Python/Matplotlib —— 怎么绘制不连续的坐标轴

本文翻译自:https://stackoverflow.com/questions/5656798/python-matplotlib-is-there-a-way-to-make-a-discontinuous-axis/5669301?r=SearchResults#5669301 Python/Matplotlib - Is there a way to make a discontinuous axis?

在用pyplot画图的时候,我希望画不连续的、有间断的坐标轴。例如我希望x轴长这样:
(values)----//----(later values)
// 表示跳过了 valueslater values之间的值。

我还没有看到过相关的例子,所以想知道这能不能实现。

4个回答


回答之一:
在这里插入图片描述
Paul’s 的回答是个很好的解决方法。
不过,如果你不想做自定义的转换,可以仅仅用两个subplots就可以达到相同的效果。

我不是从头开始实现这个例子的, an excellent example of this written by Paul Ivanov 里有个matplotlib的例子(不过现在已经没有了)

这里只是对该示例的简单修改,用的是不连续的x轴而不是y轴。

你只需要这样做:

import matplotlib.pylab as plt
import numpy as np

# If you're not familiar with np.r_, don't worry too much about this. It's just 
# a series with points from 0 to 1 spaced at 0.1, and 9 to 10 with the same spacing.
x = np.r_[0:1:0.1, 9:10:0.1]
y = np.sin(x)

fig,(ax,ax2) = plt.subplots(1, 2, sharey=True)

# plot the same data on both axes
ax.plot(x, y, 'bo')
ax2.plot(x, y, 'bo')

# zoom-in / limit the view to different portions of the data
ax.set_xlim(0,1) # most of the data
ax2.set_xlim(9,10) # outliers only

# hide the spines between ax and ax2
ax.spines['right'].set_visible(False)
ax2.spines['left'].set_visible(False)
ax.yaxis.tick_left()
ax.tick_params(labeltop='off') # don't put tick labels at the top
ax2.yaxis.tick_right()

# Make the spacing between the two axes a bit smaller
plt.subplots_adjust(wspace=0.15)

plt.show()

在这里插入图片描述
要添加断轴线//的效果,可以这样做:(再次从Paul Ivanov’s的例子中修改)

import matplotlib.pylab as plt
import numpy as np

# If you're not familiar with np.r_, don't worry too much about this. It's just 
# a series with points from 0 to 1 spaced at 0.1, and 9 to 10 with the same spacing.
x = np.r_[0:1:0.1, 9:10:0.1]
y = np.sin(x)

fig,(ax,ax2) = plt.subplots(1, 2, sharey=True)

# plot the same data on both axes
ax.plot(x, y, 'bo')
ax2.plot(x, y, 'bo')

# zoom-in / limit the view to different portions of the data
ax.set_xlim(0,1) # most of the data
ax2.set_xlim(9,10) # outliers only

# hide the spines between ax and ax2
ax.spines['right'].set_visible(False)
ax2.spines['left'].set_visible(False)
ax.yaxis.tick_left()
ax.tick_params(labeltop='off') # don't put tick labels at the top
ax2.yaxis.tick_right()

# Make the spacing between the two axes a bit smaller
plt.subplots_adjust(wspace=0.15)

# This looks pretty good, and was fairly painless, but you can get that
# cut-out diagonal lines look with just a bit more work. The important
# thing to know here is that in axes coordinates, which are always
# between 0-1, spine endpoints are at these locations (0,0), (0,1),
# (1,0), and (1,1). Thus, we just need to put the diagonals in the
# appropriate corners of each of our axes, and so long as we use the
# right transform and disable clipping.

d = .015 # how big to make the diagonal lines in axes coordinates
# arguments to pass plot, just so we don't keep repeating them
kwargs = dict(transform=ax.transAxes, color='k', clip_on=False)
ax.plot((1-d,1+d),(-d,+d), **kwargs) # top-left diagonal
ax.plot((1-d,1+d),(1-d,1+d), **kwargs) # bottom-left diagonal

kwargs.update(transform=ax2.transAxes) # switch to the bottom axes
ax2.plot((-d,d),(-d,+d), **kwargs) # top-right diagonal
ax2.plot((-d,d),(1-d,1+d), **kwargs) # bottom-right diagonal

# What's cool about this is that now if we vary the distance between
# ax and ax2 via f.subplots_adjust(hspace=...) or plt.subplot_tool(),
# the diagonal lines will move accordingly, and stay right at the tips
# of the spines they are 'breaking'

plt.show()

在这里插入图片描述


回答之二:
在这里插入图片描述
试试 brokenaxes 库:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from brokenaxes import brokenaxes
import numpy as np

fig = plt.figure(figsize=(8,5))
bax = brokenaxes(xlims=((0, .1), (.4, .7)), ylims=((-1, .7), (.79, 1)), hspace=.05)
x = np.linspace(0, 1, 100)
bax.plot(x, np.sin(10 * x), label='sin')
bax.plot(x, np.cos(10 * x), label='cos')
bax.legend(loc=3)
bax.set_xlabel('time')
bax.set_ylabel('value')

在这里插入图片描述


补充:mark另一篇博文:https://blog.csdn.net/maryyu8873/article/details/84313423 Python 作图实现坐标轴截断(打断)

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