as... , look on / upon ... as , view ... as , regard ... as // 把...看成...
   373)reach out to  // 伸手以抓到,触到或拿到某物
        # A cadre must reach out to and be one with the masses  // 干部必须接触群众,同群众打成一片 (be one with 同一个)
   375)at our disposal  //  任某人处理
   376)hava a profound effect on sth  // 对...产生深远的影响
   377)embrace failure as a  learning experience  // 把失败当成经验
        # We must embrace pain as fuel for our journey  
   378)rather than , instead of // 而不是
        # He is an explorer rather than a sailor  // 与其说它是一个海员,不如说他是一个探险者  
   379)poke dun at  // 嘲弄
        # In America, he says, it's funny to poke fun at yourself. But in China there's no humor in misfortune
   380)show off  // 炫耀
        # Those boys always show off their sports skills to the girls  // 那些男孩总是向女孩们炫耀他们的运动技能
        # using those new definitions  // 分词作状语
        # challenge sb to do sth  // 刺激某人做某事
        # begin the path to fulfilling their biggest dreams  // 开始实现他们最大的梦想   
   381)alike adv. in the same way  // 同样地
# 第三十三集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————   
   382)taken place  // 发生在
   383)unfortunately // adv 不幸地
       fortune  // n 命运,财产,运气
       misfortune  // n 不幸
       fortunate  // adj 幸运的,侥幸的
       unfortunnate   // adj 不幸的,令人遗憾的  n 不辛的人
   384)production  // n 生产,制造
       produce  // v 生产,引起,提出,制片 n 产品
       producer  // n 生产者,制造者。制片人
       productive  // adj  生产的,有成效的
       product  //  n 产品,产物,结果   
   385)competition // n 竞争
       compete  // v 竞争,比赛,对抗
       competitor  // n 竞争者,对手
       competitive  // adj 竞争的,有竞争力的  
   386)successive  // adj 连续的
       succeed  // v 成功,继承,接着发生
       succeed in (doing)sth  // 成功的做某事
       successor  // n 接班人,继任人
       successful  //  adj 成功的,圆满的    
   387)insanely //  adv 十分
   388)cofound  // v 共同建立
       co-existence  // n 共存
       a co-ed school  // 男您同校的学校
       cooperate  // v  合作,协力,配合
       cohabitataion // n 同居
   389)convince sb of sth / that... // 关于某事使某人信服
   390)lay a solid foundation for sth  // 为某事打下坚实的基础
   391)profitability // n 盈利能力
       profit  // n 利润
       profitable  // 有益的
   392)introduce  // v 推行,实施,采用
       introduction // n 介绍,引进,序言,导论
       introductive / introductory  // 介绍,引导
   393)innovation  // n 创造
       innovate  // v 改革,创新
       innovative  // adj 创新的,革新的
# 第三十四集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————         
   394)dare to  // 敢于
        # No one dare to offend the fiery person  // 没有人敢惹暴躁的人
   395)take risk  // 冒险
        # Which team is more willing to take risks    
   397)insist that sb should do  // 建议某人应该做某事
        # I insist that he should stay where he is
   398)在一些意为“要求,建议,命令”等含义的动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词使用虚拟语气,形式为 should(可省略)+ 动词原形。
       常见的此类动词有:advice,ask, agree,allow, command, decide, demand, ensure, insist, maintain, move, order, prefer, propose, require,
       request, suggest, urge 等。
   399)under the condition that  // 在...情况下
        # They agreed under the condition that the matter be dealt with promptly  // 他们同意了,前提是迅速处理这件事
   340)drop out  // 退学
        # He drop out beacuse of the pressure    
   341in memory of  // 纪念
        # We named the lake Rebecca in memory of her  // 为了纪念她,我们把这个湖命名为 “丽贝卡”
   342)dwell on // 详述,老想着
        # Don't always dwell on the past, look forward. He's dwelling on his story once again  // 不要总是沉湎于过去,要向前看。他又在细想他的故事了
   343)非谓语动词的否定形式: not + 费谓语动词
        # Not wanting to dwell on sucessive failures, they worked on a new machine called the Macintosh  
        // 他们不想老是停留在失败的失败上,于是开始研发一种名为麦金塔(Macintosh)的新机器   
   342)“the + 比较级,the + 比较级 意为 越...就越...”
        # The farther a planet is from the earth, the smaller it looks/appears/seems // 一颗行星离地球越远,它看上去就越小
   343)turn out // 到头来,结果是,既然是
        # It turned out the man standing beside me was a pickpocket  // 原来站在我旁边的那个人是个扒手
   344)free from  // 使摆脱,免于,解放
        # The firce lion burst free from the chains  // 那只狮子挣脱了锁链
   345)convince sb  // 说服某人
        # We were able to convince the students of the need for wider reading //我们能够使学生们相信扩大阅读范围的必要性
   346)appointed as apple's adviser  // 过去分词作状语,过去表示被动
        # Seen form here, the valley is very beautful // 从这里看,这山谷很美
   347)under one's leadership  // 在某人的领导下
       under one's supervision / guidance / influence 
# 第三十五集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————  
   348)symbolize  // v 象征,代表
       symbol  // n 符号,象征,标志
   349)incredibly  // adv 极端地,极其
       credible  // adj 可靠的,可信的
       believable // adj 可信的   
   350)arise  // v 发生,产生,出现
        # arise from sth // 由…引起,起因于
# 第三十六集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————  
   351)develop into  // 发展成为
        # The small port has developed into a big city  // 这个小港发展成为一个大城市  
   352)what...is like  
        # Day in, day out, no matter what the weather is walks ten miles  
   353)relate to  // 涉及,有关
   354)end up in  // 以...告终
       end up in the same the place  // 在同一个地方告终
       end up in prision / in debts  // 以在监狱|债务告终
       end up as a beggar / prisoner  // 以成为一个乞丐/囚犯告终
   355)keep up with // 赶上
        # If you don't keep up with the times, you'll get left behind //如果你赶不上这个时代,就会被时代摔在后面  
   356)fit in  // 合得来,适应
       instead of  // 替代,而不是
       rather than   // rather than
   357)wear out  // 使疲乏
        # She dropped into a chair,uttely worn out  // 她一下子坐在椅子里,筋疲力尽
   358)make it over 
        # Their next challenges were to find horses and make it over the Rocky Mountains  
   359)find (it) in yourself that you can do it  // it 是形式,真正的宾语是that 从句
   360get lost in // 被...困扰
        # I m afraid I haven't got a very good sense of directions, so I easily get lost
   361)Once you finish, you look back on it and you realize that you made it not by leaping, but step by step, yard by year, life is very hard.
