以太坊ETH源码分析(1):地址生成过程

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本文链接:https://blog.csdn.net/u010159567/article/details/83690380

一、生成一个以太坊钱包地址

通过以太坊命令行客户端geth可以很简单的获得一个以太坊地址,如下:

~/go/src/github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/build/bin$geth account new
INFO [11-03|20:09:33.219] Maximum peer count                       ETH=25 LES=0 total=25
keydir=/Users/wujinquan/Library/Ethereum/keystore
Your new account is locked with a password. Please give a password. Do not forget this password.
Passphrase:
Repeat passphrase:
Address: {8011cf2892985cdc58f447063bc6a089ba89f514}
~/go/src/github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/build/bin$

地址0x8011cf2892985cdc58f447063bc6a089ba89f514 (20字节16进制)就是新生成的以太坊地址。

二、根据源码解析地址生成过程

从以太坊源码 https://github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum 出发,分析地址生成过程
运行命令 :geth account new
程序入口在 https://github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/blob/master/cmd/geth/main.go

func init() {
	// Initialize the CLI app and start Geth
	app.Action = geth
	app.HideVersion = true // we have a command to print the version
	app.Copyright = "Copyright 2013-2018 The go-ethereum Authors"
	app.Commands = []cli.Command{
		// See chaincmd.go:
		initCommand,
		...
		// See monitorcmd.go:
		monitorCommand,
		// See accountcmd.go:账户相关
		accountCommand,
		// See consolecmd.go:
	}
	...
}

账户相关的命令在 https://github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/blob/master/cmd/geth/accountcmd.go 里,
新建账户命令为new:

var (
	...
	accountCommand = cli.Command{
		Name:     "account",
		Usage:    "Manage accounts",
		Category: "ACCOUNT COMMANDS",
		Description: ``
		Subcommands: []cli.Command{
			{
				Name:   "list",
				Usage:  "Print summary of existing accounts",
				Action: utils.MigrateFlags(accountList),
				Flags: []cli.Flag{
					utils.DataDirFlag,
					utils.KeyStoreDirFlag,
				},
				Description: `
Print a short summary of all accounts`,
			},
			{
				Name:   "new",
				Usage:  "Create a new account",
				Action: utils.MigrateFlags(accountCreate),
				Flags: []cli.Flag{
					utils.DataDirFlag,
					utils.KeyStoreDirFlag,
					utils.PasswordFileFlag,
					utils.LightKDFFlag,
				},
				Description: ``
			},
		},

关键:new一个新账户的时候,会调用accountCreate

// accountCreate creates a new account into the keystore defined by the CLI flags.
func accountCreate(ctx *cli.Context) error {
	// (1)获取配置
	cfg := gethConfig{Node: defaultNodeConfig()}
	// Load config file.
	if file := ctx.GlobalString(configFileFlag.Name); file != "" {
		if err := loadConfig(file, &cfg); err != nil {
			utils.Fatalf("%v", err)
		}
	}
	utils.SetNodeConfig(ctx, &cfg.Node)
	//  (1.1) 从节点配置中取出相关配置信息
	scryptN, scryptP, keydir, err := cfg.Node.AccountConfig()

	if err != nil {
		utils.Fatalf("Failed to read configuration: %v", err)
	}
	// (2)解析用户密码
	password := getPassPhrase("Your new account is locked with a password. Please give a password. Do not forget this password.", true, 0, utils.MakePasswordList(ctx))
	// (3)生成地址
	address, err := keystore.StoreKey(keydir, password, scryptN, scryptP) //创建地址的外层函数

	if err != nil {
		utils.Fatalf("Failed to create account: %v", err)
	}
	fmt.Printf("Address: {%x}\n", address)
	return nil
}

由此可见,accountCreate分为三个步骤,其中最关键的为第三步
(1)获取配置
(2)解析用户密码
(3)生成地址

第三步生成地址调用的keystore.StoreKey:
程序位置在 https://github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/blob/master/accounts/keystore/keystore_passphrase.go

