Linux搭建DHCP服务器实现自动分配IP地址

自动化运维 同时被 2 个专栏收录
16 篇文章 0 订阅
124 篇文章 1 订阅

DHCP服务

  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol,动态主机配置协议

DHCP服务的协议和端口

  • UDP协议,C/S模式,
  • DHCP server:67/udp,
  • DHCPv4 client :68/udp,
  • DHCPv6 client:546/udp

DHCP工作原理

类似于投简历找工作 到达租期的一半重新续约,达到7/8时再去续约

  • DHCP通讯过程基于广播实现

  • DHCP服务器打开67端口并进行监听

  • 客户端监听UDP的68端口,在网卡启动前发送广播请求

  • DHCP广播机制存在跨路由问题

  • DHCP使用中继代理机制,硬件路由器和三层交换机接口要配置agent,

  • 可以替客户端将DHCP请求单播到DHCP服务器,从而实现跨网段

DHCP八种报文

DHCP DISCOVER:客户端到服务器
DHCP OFFER :服务器到客户端
DHCP REQUEST:客户端到服务器
DHCP ACK :服务器到客户端
DHCP NAK:服务器到客户端,通知用户无法分配合适的IP地址
DHCP DECLINE :客户端到服务器,指示地址已被使用
DHCP RELEASE:客户端到服务器,放弃网络地址和取消剩余的租约时间
DHCP INFORM:客户端到服务器, 客户端如果需要从DHCP服务器端获取更为详细的配置信息,则
发送Inform报文向服务器进行请求,极少用到

DHCP工作原理

DCHP常用架构

  • 两台服务器做主备
  • 地址池二八分配
    DHCP架构

关闭或隔离本网中已有DHCP服务器

  • 实现DHCP服务前,先将网络已有DHCP服务,
  • 如:vmware中的DHCP关闭,访止冲突
    编辑虚拟网络
    取消DHCP服务

DHCP服务器实现

  • dchp可以通过多个软件实现
  • 这里我们使用系统自带的
  • dhcp(CentOS 7 之前版本)
  • dhcp-server(CentOS 8 中的包名)
  • DHCP搭建三步走
    • 安装DHCP服务器软件
    • 按需修改配置文件
    • 启动并设为开机启动

安装DHCP服务器软件

  • 在CentOS 8中进行安装
  1. 检查DHCP服务是否已安装

    rpm -q dchp-server
    未安装软件包 dchp-server 
    
  2. 查看DHCP安装包信息

    yum info dhcp-server
    
    yum info dhcp-server
    BaseOS                                                          1.0 kB/s | 3.9 kB     00:03    
    AppStream                                                        52 kB/s | 4.3 kB     00:00    
    EPEL                                                             52 kB/s | 4.7 kB     00:00    
    extras                                                           19 kB/s | 1.5 kB     00:00    
    centosplus                                                       17 kB/s | 1.5 kB     00:00    
    可安装的软件包
    名称         : dhcp-server
    时期         : 12
    版本         : 4.3.6
    发布         : 41.el8
    架构         : x86_64
    大小         : 530 k
    源           : dhcp-4.3.6-41.el8.src.rpm
    仓库         : BaseOS
    概况         : Provides the ISC DHCP server
    URL          : http://isc.org/products/DHCP/ ## 官方网站
    协议         : ISC
    描述         : DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a protocol which allows
                 : individual devices on an IP network to get their own network
                 : configuration information (IP address, subnetmask, broadcast address,
                 : etc.) from a DHCP server. The overall purpose of DHCP is to make it
                 : easier to administer a large network.
                 : 
                 : This package provides the ISC DHCP server.
    