       But inch by inch, life can be a cinch.
   362)step by step // 逐步的
        # His health is improving step bt step    
   363)inch by inch  // 渐渐
        # They climbed the steep mountain inch by inch  // 他们一寸一寸地爬着陡峭的山
   364)find oneself falling and falling 现在分词作宾补  //发现自己不断的堕落
        # When he come to, he found himself lying in hospital 
   365)be through  // 经过,历经,完成,结束
   367)at a time, separately // 一次,依次,每次
        # take the pills two at a tiem 
   368)at one time | formerly  // 一度,从前    
        # At one time I used to go skiing every winter   
# 第三十七集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————    
   369)undo // v 打开,解开,拆开 
       unfold  // v 展开,打开
   370)conductor  // n 乐队指挥
       conduct  // n 行为,举动,品行  v 引导,指挥,管理 , vt 导电,传热
   371)purity  // n 纯洁,纯净,纯粹
       pure  // adj 纯的
       purity  // n 纯净,纯洁,纯正,纯粹
       purify  // v 净化,精炼
   372)applause  // n 鼓掌,喝彩
       applaud  // v 称赞,赞成,鼓掌
   373)boastfully  // adv 自吹自擂,自夸地
       boast  // 自夸,吹牛
       boast of / about (doing) sth  
       boaster // 自夸的人,吹牛者
# 第三十八集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————    
   374)come on stage to  // 走上舞台
        # He come on stage amid clapping and cheering 
   375)be stricken with  // 被袭击
        # In one village almost the entire population was stricken with a plague    
   376with  the aid of  // 在...辅助下
        # The aged peasant is advancing slowly with aid of a cane  //那位上了年纪的农民拄着拐杖慢慢地前进
   377)go off  // 发生巨响
        # The bomb went off in a crowed street  // 炸弹在拥挤的街道上爆炸了  
   378)There was no mistaking // 不会弄错
        # Gently as her word were spoken, there was no mistaking that she was displeased  // 虽然她说话很温和,但她显然不高兴
   379)such ... as ...  // 如此...这样
        # Such a disaster as her car being stolen had never happened before // 像她的车被偷这样的灾难以前从未发生过
   380)left 分词作定语  // 剩
        # He has got only 10 dollars left for the month. There is five minuters left for this class  // 这个月他只剩下10美元了。这节课还有五分钟    
   381)So,perhaps our task in this shaky,fast-changing,bewildering world in which we live is to make music, at first with all that we have.
      and then,when that is no longner possible, to make music with what we have left.
       // 所以,在这个动荡、快速变化、令人迷惑的世界里,也许我们的任务就是首先用我们所有的一切来创作音乐。然后,在无法再做的时候,用我们剩下的东西来创作音乐。
 # 第三十九集—————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————     
   382)necessity  // n 必需的事物,必需品
       necessary // adj 必要的
       necessarily  // adv 必然地,必定的,必须的  
   383)majority  // n 大部分,大多数
       major  // adj 较多的,主要的,严重的,n 成年人,主修(科目),陆军少校 v 主修
       minor  // adj 轻微的,较小的,次要的, n 未成年人,辅修客户  v 辅修
       minority  // n 少数,少数民族,未成年   
   384)dependence  // n  依靠,依赖,依存
       depend   // v 依靠,依赖,取决于
       dependent  //  adj 依靠,依赖的,从属的
       independent  (of) // 独立的     
       Independence Day  // 独立日
       dependently  // adj 依靠的,依赖的
   385)economic // adj 经济的,经济上的,经济学的
       economical  // adj 节俭的,经济的,合算的
       economy  // n 经济,节约  adj 经济的,廉价的
       economics  // n 经济学
       econmist  // n 经济学家  
   386)electricity  // n 电,电能
       electrical  // adj 电的,与电相关的
       electrician  // n 电工,电气技师
   387)stable // adj 稳定的,稳固的,牢固的
       stability  // n 稳定的
       unstable   // adj. 不稳定的;动荡的;易变的
       instability  // n. 不稳定(性);基础薄弱;不安定
   388)limited // adj 有限的,n 限度,限制,界限  vt 限制,限定
       limitation  // n 限制,限度,缺点
       unlimited | limitelesss // adj  极大的,无限的,不受限制的
 # 第四十集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————  
   389)there can be no doubt that  // 毫无疑问
   390)access to  // 接入...的途径
   391)is definded as // 被下定义
        # Saving is defined as postponed consumption  // 储蓄被定义为延迟消费     
   392)is available for  // 有效;对…有用
        # The offer is availiable for a limited period only  // 此优惠只在有限的时间内有效    
   393)to a certain excent // 在一定程度上;在某种程度上
        # To a certain excent, I am in favor of your froject 
   394)to and from  // 往返;来来往往;往返地
        # It is a long bus ride to and from the school  // 乘公共汽车往返学校需要很长时间  
   395)save up  // 储蓄;贮存
        # It took me a year to save up for a new car     
   396)become a main concern in // 成为一个主要的关注
   397switch from // 转换
        # He made a switch from pubilishing to teaching 
   398)making a great step forward  
        # We have made a great step forward in our negotiations  // 我们的谈判向前迈进了一大步   
   399do damage to  // 对...有害
        # Water pollution did damage to the crops  // 水污染对农作物造成了损害 
   400)wean out of  // 摆脱...的依赖
        # It will wean us out of energy dependence   // 它将使我们摆脱对能源的依赖   
   401)accounts for  //  占…比例
        # He'll have to account for where every cent goes  // 他得说明每一分钱都花到哪里去了  
