c# 3.0新特性之使用Lambda表达式

c# 3.0新特性之使用Lambda表达式
2009年8月18日 云飞扬 发表评论 阅读评论
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Working with Lambda Expressions 使用Lambda表达式
Lambda表达式有什么作用,它的使用方法是?
作用主要可以在匿名的方法的基础上,进一步简化代码,也可以隐藏delegate关键字
比如在2.0中代码如下:

var innerPoints = points.FindAll(delegate(Point p) { return (p.X > 0 && p.Y > 0); });

那么在C# 3.0 可以写为

var innerPoints = points.FindAll( p => p.X > 0 && p.Y > 0);

Lambda表达式的基本编写方法如以下代码所示:

(参数列表)=>{表达式};

表达式即事件处理方法体代码,参数列表是可选的,即完全可以省略参数列表的编写。

Lambda表达式中的参数可以是显式或者隐式类型的。在一个显式类型参数列表里,每个表达式的类型是显式指定的。在一个隐式类型参数列表里,类型是通过上下文推断出来的:
 
  (int x) => x + 1 // 显式类型参数
  (y,z) => return y * z; // 隐式类型参数

再举个例子

 return customers.FindAll(c => c.City == city);

可以取代一下

            return customers.FindAll(
                delegate(Customer c)
                {
                    return c.City == city;
                });
完整的源码,查找城市名为London的数据并打印出来
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;

namespace NewLanguageFeatures
{
 
    public static class Extensions
    {
     
        public static List<T> Append<T>(this List<T> a, List<T> b)
        {
            var newList = new List<T>(a);
            newList.AddRange(b);
            return newList;
        }
      
        public static bool Compare(this Customer customer1, Customer customer2)
        {
            if (customer1.CustomerId == customer2.CustomerId &&
                customer1.Name == customer2.Name &&
                customer1.City == customer2.City)
            {
                return true;
            }

            return false;
        }
    }

    public class Customer
    {
        public int CustomerId { get; private set; }

        public string Name { get; set; }
        public string City { get; set; }

        public Customer(int Id)
        {
            CustomerId = Id;
        }

        public override string ToString()
        {
            return Name + "/t" + City + "/t" + CustomerId;
        }
    }

    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            var customers = CreateCustomers();

            foreach (var c in FindCustomersByCity(customers, "London"))
               Console.WriteLine(c);
        }
        public static List<Customer> FindCustomersByCity(
         List<Customer> customers,string city)
        {
            //return customers.FindAll(
            //    delegate(Customer c)
            //    {
            //        return c.City == city;
            //    });
            return customers.FindAll(c => c.City == city);

        }
        static List<Customer> CreateCustomers()
        {
            return new List<Customer>
                {
                    new Customer(1) { Name = "Alex Roland",             City = "Berlin"    },
                    new Customer(2) { Name = "Oliver Cox",              City = "Marseille" },
                    new Customer(3) { Name = "Maurice Taylor",          City = "London"    },
                    new Customer(4) { Name = "Phil Gibbins",            City = "London"    },
                    new Customer(5) { Name = "Tony Madigan",            City = "Torino"    },
                    new Customer(6) { Name = "Elizabeth A. Andersen",   City = "Portland"  },
                    new Customer(7) { Name = "Justin Thorp",            City = "London"    },
                    new Customer(8) { Name = "Bryn Paul Dunton",        City = "Portland"  }
                };
        }     
    }
}

一个更复杂的例子,查找打印姓名已T开头的人的信息

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;

namespace NewLanguageFeatures
{
    public delegate bool KeyValueFilter<K, V>(K key, V value);
  
    public static class Extensions
    {
        public static List<K> FilterBy<K, V>(
        this Dictionary<K, V> items,
        KeyValueFilter<K, V> filter)
        {
            var result = new List<K>();

            foreach (KeyValuePair<K, V> element in items)
            {
                if (filter(element.Key, element.Value))
                    result.Add(element.Key);
            }
            return result;
        }
      
        public static List<T> Append<T>(this List<T> a, List<T> b)
        {
            var newList = new List<T>(a);
            newList.AddRange(b);
            return newList;
        }
      
        public static bool Compare(this Customer customer1, Customer customer2)
        {
            if (customer1.CustomerId == customer2.CustomerId &&
                customer1.Name == customer2.Name &&
                customer1.City == customer2.City)
            {
                return true;
            }

            return false;
        }
    }

    public class Customer
    {
        public int CustomerId { get; private set; }

        public string Name { get; set; }
        public string City { get; set; }

        public Customer(int Id)
        {
            CustomerId = Id;
        }

        public override string ToString()
        {
            return Name + "/t" + City + "/t" + CustomerId;
        }
    }

    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            var customers = CreateCustomers();

            var customerDictionary = new Dictionary<Customer, string>();

            foreach (var c in customers)
                customerDictionary.Add(c, c.Name.Split(' ')[1]);

            var matches = customerDictionary.FilterBy(
                (customer, lastName) => lastName.StartsWith("T"));
            //上面执行查询操作

            foreach (var m in matches)
                Console.WriteLine(m);
        }

        public static List<Customer> FindCustomersByCity(
            List<Customer> customers,
            string city)
        {
            return customers.FindAll(c => c.City == city);
        }

        static List<Customer> CreateCustomers()
        {
            return new List<Customer>
                {
                    new Customer(1) { Name = "Alex Roland",             City = "Berlin"    },
                    new Customer(2) { Name = "Oliver Cox",              City = "Marseille" },
                    new Customer(3) { Name = "Maurice Taylor",          City = "London"    },
                    new Customer(4) { Name = "Phil Gibbins",            City = "London"    },
                    new Customer(5) { Name = "Tony Madigan",            City = "Torino"    },
                    new Customer(6) { Name = "Elizabeth A. Andersen",   City = "Portland"  },
                    new Customer(7) { Name = "Justin Thorp",            City = "London"    },
                    new Customer(8) { Name = "Bryn Paul Dunton",        City = "Portland"  }
                };
        }     
    }
}

 


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