// StoreKey generates a key, encrypts with 'auth' and stores in the given directory
func StoreKey(dir, auth string, scryptN, scryptP int) (common.Address, error) {

	//返回Key{Id uuid.UUID ,Address common.Address,PrivateKey *ecdsa.PrivateKey}
	_, a, err := storeNewKey(&keyStorePassphrase{dir, scryptN, scryptP, false}, rand.Reader, auth)

	return a.Address, err
}

直接调用了storeNewKey 创建新账户
程序位置:https://github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/blob/master/accounts/keystore/key.go

func storeNewKey(ks keyStore, rand io.Reader, auth string) (*Key, accounts.Account, error) {
	// 创建一个新的账户
	key, err := newKey(rand)
	fmt.Printf("key.Id=%v,key.Address=%x,key.PrivateKey=%v\n",key.Id,key.Address,key.PrivateKey)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, accounts.Account{}, err
	}
	a := accounts.Account{Address: key.Address, URL: accounts.URL{Scheme: KeyStoreScheme, Path: ks.JoinPath(keyFileName(key.Address))}}
	if err := ks.StoreKey(a.URL.Path, key, auth); err != nil {
		zeroKey(key.PrivateKey)
		return nil, a, err
	}
	return key, a, err
}
func newKey(rand io.Reader) (*Key, error) {
	// (1) 选择secp256k1曲线、采用椭圆曲线数字签名算法(ECDSA)生成公私钥对
	privateKeyECDSA, err := ecdsa.GenerateKey(crypto.S256(), rand)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, err
	}

	// (2)由公钥算出地址并构建一个自定义的Key
	return newKeyFromECDSA(privateKeyECDSA), nil
}

可以看到,newKey创建新账户时,
1、由secp256k1曲线生成私钥,是由32字节随机数组成
2、采用椭圆曲线数字签名算法(ECDSA)将私钥映射成公钥,一个私钥只能映射出一个公钥。
3、然后由公钥算出地址并构建一个自定义的Key

继续看公钥是怎样算出地址并构建一个自定义的Key

func newKeyFromECDSA(privateKeyECDSA *ecdsa.PrivateKey) *Key {
	id := uuid.NewRandom()
	key := &Key{
		Id:         id,
		//由公钥推出地址
		Address:    crypto.PubkeyToAddress(privateKeyECDSA.PublicKey),
		PrivateKey: privateKeyECDSA,
	}
	return key
}

由公钥算出地址是由crypto.PubkeyToAddress完成的:
代码位置:https://github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/blob/master/crypto/crypto.go

func PubkeyToAddress(p ecdsa.PublicKey) common.Address {
	// (1) 将pubkey转换为字节序列
	pubBytes := FromECDSAPub(&p)
	// (2) pubBytes为04 开头的65字节公钥,去掉04后剩下64字节进行Keccak256运算
	// (3) 经过Keccak256运算后变成32字节,最终取这32字节的后20字节作为真正的地址
	return common.BytesToAddress(Keccak256(pubBytes[1:])[12:])
}

// Keccak256 calculates and returns the Keccak256 hash of the input data.
func Keccak256(data ...[]byte) []byte {
    d := sha3.NewKeccak256()
    for _, b := range data {
        d.Write(b)
    }
    return d.Sum(nil)
}

可以看到公钥(64字节)经过Keccak-256单向散列函数变成了32字节,然后取后20字节作为地址。本质上是从32字节的私钥映射到20字节的公共地址。这意味着一个账户可以有不止一个私钥。

三、总结

以太坊地址的生成过程如下:

  1. 由secp256k1曲线生成私钥,是由32字节的随机数生成
  2. 采用椭圆曲线数字签名算法(ECDSA)将私钥(32字节)映射成公钥(65字节)。
  3. 公钥(去掉04后剩下64字节)经过Keccak-256单向散列函数变成了32字节,然后取后20字节作为地址
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