   402)reliant upon // 依靠;信赖
   403)be attributed to  // 归因于
        # Tom's illness was attributed to the cold weather  // 汤姆的病是由于天气寒冷所致  
   404)motivate us to // 鼓励
        # Finally,exams motivate us to study hard 
   405)are provided with  // 被提供
        # Immigrants are provided with sites in which to build their own houses  // 移民们可以在那里建自己的房子 
 # 第四十一集 ————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— 
   406)advantage // 有利条件,有利因素,优势
       disadvantage  // 不利,不利条件 
   407)intentionally  // adv 有意地,故意地
       intend  // vt 想要,打算,意值
       intention // n 意图,目的,意向,打算
       intentional  // adj 存心的,故意的
       unintentional  // 非故意的,无意识的
       well / ill-intentioned  // 好意的|恶意的
   408)respectfully  // adv  恭敬地
       respect // 存击
   409)respectable  // adj 值得尊重的,体面的,不错的,可观的
       respective  // 各自的
       respectful  // adj 表示尊敬的,有礼貌的,谦恭的   
   410)maintenance  // n  维护,保养
       maintain  // 维持,维修,保养,坚持,断言 
   411)sustain  // v 使保持,使稳定持续
       sustainable  // adj 可持续的,合理利用的,养得起
       sustainability  // n 持续性的,能维持性
       unsustainabel  // 无法维持的,无法支撑的  
 # 第四十二集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————       
   412)i.e.  // 也就是;例如;也就是说
        # The amount of RAM simply decides how much paging and swapping you will do, i. e. how fast memory access will be
         // RAM的大小仅决定了有多少内存分页和交换可用,如,程序多快能访问它们。
   413)end up  // 结束,死亡
        # What did you end up choosing from the dessert menu // 你最后从甜点单上选了什么    
   414)is different from  // 与…不同,不同于
        # my opinion is different from yours  // 我的看法与你不同
   415)by and large  // 总的来说
        # by and large, your plan is a good one  
   416)conduct our best selves  // 举止得当   
   417)giving up  //  放弃
   418)be in place  // 在原位,得其所,在应有的位置上
        # I like everything to be in place  // 我喜欢所有的东西都放在合适的位置  
   419)save on // 节约;节省
        # If we all on in one car,we'll save on petrol  // 如果我们都坐汽车,我们就能节省汽油
   420)contributes to  // 归因于
        # The aroma of tea contributes to its appeal  // 茶的香味归因于它的香味 
   421in transit  // 在运输中
        # These goods were crushed in transit  // 这些货物在运输途中被压碎
   422)keep tabs on  // 监视
        # It's not always possible to keep tabs on everyone's movements  // 要时时注意每个人的行动是不可能的  
   423in transit  // 在途中
   424)be assured that  // ...确信,确定
   425I only have myself to worry about  // 我只担心我自己
   426)which 引导的非限制性定语从句,修饰that 
 # 第四十三集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————    
   427)chat line  // 热线电话交谈服务 
   428)veriety  // n 不同种类,多种多样
       vary  //  v 改变,变化,使多样化
       vary from...to... // 改变从…到…
   429)romance  // 恋爱,爱情
       romantic  // adj 浪漫的,不切实际的, n 浪漫的人 
   430)intimacy // n 亲密,关系密切
       intimate  // adj 亲密的,私人的,关系紧密的  vt 暗示,透露  n 密友
   431)literary  // adj  文学的,文学上的
       literature  // n 文学,文献,印刷品
       literl  // adj 文字的;逐字的;无夸张的  
       literate  //adj  过教育的;精通文学的
       literary  // adj. 文学的;书面的;精通文学的
   432)inclination  // n 倾向
       incline // n 倾斜,斜坡,斜面
       inclined  // adj 倾向于...的
   433)veil  // v 掩饰
       unveil  // v 揭露,解开
   434)familiarity  // n 熟悉,通晓
       familiar  // adj  熟悉的,不拘礼节的,熟知的  n 熟人,精灵  
   435)intensity  // n 强烈,紧张,剧烈
       intense  // adj  强烈的;紧张的;非常的;热情的
   436)determine  //  v 决定
       determined  // adj 坚定的,果断的,确定的,既定的
       determination  // n 决心,测定,规定,决定,定位
   437)addict  // n 对...入迷
      addicted  // adj  沉溺于,有毒瘾的
      addictive  // adj 使人上瘾
   438)multiple  // adj. 多重的;多样的;许多的
 # 第四十四集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————   
   439)thanks to  // 由于,归功于
        # Thanks to I had tied then the safety belt  // 幸亏我当时系上了安全带   
   440with the help of // 在...的帮助下
        # With the help of he is lame in one leg and walks with the help of a crutch  // 例如:他的一条腿跛了,走路借助于拐杖 
   441)perceive...as  // 视为,当作,认为,把…看成
        # What do you perceive as the Seven Wonders of the world  // 你认为世界七大奇迹是什么 
   442)be enhanced with // 配备有…,装有…,装备有
        # Columbian emeralds are usually enhanced with fillers  // 哥伦比亚祖母绿通常用填料加以强化  
   443)vary from  // 不同于
        # The students vary from one another in character  // 学生彼此不同的性格 
   444)plays such a larger part  // 发挥如此大的一部分
   445in essence  // 本质上,根本上
        # These two matters are diffferent in essence  // 这两件事本质上是不同的  
   446)deprive...of...  // 剥夺,使丧失
      derive...from  // 起源 
   447)is superior to  // 优于
        # This car is superior to that one  // 这辆汽车比那辆要好  
   448in touch with 
        # I m trying to get in touch with my brother  // 我正在设法与我兄弟取得联系  
# 第四十五集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————        
   449)innovative  // adj 革新的,创新的
