经典SQL练习题

今天在网上找了几道经典的SQL练习题做了一下,虽然都不难,但是对打基础是很有好处的,在明白的基础上可以进一步做分析,来研究一下各种解法的优劣,甚至进行简单的优化。。
现在将题目和答案分享一下。我使用的是MYSQL 5.0,但是绝大部分都是标准SQL。

题目:
1、 查询Student表中的所有记录的Sname、Ssex和Class列。
2、 查询教师所有的单位即不重复的Depart列。
3、 查询Student表的所有记录。
4、 查询Score表中成绩在60到80之间的所有记录。
5、 查询Score表中成绩为85,86或88的记录。
6、 查询Student表中“95031”班或性别为“女”的同学记录。
7、 以Class降序查询Student表的所有记录。
8、 以Cno升序、Degree降序查询Score表的所有记录。
9、 查询“95031”班的学生人数。
10、查询Score表中的最高分的学生学号和课程号。
11、查询‘3-105’号课程的平均分。
12、查询Score表中至少有5名学生选修的并以3开头的课程的平均分数。
13、查询最低分大于70,最高分小于90的Sno列。
14、查询所有学生的Sname、Cno和Degree列。
15、查询所有学生的Sno、Cname和Degree列。
16、查询所有学生的Sname、Cname和Degree列。
17、查询“95033”班所选课程的平均分。
18、假设使用如下命令建立了一个grade表:
create table grade(low   number(3,0),upp   number(3),rank   char(1));
insert into grade values(90,100,’A’);
insert into grade values(80,89,’B’);
insert into grade values(70,79,’C’);
insert into grade values(60,69,’D’);
insert into grade values(0,59,’E’);
commit;
现查询所有同学的Sno、Cno和rank列。
19、查询选修“3-105”课程的成绩高于“109”号同学成绩的所有同学的记录。
20、查询score中选学一门以上课程的同学中分数为非最高分成绩的记录。
21、查询成绩高于学号为“109”、课程号为“3-105”的成绩的所有记录。
22、查询和学号为108的同学同年出生的所有学生的Sno、Sname和Sbirthday列。
23、查询“张旭“教师任课的学生成绩。
24、查询选修某课程的同学人数多于5人的教师姓名。
25、查询95033班和95031班全体学生的记录。
26、查询存在有85分以上成绩的课程Cno.
27、查询出“计算机系“教师所教课程的成绩表。
28、查询“计算机系”与“电子工程系“不同职称的教师的Tname和Prof。
29、查询选修编号为“3-105“课程且成绩至少高于选修编号为“3-245”的同学的Cno、Sno和Degree,并按Degree从高到低次序排序。
30、查询选修编号为“3-105”且成绩高于选修编号为“3-245”课程的同学的Cno、Sno和Degree.
31、查询所有教师和同学的name、sex和birthday.
32、查询所有“女”教师和“女”同学的name、sex和birthday.
33、查询成绩比该课程平均成绩低的同学的成绩表。
34、查询所有任课教师的Tname和Depart.
35  查询所有未讲课的教师的Tname和Depart. 
36、查询至少有2名男生的班号。
37、查询Student表中不姓“王”的同学记录。
38、查询Student表中每个学生的姓名和年龄。
39、查询Student表中最大和最小的Sbirthday日期值。
40、以班号和年龄从大到小的顺序查询Student表中的全部记录。
41、查询“男”教师及其所上的课程。
42、查询最高分同学的Sno、Cno和Degree列。
43、查询和“李军”同性别的所有同学的Sname.
44、查询和“李军”同性别并同班的同学Sname.
45、查询所有选修“计算机导论”课程的“男”同学的成绩表
参考答案:
1. SELECT SNAME,SSEX,CLASS FROM STUDENT;

2. SELECT DISTINCT DEPART FROM TEACHER;

3. SELECT * FROM STUDENT;

4. SELECT * FROM SCORE WHERE DEGREE BETWEEN 60 AND 80;

5.SELECT * FROM SCORE WHERE DEGREE IN (85,86,88);

6. SELECT * FROM STUDENT WHERE CLASS='95031' OR SSEX='女';

7.SELECT * FROM STUDENT ORDER BY CLASS DESC;

