python requests笔记

导入

import requests
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请求类型

requests.request(method, url, **kwargs)
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• method – 请求的方法 
• url – 请求的url 
• params – url参数,字典或字节格式 
• data – 请求体中的数据,字典或字节或file-like对象 
• json – 请求体中的数据,json格式 
• headers – 请求头,字典格式 
• cookies – 用于请求的cookies,字典或CookieJar对象 
• files – (optional) Dictionary of ‘name’: file-like-objects (or {‘name’: file-tuple}) for multipart encoding upload. file-tuple can be a 2-tuple (‘filename’, fileobj), 3-tuple (‘filename’, fileobj, ‘content_type’) or a 4-tuple (‘filename’, fileobj, ‘content_type’, custom_headers), where ‘content-type’ is a string defining the content type of the given file and custom_headers a dict-like object containing additional headers to add for the file. 
• auth – (optional) Auth tuple to enable Basic/Digest/Custom HTTP Auth. 
• timeout (float or tuple) – 超时, 浮点型,或(connect timeout, read timeout)元组 
• allow_redirects (bool) – 布尔型,是否允许POST/PUT/DELETE访问的重定向. 
• proxies – (optional) Dictionary mapping protocol to the URL of the proxy. 
• verify – (optional) whether the SSL cert will be verified. A CA_BUNDLE path can also be provided. Defaults to True. 
• stream – (optional) if False, the response content will be immediately downloaded. 
• cert – (optional) if String, path to ssl client cert file (.pem). If Tuple, (‘cert’, ‘key’) pair.

requests.head(url, **kwargs)
requests.get(url, params=None, **kwargs)
requests.post(url, data=None, json=None, **kwargs)
requests.put(url, data=None, **kwargs)
requests.patch(url, data=None, **kwargs)
requests.delete(url, **kwargs)
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这六种请求,均返回Response对象

参考: http://docs.python-requests.org/zh_CN/latest/api.html#id2

传递url参数

payload = {'key1': 'value1', 'key2': 'value2'}
requests.get("http://httpbin.org/get", params=payload)
http://httpbin.org/get?key2=value2&key1=value1

payload = {'key1': 'value1', 'key2': ['value2', 'value3']}
requests.get('http://httpbin.org/get', params=payload)
http://httpbin.org/get?key1=value1&key2=value2&key2=value3
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定制请求头

url = 'https://api.github.com/some/endpoint'
headers = {'user-agent': 'my-app/0.0.1'}
requests.get(url, headers=headers)
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POST请求

payload = {'key1': 'value1', 'key2': 'value2'}
r = requests.post("http://httpbin.org/post", data=payload)

url = 'https://api.github.com/some/endpoint'
payload = {'some': 'data'}
r = requests.post(url, data=json.dumps(payload))
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r = requests.post(url, json=payload)
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响应状态

r = requests.get('http://httpbin.org/get')
r.status_code # 查看响应状态码
r.status_code == requests.codes.ok # 判断响应状态码
Response.raise_for_status() # 当响应状态码非200时,抛出异常
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cookies

url = 'http://httpbin.org/cookies'
cookies = dict(cookies_are='working')
requests.get(url, cookies=cookies)
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重定向

requests.get('http://github.com', allow_redirects=False) # 禁用重定向
r.status_code # 如果该响应是重定向,并且你禁用了重定向,那么该返回状态码为301
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超时

requests.get('http://github.com', timeout=0.001) # 设置请求超时秒数, 仅对连接过程有效,与响应体的下载无关.
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异常

requests.RequestException(*args, **kwargs)请求时发生的不确定性异常
requests.ConnectionError(*args, **kwargs)链接错误
requests.HTTPError(*args, **kwargs)http错误, 响应状态码不为200,Response.raise_for_status()抛出HTTPError
requests.URLRequired(*args, **kwargs)没有有效的url
requests.TooManyRedirects(*args, **kwargs) 请求超过了设定的最大重定向次数
requests.ConnectTimeout(*args, **kwargs)连接远程服务器超时
requests.ReadTimeout(*args, **kwargs)服务器没响应
requests.Timeout(*args, **kwargs)请求超时,捕获该异常将同时捕获ConnectTimeout和ReadTimeout.
requests所有显式异常都继承自requests.exceptions.RequestException
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参考: http://docs.python-requests.org/zh_CN/latest/api.html#id3

会话

跨请求保持cookies和配置 
基本用法:

s = requests.Session()
s.get('http://httpbin.org/get')
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上下文管理器:

with requests.Session() as s:
    s.get('http://httpbin.org/get')
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参考: http://docs.python-requests.org/zh_CN/latest/api.html#id4

Response对象

r.url                    url地址
r.encoding              当访问r.text时,用于解码的编码
r.text                  返回的内容,根据r.encoding解码
r.content               响应的内容,以字节为单位
r.json()                解码json格式数据
r.status_code           响应状态码
r.headers               服务器响应头
r.cookies                服务器返回的CookieJar对象
r.history               重定向记录
r.request               这个Response对象对应的PreparedRequest对象
    r.request.headers       获取请求头部
r.raise_for_status()    抛出异常
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