       innovate  // v 改革,创新
       innovation  // n 创新,革新
   450)evolve  // v 逐渐形成,逐步发展
      evolution  // n 进化,发展,演变
   451)perception  // n 观恋,洞察力,认识能力
       perceive  // v 注意到,觉察到,认为,理解
   452)traditionally  // adv 传统上,照惯例
       tradition  // n 传统
       traditional // adj 传统的
   453)availability  // n 可用,可得到
       avail  // v 有用,有利
       available  // adj 可利用的,可得到的,有空的,有资格的,适合的
   454)access  // n 通道,道路,入经
       accessible  // adj 易接近的;可进入的;可理解的
   455)simplify // v 使简化,使简易
       simple  // adj 简单的,朴素的,单纯的,笨的
       simplicity  // n 质朴,淳朴,简单(性),容易(性)  
   456)option  // n 可选择的事物
       optional  // adj 任选的
   457)impatient  // adj 不耐烦的,没有耐心的
       patient  // adj 有耐心的,能忍耐的  n 病人
       patience  // n 耐心,忍耐,毅力
       impatience  // n 不耐烦,急迫
   458)interaction  // n 相互作用,相互影响
       interact  // v 相互作用,相互联系,相互影响
       interactive  // adj 相互作用的,交互的
   459)consume  // v 消耗,消费;使…着迷;挥霍
       consumptive  // adj 消耗性的,肺结核的 n 肺结核病人
       consumer  // n 消费者,用户,消费品
       consumer goods time  // 消费品的时间
   460)realistically  // adv  现实地,实际地
       real  // adj 真实的,真的,正宗的, adv 非常 n 真实,现实,实际
       reality  // n 真实,现实,实际
       realistic  // adj 现实的,现实主义的
   461)reliant  // adj 依赖性的,依赖的
       rely  // v 依靠,信任
       reliance  // n 依赖,所信赖的人或物
# 第四十六集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————        
   462as natural as  // 一样自然
        # Dying is as natural as living  // 有生必有死 
   463)take it for granted  // 视为当然,把…当成理所当然
        # I take it for granted that you two knew each  // 我认为你两认识
   464)become accustomed to // 习惯于
        # He quickly became accustomed to the local food  
   465)take up // 拿起;开始从事;占据(时间,地方)
        # The wardrobe takes uo too much space/room   
   466)rely on  // 依靠,依赖
        # They have to rely on the river for their water  // 他们不得不依靠这条河来取水
   467)takes for granted  // 想当然,认为理当如此
        # Don't take for granted others help  // 不要认为别人的帮助是理所当然的  
   468)wrapped up  // 包裹着
        # The book was wrapped up in brown paper  // 书用棕色的纸包了起来  
   469)brings to light  // 公开,揭露,把...曝光
        # She should not give publicity to me letter // 她不应该公开我的信  
   470)resemble  // v 看起来像,显得像,像
       resemblance  // n 相像,相似    
# 第四十七集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————   
   471)grateful  // adj  感激
       be grateful to sb for sth  // 感谢某人为某事
       ungeateful  // adj 忘恩负义,不领情的  
   472)emotionally // adv 感情上的,情感上地
       emotion  // n 情感,感情,情绪
       emotional //  adj  感情的,情绪的    
   473)permission  // n  准许,许可,批准
       permit  // n 许可证,执照  v 允许,许可    
# 第四十八集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————  
   474)pill up  
       be pilled up with  // 堆积如山     
   475)coming down with  // 患上
        # He had come down with flu 
   476)provide sb with sth / provide sth for sb 
        # Provide them with additional background or with supplementary information // 向他们提供额外的背景资料或补充信息 
   477)slip away  // 悄悄溜掉
        # Aha, you can't slip away this time
   478)tend to  // 打算
        # We tend to meet up for lunch onec a week
# 第四十九集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————         
   479)embarrassed  // adj 窘迫的,尴尬的,害羞的
       embarrass  // vt 使窘迫的,使尴尬的,使为难
       embarrassed  // adj 尴尬的,拮据的,局促不安的
       embarrassing  // adj 令人为难的,尴尬的
       embarrassment  // n 困窘,尴尬,难堪
   480)mature  // v 成熟,成长
       maturity  // n 成熟
       immature  // adj 不成熟的
   481)influence // v 影响,对...起作用
       influential  // adj 有权势的,有影响
   482)criticize  // v 批评,批判,挑剔
       critic  // n 评论家,批判家
       critical // adj 批评的
       criticism  // n 批评,评论
   483)ignorance  // n 无知
       ignore  // vt 忽视,不理,不顾
       ignorant  // adj  无知的,愚昧的,不知道
   484)optimistic  // adj 乐观的,报乐观看法
       optimist  // n 乐观主义者
       optimism  // n 乐观,乐观主义
   485)capable  //  adj 有能力的,有才能的
       incapable  // adj 无能力的,不胜任的
       capability  // n 能力,才能,性能,容量
   486)combination  // n 结合体,联合体,混合体
       combine  // v 联合,使结合,结合  n  集团
       combined  // adj 结合的,化合的
   487)nutritious  // adj 有营养的,营养丰富的
       nutrition  // n 营养
       malnytrition  // n 营养不良
 # 第五十集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————        
   488in control of  // 由…控制(住) 
   489)be linked to // 与…连接;与…有关联,与…有联系
   490)develop into  // 发展成为
   491)struggle with  // 与…斗争;与…作斗争;和…斗争
       combined with  // 化合,联合;连同
       compare with  // 与…相比;与…相比较;与…比较
       # First, his feet are painful, however compare with a hunger to say that nothing  // 首先,他的脚疼,不过比起饥饿来说那算不了什么
   492)self-esteem  // 自尊,自重,自大,自满
   493)meet your goals  // 满足你的目标
   494)be happy with  // 被自己感到快乐
