Java JSP基础 文件上传

版权声明:欢迎转载,转载请说明出处. 大数据Github项目地址https://github.com/SeanYanxml/bigdata。 https://blog.csdn.net/u010416101/article/details/89716006

前言

之前工作的时候, 经常听人提及JSPJava Servlet的概念. 本章就主要

本章涉及的例子都可以在https://github.com/SeanYanxml/arsenal/tree/master/arsenal-java/arsenal-servlet下找到.

如果你觉得我的项目不错, 不妨给我一个Star. 你的支持就是我的动力.


前置准备

  • JDK
  • Maven
  • Eclipse
  • Tomcat
  • Maven依赖
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<project
	xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd"
	xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
	<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
	<parent>
		<groupId>com.yanxml</groupId>
		<artifactId>arsenal-java-parent</artifactId>
		<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
	</parent>

	<groupId>com.yanxml</groupId>
	<artifactId>arsenal-jsp</artifactId>
	<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
	<name>arsenal-jsp</name>

	<properties>
		<project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
	</properties>

	<dependencies>
		<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/javax.servlet/javax.servlet-api -->
		<dependency>
			<groupId>javax.servlet</groupId>
			<artifactId>javax.servlet-api</artifactId>
			<version>4.0.0</version>
			<scope>provided</scope>
		</dependency>

		<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/commons-fileupload/commons-fileupload -->
		<dependency>
			<groupId>commons-fileupload</groupId>
			<artifactId>commons-fileupload</artifactId>
			<version>1.3.3</version>
		</dependency>

		<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/commons-io/commons-io -->
		<dependency>
			<groupId>commons-io</groupId>
			<artifactId>commons-io</artifactId>
			<version>2.6</version>
		</dependency>

	</dependencies>
</project>

基本操作

  • upload.jsp
<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=UTF-8"
    pageEncoding="UTF-8"%>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"
    "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
<title>文件上传实例</title>
</head>
<body>
<h1>文件上传实例</h1>
<form method="post" action="/arsenal-jsp/UploadServlet" enctype="multipart/form-data">
    选择一个文件:
    <input type="file" name="uploadFile" />
    <br/><br/>
    <input type="submit" value="上传" />
</form>
</body>
</html>

与之前一样的是, 需要在<form action="">处指定需要调用的api请求地址.

  • message.jsp
<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=UTF-8"
    pageEncoding="UTF-8"%>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"
    "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
<title>文件上传结果</title>
</head>
<body>
    <center>
        <h2>${message}</h2>
    </center>
</body>
</html>
  • UploadServlet.java
import java.io.File;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.PrintWriter;
import java.util.List;

import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.annotation.WebServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;

import org.apache.commons.fileupload.FileItem;
import org.apache.commons.fileupload.disk.DiskFileItemFactory;
import org.apache.commons.fileupload.servlet.ServletFileUpload;

/**
 * Servlet implementation class UploadServlet
 */
@WebServlet("/UploadServlet")
public class UploadServlet extends HttpServlet{
	private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
    
    // 上传文件存储目录
    private static final String UPLOAD_DIRECTORY = "upload";
 
    // 上传配置
    private static final int MEMORY_THRESHOLD   = 1024 * 1024 * 3;  // 3MB
    private static final int MAX_FILE_SIZE      = 1024 * 1024 * 40; // 40MB
    private static final int MAX_REQUEST_SIZE   = 1024 * 1024 * 50; // 50MB
 
    /**
     * 上传数据及保存文件
     */
    protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest request,
        HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
        // 检测是否为多媒体上传
        if (!ServletFileUpload.isMultipartContent(request)) {
            // 如果不是则停止
            PrintWriter writer = response.getWriter();
            writer.println("Error: 表单必须包含 enctype=multipart/form-data");
            writer.flush();
            return;
        }
 
        // 配置上传参数
        DiskFileItemFactory factory = new DiskFileItemFactory();
        // 设置内存临界值 - 超过后将产生临时文件并存储于临时目录中
        factory.setSizeThreshold(MEMORY_THRESHOLD);
        // 设置临时存储目录
        factory.setRepository(new File(System.getProperty("java.io.tmpdir")));
 
