# Problem

With respect to a given puzzle string, a word is valid if both the following conditions are satisfied:

• word contains the first letter of puzzle.
• For each letter in word, that letter is in puzzle.
For example, if the puzzle is “abcdefg”, then valid words are “faced”, “cabbage”, and “baggage”; while invalid words are “beefed” (doesn’t include “a”) and “based” (includes “s” which isn’t in the puzzle).

Return an array answer, where answer[i] is the number of words in the given word list words that are valid with respect to the puzzle puzzles[i].

Constraints:

• 1 <= words.length <= 10^5
• 4 <= words[i].length <= 50
• 1 <= puzzles.length <= 10^4
• puzzles[i].length == 7
• words[i][j], puzzles[i][j] are English lowercase letters.
• Each puzzles[i] doesn’t contain repeated characters.

## Example

Input:
words = [“aaaa”,“asas”,“able”,“ability”,“actt”,“actor”,“access”],
puzzles = [“aboveyz”,“abrodyz”,“abslute”,“absoryz”,“actresz”,“gaswxyz”]
Output: [1,1,3,2,4,0]
Explanation:
1 valid word for “aboveyz” : “aaaa”
1 valid word for “abrodyz” : “aaaa”
3 valid words for “abslute” : “aaaa”, “asas”, “able”
2 valid words for “absoryz” : “aaaa”, “asas”
4 valid words for “actresz” : “aaaa”, “asas”, “actt”, “access”
There’re no valid words for “gaswxyz” cause none of the words in the list contains letter ‘g’.

# Solution

class Solution {
public:
vector<int> findNumOfValidWords(vector<string>& words, vector<string>& puzzles) {
unordered_map<int, int> frequency;

for (const string& word: words) {
int mask = 0;
for (char ch: word) {
mask |= (1 << (ch - 'a'));
}
if (__builtin_popcount(mask) <= 7) {
++frequency[mask];
}
}

vector<int> ans;
for (const string& puzzle: puzzles) {
int total = 0;

// 枚举子集方法一
// for (int choose = 0; choose < (1 << 6); ++choose) {
//     int mask = 0;
//     for (int i = 0; i < 6; ++i) {
//         if (choose & (1 << i)) {
//             mask |= (1 << (puzzle[i + 1] - 'a'));
//         }
//     }
//     mask |= (1 << (puzzle - 'a'));
//     if (frequency.count(mask)) {
//         total += frequency[mask];
//     }
// }

// 枚举子集方法二
int mask = 0;
for (int i = 1; i < 7; ++i) {
mask |= (1 << (puzzle[i] - 'a'));
}
int subset = mask;
do {
int s = subset | (1 << (puzzle - 'a'));
if (frequency.count(s)) {
total += frequency[s];
}
subset = (subset - 1) & mask;
} while (subset != mask);

ans.push_back(total);
}
return ans;
}
};

//作者：LeetCode-Solution
//链接：https://leetcode-cn.com/problems/number-of-valid-words-for-each-puzzle/solution/cai-zi-mi-by-leetcode-solution-345u/


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