简述HttpServletResponse

HttpServletResponse

web服务器接收到客户端的http请求,针对这个请求,分别创建一个代表请求的HttpServletRequest对象,代表响应的一个HttpServletResponse;

  • 如果要获取客户端请求过来的参数:找HttpServletRequest
  • 如果要给客户端响应一些信息:找HttpServletResponse

1、简单分类

负责向浏览器发送数据的方法

ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() throws IOException;
PrintWriter getWriter() throws IOException;

负责向浏览器发送响应头的方法


    void setContentLength(int var1);

    void setContentLengthLong(long var1);

    void setContentType(String var1);

    void setDateHeader(String var1, long var2);

    void addDateHeader(String var1, long var2);

    void setHeader(String var1, String var2);

    void addHeader(String var1, String var2);

    void setIntHeader(String var1, int var2);

    void addIntHeader(String var1, int var2);

响应的状态码

 int SC_CONTINUE = 100;
    int SC_SWITCHING_PROTOCOLS = 101;
    int SC_OK = 200;
    int SC_CREATED = 201;
    int SC_ACCEPTED = 202;
    int SC_NON_AUTHORITATIVE_INFORMATION = 203;
    int SC_NO_CONTENT = 204;
    int SC_RESET_CONTENT = 205;
    int SC_PARTIAL_CONTENT = 206;
    int SC_MULTIPLE_CHOICES = 300;
    int SC_MOVED_PERMANENTLY = 301;
    int SC_MOVED_TEMPORARILY = 302;
    int SC_FOUND = 302;
    int SC_SEE_OTHER = 303;
    int SC_NOT_MODIFIED = 304;
    int SC_USE_PROXY = 305;
    int SC_TEMPORARY_REDIRECT = 307;
    int SC_BAD_REQUEST = 400;
    int SC_UNAUTHORIZED = 401;
    int SC_PAYMENT_REQUIRED = 402;
    int SC_FORBIDDEN = 403;
    int SC_NOT_FOUND = 404;
    int SC_METHOD_NOT_ALLOWED = 405;
    int SC_NOT_ACCEPTABLE = 406;
    int SC_PROXY_AUTHENTICATION_REQUIRED = 407;
    int SC_REQUEST_TIMEOUT = 408;
    int SC_CONFLICT = 409;
    int SC_GONE = 410;
    int SC_LENGTH_REQUIRED = 411;
    int SC_PRECONDITION_FAILED = 412;
    int SC_REQUEST_ENTITY_TOO_LARGE = 413;
    int SC_REQUEST_URI_TOO_LONG = 414;
    int SC_UNSUPPORTED_MEDIA_TYPE = 415;
    int SC_REQUESTED_RANGE_NOT_SATISFIABLE = 416;
    int SC_EXPECTATION_FAILED = 417;
    int SC_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR = 500;
    int SC_NOT_IMPLEMENTED = 501;
    int SC_BAD_GATEWAY = 502;
    int SC_SERVICE_UNAVAILABLE = 503;
    int SC_GATEWAY_TIMEOUT = 504;
    int SC_HTTP_VERSION_NOT_SUPPORTED = 505;

2、下载文件

  1. 向浏览器输出消息 (一直在讲,就不说了)
  2. 下载文件
    1. 要获取下载文件的路径
    2. 下载的文件名是啥?
    3. 设置想办法让浏览器能够支持下载我们需要的东西
    4. 获取下载文件的输入流
    5. 创建缓冲区
    6. 获取OutputStream对象
    7. 将FileOutputStream流写入到buffer缓冲区
    8. 使用OutputStream将缓冲区中的数据输出到客户端!
@Override
protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, IOException {
    // 1. 要获取下载文件的路径
    String realPath = "根目录下到文件名的全部路径";
    System.out.println("下载文件的路径:"+realPath);
    // 2. 下载的文件名是啥?
    String fileName = realPath.substring(realPath.lastIndexOf("\\") + 1);
    // 3. 设置想办法让浏览器能够支持(Content-Disposition)下载我们需要的东西,中文文件名URLEncoder.encode编码,否则有可能乱码
    resp.setHeader("Content-Disposition","attachment;filename="+URLEncoder.encode(fileName,"UTF-8"));
    // 4. 获取下载文件的输入流
    FileInputStream in = new FileInputStream(realPath);
    // 5. 创建缓冲区
    int len = 0;
    byte[] buffer = new byte[1024];
    // 6. 获取OutputStream对象
    ServletOutputStream out = resp.getOutputStream();
    // 7. 将FileOutputStream流写入到buffer缓冲区,使用OutputStream将缓冲区中的数据输出到客户端!
    while ((len=in.read(buffer))>0){
        out.write(buffer,0,len);
    }