 # 第五十一集 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————     
   495)非谓语动词
         一.不定式(to do, 具有时态,语态变化
       (1)用作主语:  有动词含义,但不是谓语,再句子中充当主语成分
           # To speak good Englist is not easy
           # It is easy to speak good English (采用形式主语it避免头重脚轻)
       (2)用作宾语
           # She decided to take the examination  
       (3)宾语补足语(再次解释宾语)
           # They expected us to help them 
       (4)不定式作宾补,如果谓语动词是感官动词,使役动词(see, notice, watch, make, have,let..,则to可以省略,而被动语态不能省
           使役动词是表示使、令、让、帮、叫等意义的不完全及物动词,主要有leave(离开).get(得到).make(使,),let(),have(有;让;从事;允许;拿)等。
           # I heard them sing in the classroom  (可以省to)
           # I made her clean the room  (可以省to)
           # The girl is heard to sing an English song  (被动语态,不能省)
       (5)用作表语(表语就是放在Be动词后面的)
           # To teach is to learn 
       (6)用作状语,表示目的,结果
           # We come to school to study Englsih  (目的)
           # I hurried to the store, only to find it closed  // 我匆忙赶到商店,不料已经关门了(结果)7)用作定语,不定式作定语,放在名词后 (定语是用来修饰前面的名词)
           # He asked for a piece of paper to write it on  // 他要了一张纸来写它
           # The poor man has no house to live in // 这个可怜的人没有房子住.动名词 (在动词后面 +ing)  
       (1)主语
           # Saving is easier than doing  
           # His coming here will be a great help 
           # It is no use waiting here, he has left  // 他已经走了,在这里等是没有用的2)表语
           # His job is keeping the hall clean as possible // 他的工作是尽可能保持大厅干净3)宾语
           a.动词宾语
           # He admitted taking the book  
           以下动词需跟动名词作宾语
           admit, appreciate, aviod, complete, delay, deny, enjoy, fancy, finish, mind, practice, resent, rish, suggest, allow, permit
           b.作介词宾语,(介词作宾语,必须+ing)
           # He left without saying goodbye to us (without 是介词所以+ing)
           # I'm looking forward to meeting you (to 在这里收介词,所以 meet + ing)
       (4)定语
           reading room, swimming pool, walking stick
       (5)动名词的复合结构:由名词的所有格或物主代词与动名词构成
           # His leaving is a great loss
           # Mother dislikes my working late
           注意:动名词复合结构多作主语或宾语,作主语是必须是所有格,但是作宾语可以用所有格,也可以作普通格
       (6.动名词与不定式在用法上的几点比较:
           1)相同,在begin, start, continue 等词后用动名词或不定式
           # He begin writing / to write in 1980
           2)区别
           # He stopped talking 停止讲话                          # He stopped to talk  停下来开始讲话
           # I rememeber posting the latter  我记得寄出了这封信     # Please remember to post the letter // 记住寄走这封信
           # I forgot telling him the news  我忘了我曾告诉你这个消息 # I forgot to lock the door yesterday  // 昨天我忘记了去锁门. 分词
        (1)分词的性质:
            具有形容词的性质,可以在句中充当,表语,定语,宾补,状语
            主动,可以表示进行,+ing ,被动 + ed ,或者表示完成
            ing 指人, ed 指物
            如何确认是不是分词,在句子中看他充不充当句子成分,如果不充当就是动名词,如果是判段这个分词在句子中,主动还是被动,指人还是指,完成还是未完成
        (2)分词的用法:
             # a sleeping bady  // 主,一个正在睡觉的孩子
             # boiled water  // 完成,开水
             # fallen leaves  // 落叶
             # new arrived goods  // 新到的货
             # the changed world  // 变了的世界3)表语 
             # The book is interesting  (书是物,所以用ing)
             # He is interested in the book  (指的是人,所以+ed)
         (4)宾语补足语
             # When I woke up, I found my mother sitting beside me (主动)
             # I'd like to have this package weighed  (包裹被称重)
         (5)状语,当句子中主语一致,不用管时态,可以使用分词作状语结构
             eg: if you turn to the left, you'll find the station 
             # Turning to the left, you'll find the station 
             eg: While I was walking to school yesterday mornning, I mat a friend
             # walking to school yesterday mornning, I mat a friend
             如果主语不一致,需要把主语写上
             eg: when school was over, the boys went home
             # School being over, the boys went home 
   496)状语从句(一件事发生的背景)
        1.时间(when, whenever每当, while, as, before, after, till直到…为止, until, until not直到...才,since,
               as...soon...as 一…就…, hardly...when 刚一…就…, no sooner...than一…就…)
        2.地点(where  wherever无论哪里,无论在哪里,论什么地方)  
        3.原因(because, since因为, as, now that由于, seeing that由于,因为), 注意because of 后面是跟短语
        4.目的(so that所以,in order that为了,以便)
        5.结果(so that所以, so...that 如此...以至于, such...that如此…以致)
        6.条件(if, unless, as/so long as只要)
        7.方式(as, as...if..., as thought 好像)
        8.让步(thougt虽然|尽管, although虽然|尽管, even if即使…也, even though虽然|尽管, no matter不管[who谁,what什么,
              when什么时候,where那里,which哪一个,how怎样...]9.比较(as...as像……一样|同……一样, than)
       10.其它 
         (1in case 引导的状语从句,根据语境的不同,in case 即可表示如果,万一,引导条件状语从句,也可以表一以防万一,引导目的状语从句
             # Leave your key with a neighbor in case lock yourself out one day 
         (2)before 引导的状语从句,“it + be + 一段时间 + before...” 