8.SELECT * FROM SCORE ORDER BY CNO ASC,DEGREE DESC;

9.SELECT  COUNT(*) FROM STUDENT WHERE CLASS='95031';

10.SELECT SNO,CNO FROM SCORE WHERE DEGREE=(SELECT MAX(DEGREE) FROM SCORE);

SELECT SNO,CNO FROM SCORE ORDER BY DEGREE DESC LIMIT 1;

11.SELECT AVG(DEGREE) FROM SCORE WHERE CNO='3-105';

12.select avg(degree),cno
from score
where cno like '3%'
group by cno
having count(sno)>= 5;

13.SELECT SNO FROM SCORE GROUP BY SNO HAVING MIN(DEGREE)>70 AND MAX(DEGREE)<90;

14.SELECT A.SNAME,B.CNO,B.DEGREE FROM STUDENT AS A JOIN SCORE AS B ON A.SNO=B.SNO;

15.SELECT A.CNAME, B.SNO,B.DEGREE FROM COURSE AS A JOIN SCORE AS B ON A.CNO=B.CNO ;

16.SELECT A.SNAME,B.CNAME,C.DEGREE FROM STUDENT A JOIN (COURSE B,SCORE C)
ON A.SNO=C.SNO AND B.CNO =C.CNO;

17.SELECT AVG(A.DEGREE) FROM SCORE A JOIN STUDENT B ON A.SNO = B.SNO WHERE B.CLASS='95033';

18.SELECT A.SNO,A.CNO,B.RANK FROM SCORE A,GRADE B WHERE A.DEGREE BETWEEN B.LOW AND B.UPP 

ORDER BY RANK;

19.SELECT A.* FROM SCORE A JOIN SCORE B WHERE A.CNO='3-105' AND A.DEGREE>B.DEGREE AND 

B.SNO='109' AND B.CNO='3-105';
另一解法:SELECT A.* FROM SCORE A  WHERE A.CNO='3-105' AND A.DEGREE>ALL(SELECT DEGREE FROM 

SCORE B WHERE B.SNO='109' AND B.CNO='3-105');

20.SELECT * FROM score s WHERE DEGREE<(SELECT MAX(DEGREE) FROM SCORE) GROUP BY SNO HAVING 

COUNT(SNO)>1 ORDER BY DEGREE ;

21.见19的第二种解法

22。SELECT SNO,SNAME,SBIRTHDAY FROM STUDENT WHERE YEAR(SBIRTHDAY)=(SELECT YEAR(SBIRTHDAY) 

FROM STUDENT WHERE SNO='108');
ORACLE:select x.cno,x.Sno,x.degree from score x,score y where x.degree>y.degree and 

y.sno='109'and y.cno='3-105';
select cno,sno,degree from score   where degree >(select degree from score where sno='109' 

and cno='3-105')

23.SELECT A.SNO,A.DEGREE FROM SCORE A JOIN (TEACHER B,COURSE C)
ON A.CNO=C.CNO AND B.TNO=C.TNO
WHERE B.TNAME='张旭';
另一种解法:select cno,sno,degree from score where cno=(select x.cno from course x,teacher y 

where x.tno=y.tno and y.tname='张旭');
根据实际EXPLAIN此SELECT语句,第一个的扫描次数要小于第二个

24.SELECT A.TNAME FROM TEACHER A JOIN (COURSE B, SCORE C) ON (A.TNO=B.TNO AND B.CNO=C.CNO) 

GROUP BY C.CNO HAVING COUNT(C.CNO)>5;
另一种解法:select tname from teacher where tno in(select x.tno from course x,score y where 

x.cno=y.cno group by x.tno having count(x.tno)>5);
实际测试1明显优于2


25。select cno,sno,degree from score where cno=(select x.cno from course x,teacher y where 

x.tno=y.tno and y.tname='张旭');

26。SELECT CNO FROM SCORE GROUP BY CNO HAVING MAX(DEGREE)>85;
另一种解法:select distinct cno from score where degree in (select degree from score where 

degree>85);