    in.close();
    out.close();
}

3、验证码功能

验证怎么来的?

  • 前端实现
  • 后端实现,需要用到 Java 的图片类,生产一个图片
package com.kuang.servlet;

import javax.imageio.ImageIO;
import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.image.BufferedImage;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.Random;

public class ImageServlet extends HttpServlet {

    @Override
    protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, IOException {

        //如何让浏览器3秒自动刷新一次;
        resp.setHeader("refresh","3");
        
        //在内存中创建一个图片
        BufferedImage image = new BufferedImage(80,20,BufferedImage.TYPE_INT_RGB);
        //得到图片
        Graphics2D g = (Graphics2D) image.getGraphics(); //笔
        //设置图片的背景颜色
        g.setColor(Color.white);
        g.fillRect(0,0,80,20);
        //给图片写数据
        g.setColor(Color.BLUE);
        g.setFont(new Font(null,Font.BOLD,20));
        g.drawString(makeNum(),0,20);

        //告诉浏览器,这个请求用图片的方式打开
        resp.setContentType("image/jpeg");
        //网站存在缓存,不让浏览器缓存
        resp.setDateHeader("expires",-1);
        resp.setHeader("Cache-Control","no-cache");
        resp.setHeader("Pragma","no-cache");

        //把图片写给浏览器
        ImageIO.write(image,"jpg", resp.getOutputStream());

    }

    //生成随机数
    private String makeNum(){
        Random random = new Random();
        String num = random.nextInt(9999999) + "";
        StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer();
        for (int i = 0; i < 7-num.length() ; i++) {
            sb.append("0");
        }
        num = sb.toString() + num;
        return num;
    }


    @Override
    protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, IOException {
        doGet(req, resp);
    }
}

4、实现重定向

在这里插入图片描述B一个web资源收到客户端A请求后,B他会通知A客户端去访问另外一个web资源C,这个过程叫重定向

常见场景:

  • 用户登录
void sendRedirect(String var1) throws IOException;

测试:

@Override
protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, IOException {

    /*
        resp.setHeader("Location","/r/img");
        resp.setStatus(302);
         */
    resp.sendRedirect("/r/img");//重定向
}

面试题:请你聊聊重定向和转发的区别?

相同点

  • 页面都会实现跳转

不同点

  • 请求转发的时候,url不会产生变化
  • 重定向时候,url地址栏会发生变化;

在这里插入图片描述

5、简单实现登录重定向

<%--这里提交的路径,需要寻找到项目的路径--%>
<%--${pageContext.request.contextPath}代表当前的项目--%>

<form action="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/login" method="get">
    用户名:<input type="text" name="username"> <br>
    密码:<input type="password" name="password"> <br>
    <input type="submit">
</form>


    @Override
    protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, IOException {
        //处理请求
        String username = req.getParameter("username");
        String password = req.getParameter("password");

        System.out.println(username+":"+password);

        //重定向时候一定要注意,路径问题,否则404;
        resp.sendRedirect("/r/success.jsp");
    }
  <servlet>
    <servlet-name>requset</servlet-name>
    <servlet-class>com.kuang.servlet.RequestTest</servlet-class>
  </servlet>
  <servlet-mapping>
    <servlet-name>requset</servlet-name>
    <url-pattern>/login</url-pattern>
  </servlet-mapping>
<%@ page contentType="text/html;charset=UTF-8" language="java" %>
<html>
<head>
    <title>Title</title>
</head>
<body>

<h1>Success</h1>

</body>
</html>
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