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Leetcode-30: Substring with Concatenation of All Words

这题思路不算太难,但要给出比较快速的算法也不容易。

我本来决定用set,但发现题目的本意是允许words[]里面有多个重复字符串,后来决定用multiset,但set和multiset都没有count,不能单减count, 只能erase。但multiset的erase(string)会删掉所有的相同string,除非用iterator删。最后决定用unordered_map,因为它可以有count,并且用hash,比map快些。

#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
#include <string>
#include <unordered_map>
#include <algorithm>

using namespace std;

vector<int> findSubstring(string s, vector<string>& words) {
    vector<int> sol;

    if (!words.size() || !s.size()) return sol;
    int wordLen=words[0].size();
    int wordNum=words.size();

    unordered_map<string, int> mm_orig, mm;
    for(int i=0; i<wordNum; ++i)
        mm_orig[words[i]]++;

    int totalLength = wordLen*wordNum < s.size() ? wordLen*wordNum : s.size();
    int runLength = (int)s.size()-totalLength+1;
    for (int i=0; i<runLength; ++i) {
        string subStrs=s.substr(i, totalLength);
        int hitCount=0;
        mm = mm_orig;
        for (int j=0; j<subStrs.size(); j+=wordLen) {
            string subString = subStrs.substr(j, wordLen);

            if (mm[subString]>0) {
                mm[subString]--;
                hitCount++;
            }else{
                break;
            }
        }

        if (hitCount==wordNum)
            sol.push_back(i);
    }

    return sol;
}
int main()
{
    //string s="barfoothefoobarman";
    //string s="a";
    string s="wordgoodgoodgoodbestword";

    //vector<string> words={"foo", "bar"};
    //vector<string> words={"a", "a"};
    vector<string> words={"word","good","best","good"};

    vector<int> sol = findSubstring(s, words);

    for (auto n : sol) cout<<n<<" ";

    return 0;
}

我的解法的时间复杂度为O(nm), 其中n为s的长度,m为words[]内所有字符串相加的长度。比较慢。在Leetcode官网上有一个O(n)的解法,我看了一下,思路比较好,其代码如下。

  // travel all the words combinations to maintain a window
    // there are wl(word len) times travel
    // each time, n/wl words, mostly 2 times travel for each word
    // one left side of the window, the other right side of the window
    // so, time complexity O(wl * 2 * N/wl) = O(2N)
    vector<int> findSubstring(string S, vector<string> &L) {
        vector<int> ans;
        int n = S.size(), cnt = L.size();
        if (n <= 0 || cnt <= 0) return ans;

        // init word occurence
        unordered_map<string, int> dict;
        for (int i = 0; i < cnt; ++i) dict[L[i]]++;

        // travel all sub string combinations
        int wl = L[0].size();
        for (int i = 0; i < wl; ++i) {
            int left = i, count = 0;
            unordered_map<string, int> tdict;
            for (int j = i; j <= n - wl; j += wl) {
                string str = S.substr(j, wl);
                // a valid word, accumulate results
                if (dict.count(str)) {
                    tdict[str]++;
                    if (tdict[str] <= dict[str]) 
                        count++;
                    else {
                        // a more word, advance the window left side possiablly
                        while (tdict[str] > dict[str]) {
                            string str1 = S.substr(left, wl);
                            tdict[str1]--;
                            if (tdict[str1] < dict[str1]) count--;
                            left += wl;
                        }
                    }
                    // come to a result
                    if (count == cnt) {
                        ans.push_back(left);
                        // advance one word
                        tdict[S.substr(left, wl)]--;
                        count--;
                        left += wl;
                    }
                }
                // not a valid word, reset all vars
                else {
                    tdict.clear();
                    count = 0;
                    left = j + wl;
                }
            }
        }

        return ans;
    }
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文章标签: Leetcode
个人分类: algorithm-design
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Leetcode-30: Substring with Concatenation of All Words

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