        ServletFileUpload upload = new ServletFileUpload(factory);
         
        // 设置最大文件上传值
        upload.setFileSizeMax(MAX_FILE_SIZE);
         
        // 设置最大请求值 (包含文件和表单数据)
        upload.setSizeMax(MAX_REQUEST_SIZE);
        
        // 中文处理
        upload.setHeaderEncoding("UTF-8"); 

        // 构造临时路径来存储上传的文件
        // 这个路径相对当前应用的目录
        String uploadPath = getServletContext().getRealPath("/") + File.separator + UPLOAD_DIRECTORY;
       
         
        // 如果目录不存在则创建
        File uploadDir = new File(uploadPath);
        if (!uploadDir.exists()) {
            uploadDir.mkdir();
        }
 
        try {
            // 解析请求的内容提取文件数据
            @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
            List<FileItem> formItems = upload.parseRequest(request);
 
            if (formItems != null && formItems.size() > 0) {
                // 迭代表单数据
                for (FileItem item : formItems) {
                    // 处理不在表单中的字段
                    if (!item.isFormField()) {
                        String fileName = new File(item.getName()).getName();
                        String filePath = uploadPath + File.separator + fileName;
                        File storeFile = new File(filePath);
                        // 在控制台输出文件的上传路径
                        System.out.println(filePath);
                        // 保存文件到硬盘
                        item.write(storeFile);
                        request.setAttribute("message",
                            "文件上传成功!");
                    }
                }
            }
        } catch (Exception ex) {
            request.setAttribute("message",
                    "错误信息: " + ex.getMessage());
        }
        // 跳转到 message.jsp
        getServletContext().getRequestDispatcher("/message.jsp").forward(
                request, response);
    }

}

此处和之前提及的Servlet教程一致, 都是继承了HttpServlet. 并且实现了doPost()doGet()方法.

文件上传地址: http://localhost:8080/arsenal-jsp/upload.jsp
在这里插入图片描述
文件上传后回复:
在这里插入图片描述


Q&A

  • 发布后的包内缺少类org/apache/commons/fileupload/FileItemFactory
Caused by: org.apache.catalina.LifecycleException: Failed to start component [StandardEngine[Catalina].StandardHost[localhost].StandardContext[/arsenal-jsp]]
	at org.apache.catalina.util.LifecycleBase.start(LifecycleBase.java:162)
	... 6 more
Caused by: java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: org/apache/commons/fileupload/FileItemFactory
	at java.lang.Class.getDeclaredFields0(Native Method)
	at java.lang.Class.privateGetDeclaredFields(Class.java:2583)
	at java.lang.Class.getDeclaredFields(Class.java:1916)
	at org.apache.catalina.util.Introspection.getDeclaredFields(Introspection.java:106)
	at org.apache.catalina.startup.WebAnnotationSet.loadFieldsAnnotation(WebAnnotationSet.java:256)
	at org.apache.catalina.startup.WebAnnotationSet.loadApplicationServletAnnotations(WebAnnotationSet.java:132)
	at org.apache.catalina.startup.WebAnnotationSet.loadApplicationAnnotations(WebAnnotationSet.java:65)
	at org.apache.catalina.startup.ContextConfig.applicationAnnotationsConfig(ContextConfig.java:336)
	at org.apache.catalina.startup.ContextConfig.configureStart(ContextConfig.java:786)
	at org.apache.catalina.startup.ContextConfig.lifecycleEvent(ContextConfig.java:307)
	at org.apache.catalina.util.LifecycleSupport.fireLifecycleEvent(LifecycleSupport.java:95)
	at org.apache.catalina.util.LifecycleBase.fireLifecycleEvent(LifecycleBase.java:90)
	at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContext.startInternal(StandardContext.java:5213)
	at org.apache.catalina.util.LifecycleBase.start(LifecycleBase.java:145)
	... 6 more
Caused by: java.lang.ClassNotFoundException: org.apache.commons.fileupload.FileItemFactory
	at org.apache.catalina.loader.WebappClassLoaderBase.loadClass(WebappClassLoaderBase.java:1333)
	at org.apache.catalina.loader.WebappClassLoaderBase.loadClass(WebappClassLoaderBase.java:1167)
	... 20 more