             # The filed reserach will take Joan and Paul months, it will be a long time before we meet them 
               //琼和保罗的实地研究要花上几个月,我们要很长时间才能见到他们3while 引导的状语从句
             1)注意while表示“尽管”,“虽然”时的用法,此时引导的不是时间状语从句,而是让步状语从句
             # While I really don't like art, I find his work impressive (表示转折)// 虽然我真的不喜欢艺术,但我发现他的作品令人印象深刻
             2while 表示对比的用法,表示“而”
             # The cost of living in Glasgow is aming the lowest in Britain, While the quality of life is probably one of the highest
             // 格拉斯哥的生活成本是全英国最低的,而生活质量可能是最高的 4)when引导的状语从句
             1)当...的时候
             # I brought it to you when you were in Mr.Black's yesterday  // 昨天你在布莱克先生家时,我给你带来了
             2)既然
             # Why do you want a new job when you're got such one already  // 既然你已经有了一份新工作,为什么还要找呢
             3)这是(突然) 
             # I had just stepped out of the bathroom and was drying myself with a towel when I heard the steps
               // 我刚从浴室里出来,正在用毛巾擦干身子,突然就听到了脚步声5)unless 引导的状语从句  // 如果不..., 除非
             # Most birds find it safe to sleep in the trees, but unless they have eggs or young chicks, they don't use a nest
              // 大多数鸟类认为在树上睡觉是安全的,但除非它们有蛋或雏鸟,否则它们不会使用巢6)until 引导的状语从句  // 直到...时,在...之前
             # It is difficult for us to learn a lesson in life until we've actually had that lesson 
               // 我们很难从生活中吸取教训,直到我们真正上了这一课7)not...until...  // 直到...才
             # You can't have this football back until you not to kick it at my cat agin  // 除非你不再踢我的猫,否则你不能拿回足球8)once  // 一旦
             You will be successful in the interview once you have confidence  // 一旦你有信心,你就会在面试中成功

   497)定语从句
        一. 关系代词
       (1)先行词是物:which, that
       (2)先行词是人:who, whom, that
       (3)在句子中充当成分:主语, 宾语 ,并且自身满足,主语+谓语+宾语结果
           eg: They had a radio. It could send out messages.
           # They had a radio which/that could seed out messages
       (4)定语从句一般直接跟在先行词的后面
           # The man (who lives next door) sells vegetables  // 住在楼下的男人卖蔬菜
             错误的 The man sells vegetables (who lives next door) 因为定语从句修饰了蔬菜
       (5)定语从句的成分作宾语,则which 可以省,主语不能省
           # The car (which my uncle just bought) was destoryed in the earthquake   --- 因为它是被动,所以car是宾语,which可以说省略
       (6)关系代词在从句中作宾语时可以省略, <<不是作主语就可以省,如果发现名词后面有人称代词就要想是不是定语从句>>
           # The young man (whom) you saw was our manager   --- whom可以省,作并于
           # There is something (that) we must keep in mine
       二. 关系副词,when,where,why
       (1)当先行词表示时间的名词,用 when,也可以用  介词+which 代替
           eg: I will never forget the day.I went to university on that day 
           # I will never forget the day when/ on which I went to university (on the day)  --- 先行词day 这里when 或者 on which 表示的是时间状语
       (2)当先行词表示地点的名词,用 where,也可以用  介词+which 代替 
           eg: This is the house. He used to live in the house 
           # This is the house where/in which he used to live  --- 先行词house 这里where 或者 in which 表示的是地点状语
       (3)先行词是表示原因的名词,即 reason,用 why,在定语从句中充当原因状语,这时一般可以用 for + which 来代替
           eg: I don't know the reason. He did it for this reason
           # I don't know the reason why/for which he did it  --- 先行词 reason
       (4)特殊情况
           I will never forget the days which/that/不填 we spent together in the countryside  
           --- 注意这里the days 充当的是宾语不是时间状语,所以不能用when
       三.that 与 which 的区别
       (1)用that而不用which情况
          1.先行词为不定代词all, anything, nothing, little, few, much, somthing, someone
            # All that he has done is for us
          2.先行词有最高级修饰,有序数词修饰
          3.先行词 the only, the very, any, the same, the last 等次修饰
            # This was the very film that I saw with my girlfriend
          4.先行词既有人又有物时
            # I remember the people and the place that I visited in Hubei
          5.避免重复
            # Who is the person that is standing there
       (2)用 which 而不用 that 的情况
           1.引导非限制性定语从句,指代前面整句的意思
             # He had failed in the moths exam, which mad his very angry  --- 这里的which指的是逗号前面的一句话
           2.介词 + 关系代词
             # This is the romm in which my father lived last year
             # I know a place,form which we can get to the station
       (3)限定性定语从句与非限定性定语从句  
           1.限定性定语从句:从句与主语关系密切,去掉从句,主句意义不完整,不合逻辑
             # I was the only person in our office (who was invited)  --- 括号内不能去掉
           2.非限定性定语从句:从句与主语关系补密切,去掉从句,意思任然完整,形式上用逗号隔开,不能用that引导
             # Tom's father, who is over sixty, still works hard night
           
   498)比较级和最高级
        一. 形容词比较级
       (1)主语 + 谓语(系动词)+ 形容词比较级 + than + 对比成分         ---- 和中文不同的是一开始就要说出结果
           1.Our teacher is taller than we are  // 我们老师的个子比我们的高
           2.It is warmer today than it was yesterday  // 今天天气比昨天暖和
           3.This picture is more beautiful than that one  // 这张照片比那张照片漂亮
           4.This meeting is less important than that one   // 这次会议不如那次会议重要
           5.The sun is much bigger than the moon   // 太阳比月亮大得多
         程度副词: much, far很;遥远地;久远地;到很远的距离;到很深的程度, a little
        二.形容词最高级的用法
        (1)主语 + 谓语(系动词)+ the + 形容词最高级 + 名词 + 表示范围从句 [地点用in 群体用 of]
           1.She is the best student in the class  // 她是班上最好的学生
           2.Shanghai is one of the largest cities in China  // 上海是中国最大的城市之一
           3.This is the biggest apple I have ever met  // 这是我见过的最大的苹果 
           4.Tom is the tallest in their basketball  // 汤姆是他们篮球中个子最高的.副词的比较,最高级的构成
           1.He is taller than I
           2.Dave runs faster than Jim
           3.My mother gets up earlier than I
           4.She walks more slowy than any of us 
           5.They draw better than us 
        四.越来越...