27。SELECT A.* FROM SCORE A JOIN (TEACHER B,COURSE C) ON A.CNO=C.CNO AND B.TNO=C.TNO
WHERE B.DEPART='计算机系';
另一种解法:SELECT * from score where cno in (select a.cno from course a join teacher b on 

a.tno=b.tno and b.depart='计算机系');
此时2略好于1,在多连接的境况下性能会迅速下降

28。select tname,prof from teacher where depart='计算机系' and prof not in (select prof from 

teacher where depart='电子工程系');

29。SELECT * FROM SCORE WHERE DEGREE>ANY(SELECT DEGREE FROM SCORE WHERE CNO='3-245') ORDER 

BY DEGREE DESC;

30。SELECT * FROM SCORE WHERE DEGREE>ALL(SELECT DEGREE FROM SCORE WHERE CNO='3-245') ORDER 

BY DEGREE DESC;

31.SELECT SNAME AS NAME, SSEX AS SEX, SBIRTHDAY AS BIRTHDAY FROM STUDENT
UNION
SELECT TNAME AS NAME, TSEX AS SEX, TBIRTHDAY AS BIRTHDAY FROM TEACHER;

32.SELECT SNAME AS NAME, SSEX AS SEX, SBIRTHDAY AS BIRTHDAY FROM STUDENT WHERE SSEX='女'
UNION
SELECT TNAME AS NAME, TSEX AS SEX, TBIRTHDAY AS BIRTHDAY FROM TEACHER WHERE TSEX='女';

33.SELECT A.* FROM SCORE A WHERE DEGREE<(SELECT AVG(DEGREE) FROM SCORE B WHERE A.CNO=B.CNO);
须注意********此题

34。解法一:SELECT A.TNAME,A.DEPART FROM TEACHER A JOIN COURSE B ON A.TNO=B.TNO;
解法二:select tname,depart from teacher a where exists
(select * from course b where a.tno=b.tno);
解法三:SELECT TNAME,DEPART FROM TEACHER WHERE TNO IN (SELECT TNO FROM COURSE);

实际分析,第一种揭发貌似更好,至少扫描次数最少。

35.解法一:SELECT TNAME,DEPART FROM TEACHER A LEFT JOIN COURSE B USING(TNO) WHERE ISNUL

(B.tno);
解法二:select tname,depart from teacher a where not exists
(select * from course b where a.tno=b.tno);
解法三:SELECT TNAME,DEPART FROM TEACHER WHERE TNO NOT IN (SELECT TNO FROM COURSE);
NOT IN的方法效率最差,其余两种差不多

36.SELECT CLASS FROM STUDENT A WHERE SSEX='男' GROUP BY CLASS HAVING COUNT(SSEX)>1;

37.SELECT * FROM STUDENT A WHERE SNAME not like '王%';

38.SELECT SNAME,(YEAR(NOW())-YEAR(SBIRTHDAY)) AS AGE FROM STUDENT;

39.select sname,sbirthday as THEMAX from student where sbirthday =(select min(SBIRTHDAY) 

from student)
union
select sname,sbirthday as THEMIN from student where sbirthday =(select max(SBIRTHDAY) from 

student);

40.SELECT CLASS,(YEAR(NOW())-YEAR(SBIRTHDAY)) AS AGE FROM STUDENT ORDER BY CLASS DESC,AGE 

DESC;

41.SELECT A.TNAME,B.CNAME FROM TEACHER A JOIN COURSE B USING(TNO) WHERE A.TSEX='男';

42.SELECT A.* FROM SCORE A WHERE DEGREE=(SELECT MAX(DEGREE) FROM SCORE B );

43.SELECT SNAME FROM STUDENT A WHERE SSEX=(SELECT SSEX FROM STUDENT B WHERE B.SNAME='李军');

44.SELECT SNAME FROM STUDENT A WHERE SSEX=(SELECT SSEX FROM STUDENT B WHERE B.SNAME='李军' )
AND CLASS=(SELECT CLASS FROM STUDENT C WHERE c.SNAME='李军');

45.解法一:SELECT A.* FROM SCORE A JOIN (STUDENT B,COURSE C) USING(sno,CNO) WHERE B.SSEX='男

' AND C.CNAME='计算机导论';
解法二:select * from score where sno in(select sno from student where
ssex='男') and cno=(select cno from course
where cname='计算机导论');
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