  3. 安装DHCP服务器

    yum -y install dhcp-server
    
    systemctl status dhcpd
    ● dhcpd.service - DHCPv4 Server Daemon
       Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/dhcpd.service; disabled; vendor preset: disabled)
       Active: inactive (dead)
         Docs: man:dhcpd(8)
               man:dhcpd.conf(5)
    
  4. 查看安装后的文件列表
    关注几个重要的文件,比如主程序文件、配置文件、安装目录等

    rpm -ql dhcp-server
    
    rpm -ql dhcp-server
    /etc/NetworkManager
    /etc/NetworkManager/dispatcher.d
    /etc/NetworkManager/dispatcher.d/12-dhcpd
    /etc/dhcp
    /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf ## 主配置文件
    /etc/dhcp/dhcpd6.conf ## IPv6配置文件
    ……
    /usr/lib/systemd/system/dhcpd.service ## 主程序服务
    /usr/lib/systemd/system/dhcpd6.service ## IPv6主程序
    /usr/sbin/dhcpd ## 主程序文件
    /usr/share/doc/dhcp-server
    ……
    /usr/share/doc/dhcp-server/dhcpd.conf.example ## 配置模板
    /usr/share/doc/dhcp-server/dhcpd6.conf.example## 配置模板
    ……
    /var/lib/dhcpd ##分配地址库文件的目录
    /var/lib/dhcpd/dhcpd.leases ## IPv4地址库
    /var/lib/dhcpd/dhcpd6.leases ## IPv6地址库
    

修改DHCP配置文件

  • DHCP服务刚装好是无法直接启动的
  • 安装后如果起不来,看日志
  • 安装后配置文件是空的
    cat /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf 
    #
    # DHCP Server Configuration file.
    #   see /usr/share/doc/dhcp-server/dhcpd.conf.example
    #   see dhcpd.conf(5) man page
    #
    
  1. 备份源文件,并将模板文件copy过来

    mv /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf.bak`date +%F` 
    cp /usr/share/doc/dhcp-server/dhcpd.conf.example /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
    
  2. 修改copy过来的模板文件

    vim /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
    

    需要修改的选项

    • domain-name
    # option definitions common to all supported networks...
    option domain-name "example.org";## 自己的域名
    ## DNS服务器地址
    option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;	
    

    修改为:

     option domain-name "timonium.co";## 自己的域名
      ## DNS服务器地址
      option domain-name-servers 114.114.114.114, 8.8.8.8;	
    
    1. 租期
      长租期可以减少服务器压力
    default-lease-time 600; ## 默认租期,比较短
    max-lease-time 7200;## 最大租期
    

    修改为更长时间

    default-lease-time 86400; ## 默认租期,比较短
    max-lease-time 106400;## 最大租期
    
    1. 修改默认地址池
    # No service will be given on this subnet, but declaring it helps the 
    # DHCP server to understand the network topology.
    
    subnet 10.152.187.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
    }
    
    

    修改为当前网段
    subnet 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
    range 10.0.0.180 10.0.0.200;
    option routers 10.0.0.2;
    }

启动服务并设为开机启动

systemctl enable --now dhcpd.service 
[07:14:27 root@C8-88[ ~]#systemctl enable --now dhcpd.service 
[07:14:30 root@C8-88[ ~]#systemctl status dhcpd.service 
● dhcpd.service - DHCPv4 Server Daemon
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/dhcpd.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since Wed 2021-05-05 07:14:30 CST; 48s ago
     Docs: man:dhcpd(8)
           man:dhcpd.conf(5)
 Main PID: 3432 (dhcpd)
   Status: "Dispatching packets..."
    Tasks: 1 (limit: 11337)
   Memory: 5.4M
   CGroup: /system.slice/dhcpd.service
           └─3432 /usr/sbin/dhcpd -f -cf /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf -user dhcpd -group dhcpd --no-pid

May 05 07:14:30 C8-88 dhcpd[3432]: 
May 05 07:14:30 C8-88 dhcpd[3432]: No subnet declaration for eth0 (no IPv4 addresses).
May 05 07:14:30 C8-88 dhcpd[3432]: ** Ignoring requests on eth0.  If this is not what
May 05 07:14:30 C8-88 dhcpd[3432]:    you want, please write a subnet declaration
May 05 07:14:30 C8-88 dhcpd[3432]:    in your dhcpd.conf file for the network segment
May 05 07:14:30 C8-88 dhcpd[3432]:    to which interface eth0 is attached. **
May 05 07:14:30 C8-88 dhcpd[3432]: 
May 05 07:14:30 C8-88 dhcpd[3432]: Sending on   Socket/fallback/fallback-net
May 05 07:14:30 C8-88 dhcpd[3432]: Server starting service.
May 05 07:14:30 C8-88 systemd[1]: Started DHCPv4 Server Daemon.