           1.Our life is becoming better and better
           2.The world is getting smaller and smaller
           3.Out country develop faster and faster
           4.The city is more and more beautiful
        五.更多的,更少的
          (1)more 更多的 + n; less 更少的 + n(不可数);fewer +n (可数)
           1.We spend more, but have less
           2.we buy more but enjoy less
           3.we have bigger houses and smaller families
           4.more knowlege, but less judgment
        六.as...as的用法
          (1as...as 意为 “和...一样”,表示同级比较
              as + adj/adv + as
           1.This film is as interesting as that one 
           2.Your oen writes as smoothly as mine
           3.My sister is as tall as me
           4.Linda runs as fast as Grace
           5.Tom reads as care fully as Peter
          (2)其否定式为 not as/so + adj/adv +as
           1.This dictionary is not as/so useful as you think 
           2.My bike is niot as beautiful as yours
           3.My sister is not so tall as me
           4.Linda does not run as fast as Dave
           若有修饰成分,如twice, three times, half, a quarter 
           You bag is twice as expensive as mine
           
   499)宾语从句         --- 在一个动词后面出现引导词,那就是宾语从句
        一.宾语从句的连接词
        连接宾语从句的从属连词主要有,that, if, whether.   --- if有很多限制,推荐使用whether
        1.that 引导表示陈述句的宾语从句                                   --- 陈述句,主语在前,动词在后
        2.if 和 whether 引导表示“是否”的一般疑问句的宾语从句
         # He told me(that he would) go to the college the next year  ---主句式一般现在时,从句可以式任意时态,当从句式过去式,从句必须式过去的某种时态
         # I don't know if there will be a bus any more
         # Nobady know whether he could pass the exam
        3.连接代词
          who, whom, whose, what, whoever, whomever, whosever, whatever, whichever 
          连接代词一般指疑问,但 what, whatever 除了指疑问外,也可以指陈述句
          # Do you know who win game
          # The book will show you what the best CEOs should know  
        4.连接副词
          when, where, why, how, whenever, wherever, however
          # He didn't tell me when we should meet again
          # Could you please tell me how you use the panel
          # None of us knows where these new parts can be buy
          
   500)情态动词
        can (could), may (might), must, have to, shall (should), will (would), dare (dared), need (needed),ought
        情态动词无人称和数的变化,不能单独使用,必须与动词原形构成谓语        --- 就是必须搭配实役动词
        一.con, could 
       (1)表示能力(体力,知识,技能)
           1.Can you lift this heavy box 
           2.Mary can speak three languages 
           3.Can you skate
        ***此时可有 be able to 代替,而 can 只有一般现在时和一般过去时,而 be able to 则有更多的时态
           1.I'll not be able to come this afternoon
           2.当表示“经过努力才得以做成功某事”时应用 be able to ,不能用can
             # He was able to go to the party yesterday evening of the heavy rain  // 由于下了大雨,他昨天晚上才能够去参加聚会2)表示请求和允许
           # can I go now. Yes, you can / No, you can't
           此时可与may互换,在疑问句中还可用could, might 代替不是过去式,只是语气更委婉,不能用于肯定句和答语中
           # Could you come to see you tomorrow. Yes, you can | No, I’m afraid not
       (3)表示客观 可能性
           # They've changed the timetable, so we can go by bus instead  
       (4)表示推测(惊讶,怀疑,不相信得态度),用于疑问句和否对句和感叹句
           1.Can this true
           2.This can't be done by him
           3.How can this be true. may, might
       (1)表示请求和允许,might 比 may 语气更委婉,而不是过去式
           否对回答式可用 can't 或 mustn't 表示 “不可以,禁止”
           1.Might/May I somoke in this Room . No you mustn't 
           2.May/Might I take this book out of the room.  Yes, you can. | No,you can't/mustn't  --- May I 表示寻求他人意见,而Can I 口语比较常见
       (2)用于祈使句,表示祝愿
           # May you succed
       (3)表示推测,可能性,(不用于疑问句), might 不是过去式,它所表示得可能性比 may 小
            1.He may/might be very busy now
            2.Your mother may/might not know the truth
        三. must, have to
        (1)表示必须,必要
           # You must come in time
           在回答引出的问句时,如果是否定的,不能用mustn't(不准),而用 needn't,don't have to (不必)
           # Must we hand in our exercise books today  // 我们今天必须交练习本吗
           # Yes, you must
           # No,you don't have to | you needn't
        (2)must 是说话人的主观看法,而have to 则强调客观需要,must 只有一般现在时,have to 有更多的时态形式
            1.He paly isn't interesting, I really must go now
            2.I had to work when I was your age   
        (3)表示推测,可能性(只用于肯定的陈述句)
            1.You're Tom's good friend, so you must know what he likes best
            2.You mother must be waiting for you now 
        四. dare, need
        (1)dare 作情态动词用时,常用于疑问句,否定句和条件从句中,过去式形式为 dared
            1.How dare you say I'm unfair
            2.He daren't speak English before such a crowd,dare he
            3.If we dared not go there that day, We couldn't get the beautiful flowers
        (2)need 作情态动词用时,常用于疑问句,否定句,在肯定句中一般用 must, have to, ought to, should 代替
            1.You needn't come so early
            2.Need I finish the work today.  Yes, you must, No you needn't
        (3)dare 和 need 作实义动词时,有人称,时态和数的变化,
            ***在肯定句中,dare后面常接带to的不定式,在疑问句中和否定句中后面可接带to或不带to不定式
            ***而need后面只能接带to不定式
            1.I dare to swim across this river
            2.He dosen't dare (to) answer
            3.He needs to finish his homework today
         五.shall,should
        (1)shall 用于第一人称,征求地方的意见
            # What shall we do this evening 
        (2)shall 用于第二,三人称,表示说话人给对方的命令,警告或威胁
            1.You shall fail if you don't work hard  (警告)
            2.He shall have the book when I finish it  (允诺)
            3.He shall be punished  (威胁)
         六.will, would
        (1)表示请求,建议等,would更委婉
            # Will/Would you pass me the ball, please
        (2)表示意志,愿望和决心
            1.I will never do that again
            2.They asked him if he would go abroad
        (3)would 表示过去反复发生的动作或者某种倾向,would表示过去习惯时比used to正式,且没有“现已无此习惯”的含义
            1.During the vacation, he would visit me every other day  // 假期中,他每隔一天来看我一次
            2.The wound would not heal  // 伤口无法愈合4)表示估计和猜想 
            # It would be about ten o'clock whe she left home
         七.should, ought to
        (1)should, ought to 表示 “应该”,ought to 表示“义务或责任”,比should 语气重
           1.I should help her because she is in trouble
           2.You ought to take care of the bady
        (2)表示劝告,建议和命令,should,ought 可通用,常用should
           1.You should/ought to go to class right away
           2.Should I open window
        (3)表示推测
            should, ought to(客观推测), must(主观推测)
           1.He must be home by now  (断定他已到家)
           2.He ought to / should be  home by now  (不太肯定)
           3.This is where the oil must be (直爽) // 这里一定有石油
           4.This is where the oil ought to / should be (含蓄) // 这里应该有石油
           
   501)前缀
        一.前缀 re-
          # re- ,它可以加在名词或动词前面,构成新的名词或动词
          1.表示“回”或者“向后”的意思
            return(回来,返回),recall(回忆,召回),retract (缩回)
          2.表示”再“,”重新“,”重复“
            review(复习),reunion(团圆,重聚),restart(重新开始),recomstruction (重建)
          3.表示”相反“,”反对“
            robel(反叛,谋反),reverse(反转,颠倒),resist(抵抗)
        二.前缀 in-, im-, il-, ir-
           # 表示否定前缀,”不,无,非“等否定意义
          1.以字母 b, m, p 开头的单词,其否定前缀为 im-
            imbalance, immoral,imposstible
          2.以字母l, r 开头的单词用 il-,以字母 r 开头的用ir-
            illgal(不合法的),illogical(不合逻辑的),irregular(不规则的),irrelative(无关系的)
          3.以其它字母开头,in-
            inhuman(不人道的),injustice(不分开的),inseparable(不可分的),incorrect(不正确的)
   502)名词前缀
       (1-ster, -eer, -er(or) // 职业,某种活动的人
           gamester赌徒, gangster强盗, songster歌唱家, engineer工程师, profiteer奸商, mountaineer登山家,
           auctioneer拍卖商, driver司机, teacher教师, director导演, actor演员, professor教授 
       (2-let // 小或者不重要的东西
           booklet小册子, leaflet传单, starlet小明星 
       (3-ette  // 小的东西
           leatherette人造革, usherette女服务员
       (4-ess // 女性
            actress女演员, poetess女诗人, hostess女主人, paintress女画家
       (5-hood  // 时期
           boyhood童年, childhood童年, manhood成年
       (6-ship // 才能,状态,资格,品质等
           leadership领导, friendship友谊, membership会员资格, lectureship演讲, sportsmanship体育精神
       (7-ful  // 量
           cupful一杯, handful一把, mouthful一口, spoonful一勺 
   503)名词后缀
       (1-tion, -ion  // 状态行动
           action, oppression, possession, education, starvation  // 行动,压迫,占有,教育,饥饿
           // 机构
           organization组织, foundation基金会
       (2-ment  // 状态,行动
           movement移动
       (3-al  // 动作
           arrival到达, refusal拒绝, recital陈述, removal搬迁
       (4-age  // 程度,数量
           wastage损耗, coverage覆盖范围, acreage面积, shrinkage缩水, breakage破碎, hostage人质
       (5-ness, -ity, ty  // 状态,品质
           happiness幸福, usefulness有用, selfishness自私, kindness善良
           rapidity快速, activity活跃, sanity理智, changeability易变 
       (6-ism  道义,主义,学说
           idealish理想主义, impressionism印象主义, adsenteeism爱德主义, recism背诵主义
   504)动词后缀
       (1-ify  // 转为,变为
           beautify美化,diversify多样化,simplify简化
       (2-ize, -en  // 使... , 变得...
           modernize, popularize, legalize, hospitalize, symbolize
           ripen成熟, widen扩大, heighten增高, threaten威胁
       (3-ate  // 增加
           originate起源, hydrogenate氢化, validate验证, differentiate区分  
   505)形容词后缀
       (1-ful // 充满
           useful有用的, pitiful可怜的, hopeful有希望的, helpful有帮助的, forgetful健忘的, thankful感激的, fearful害怕的
       (2-less  // 没有,无
           speechless无言, childless无子, harmless无害, hopeless无望, meaningless毫无意义
       (3-ly  // 有...品质
           beastly野兽般的, manly男子汉般的, brotherly兄弟般的, friendly友好的
       (4-like  // 像...的
           childlike,一颗赤子之心 statesmanlike有政治家风度的, tigerlike似虎的
       (5-y, ish  // 像...一般的
           sandy沙质, silky柔滑, hairy多毛, leafy多叶, watery水样
           foolish愚蠢, girlish少女, blackish黑色, thinnish瘦
       (6-some  // 像...一样,引起...的,有品质的
           troublesome麻烦的, burdensome累赘的, wholesome有益的, tiresome讨厌的, bothersome烦人的
       (7-able,ible  // 能...的,可以...的
           changeable多变, readable可读, drinkable饮用, comfortable舒适, expansible可扩展, convincibel舒适
       (8-ed  // 有...的
           wooded树木繁茂的, moneyed有钱的, odd-shaped奇形怪状的 
       (9-al  // 有...属性,...类型的
           cultural文化, personal个人, regional地域, musical音乐  
       (10-ary, ory  // 属于...的, 与...相连的
           revolutionary革命性的, imaginary虚构的, contrary相反 
       (11-ous  // 富含...的,有...品质的,像...的
           glorious光荣的, erroneous错误的, malicious恶意的 
       (12-ic, -ical  // ...类的,属于...的
           historic历史, methodic有条理的, heroic英雄的, historical历史, methodical有条理
       (13-ive  // 有...属性的,有某种倾向的
           attractive有吸引力的, talkative健谈的, sensitive敏感的, restrictive限制性的, defensive防御性的, preventive预防性的, constructive建设性的

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