客户端测试

  • 手动启动DHCP客户端程序
dhclient -d
  • 可以查看到获取IP的详细情况
[root@c7-53 ~]# ip a
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:0c:29:50:04:8d brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 10.0.0.53/24 brd 10.0.0.255 scope global noprefixroute eth0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe50:48d/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
[root@c7-53 ~]# dhclient -d
Internet Systems Consortium DHCP Client 4.2.5
Copyright 2004-2013 Internet Systems Consortium.
All rights reserved.
For info, please visit https://www.isc.org/software/dhcp/

Listening on LPF/eth0/00:0c:29:50:04:8d
Sending on   LPF/eth0/00:0c:29:50:04:8d
Sending on   Socket/fallback
DHCPDISCOVER on eth0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 6 (xid=0x51e6bfe1)
DHCPREQUEST on eth0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 (xid=0x51e6bfe1)
DHCPOFFER from 10.0.0.88
DHCPACK from 10.0.0.88 (xid=0x51e6bfe1)
bound to 10.0.0.180 -- renewal in 693 seconds.

  • 客户端日志位置
  • /var/lib/dhclient/dhclient.leases

服务器端查看日志确认分配IP

tail -f /var/lib/dhcpd/dhcpd.leases
[07:15:18 root@C8-88[ ~]#tail -f /var/lib/dhcpd/dhcpd.leases

lease 10.0.0.180 {
  starts 2 2021/05/04 23:17:42; ## 租期开始时间
  ends 2 2021/05/04 23:44:22;##租期结束时间
  cltt 2 2021/05/04 23:17:42;
  binding state active;
  next binding state free;
  rewind binding state free;
  hardware ethernet 00:0c:29:50:04:8d;
}
  • 至此,DHCP服务器已经搭建完成
    获取IP地址

IP地址和MAC地址的静态绑定

  • 固定IP地址可以防止IP冲突
  • 固定地址有利于服务器互相访问
  • 修改DHCP服务器配置文件相关内容实现
    # Hosts which require special configuration options can be listed in
    # host statements.   If no address is specified, the address will be
    # allocated dynamically (if possible), but the host-specific information
    # will still come from the host declaration.
    
    host passacaglia {
      hardware ethernet 0:0:c0:5d:bd:95;
      filename "vmunix.passacaglia";
      server-name "toccata.example.com";
    }
    
    
    • 参考并修改为
	host webServer1 {
	  hardware ethernet 0:0:c0:5d:bd:95;
	  fixed-address 10.0.0.188;
	  filename "web1";
	  server-name "web1.timonium.co";
	}
  • 重启服务后生效
  • 1
    点赞
  • 0
    评论
  • 9
    收藏
  • 打赏
    打赏
  • 扫一扫,分享海报

参与评论 您还未登录,请先 登录 后发表或查看评论
©️2022 CSDN 皮肤主题:Age of Ai 设计师:meimeiellie 返回首页

打赏作者

白-胖-子

你的鼓励将是我创作的最大动力

¥2 ¥4 ¥6 ¥10 ¥20
输入1-500的整数
余额支付 (余额:-- )
扫码支付
扫码支付:¥2
获取中
扫码支付

您的余额不足,请更换扫码支付或充值

打赏作者

实付
使用余额支付
点击重新获取
扫码支付
钱包余额 0

抵扣说明:

1.余额是钱包充值的虚拟货币,按照1:1的比例进行支付金额的抵扣。
2.余额无法直接购买下载,可以购买VIP、C币套餐、付费专栏及课程。

余额充值