A: 因为配置不当导致. 在发布时加上Maven的依赖即可.
在这里插入图片描述
巧建Spring Web的Maven项目来解决java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: org/apache/commons/fileupload/FileItemFactory


  • 另: 编译后的JSP文件长什么模样? 和Servlet什么关系?
    答: JSP会被Web容器编译成为.class文件,其实就是一个封装的Servlet类. 在Eclipse内编译的文件路径为: Macintosh HD⁩ ▸ ⁨用户⁩ ▸ ⁨Sean⁩ ▸ ⁨文稿⁩ ▸ ⁨ElipseOxgenPro⁩ ▸ ⁨.metadata⁩ ▸ ⁨.plugins⁩ ▸ ⁨org.eclipse.wst.server.core⁩ ▸ ⁨tmp0⁩ ▸ ⁨work⁩ ▸ ⁨Catalina⁩ ▸ ⁨localhost⁩ ▸ ⁨arsenal-jsp⁩ ▸ ⁨org⁩ ▸ ⁨apache⁩ ▸ ⁨jsp⁩
    在这里插入图片描述
    编译后的文件如下. 其继承一个类叫做HttpJspBase. 个人猜测, 这个就是HttpServlet的另一层封装.
/*
 * Generated by the Jasper component of Apache Tomcat
 * Version: Apache Tomcat/8.0.37
 * Generated at: 2019-04-30 13:24:37 UTC
 * Note: The last modified time of this file was set to
 *       the last modified time of the source file after
 *       generation to assist with modification tracking.
 */
package org.apache.jsp;

import javax.servlet.*;
import javax.servlet.http.*;
import javax.servlet.jsp.*;

public final class message_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase
    implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent,
                 org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceImports {

  private static final javax.servlet.jsp.JspFactory _jspxFactory =
          javax.servlet.jsp.JspFactory.getDefaultFactory();

  private static java.util.Map<java.lang.String,java.lang.Long> _jspx_dependants;

  private static final java.util.Set<java.lang.String> _jspx_imports_packages;

  private static final java.util.Set<java.lang.String> _jspx_imports_classes;

  static {
    _jspx_imports_packages = new java.util.HashSet<>();
    _jspx_imports_packages.add("javax.servlet");
    _jspx_imports_packages.add("javax.servlet.http");
    _jspx_imports_packages.add("javax.servlet.jsp");
    _jspx_imports_classes = null;
  }

  private volatile javax.el.ExpressionFactory _el_expressionfactory;
  private volatile org.apache.tomcat.InstanceManager _jsp_instancemanager;

  public java.util.Map<java.lang.String,java.lang.Long> getDependants() {
    return _jspx_dependants;
  }

  public java.util.Set<java.lang.String> getPackageImports() {
    return _jspx_imports_packages;
  }

  public java.util.Set<java.lang.String> getClassImports() {
    return _jspx_imports_classes;
  }

  public javax.el.ExpressionFactory _jsp_getExpressionFactory() {
    if (_el_expressionfactory == null) {
      synchronized (this) {
        if (_el_expressionfactory == null) {
          _el_expressionfactory = _jspxFactory.getJspApplicationContext(getServletConfig().getServletContext()).getExpressionFactory();
        }
      }
    }
    return _el_expressionfactory;
  }

  public org.apache.tomcat.InstanceManager _jsp_getInstanceManager() {
    if (_jsp_instancemanager == null) {
      synchronized (this) {
        if (_jsp_instancemanager == null) {
          _jsp_instancemanager = org.apache.jasper.runtime.InstanceManagerFactory.getInstanceManager(getServletConfig());
        }
      }
    }
    return _jsp_instancemanager;
  }

  public void _jspInit() {
  }

  public void _jspDestroy() {
  }

  public void _jspService(final javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest request, final javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse response)
        throws java.io.IOException, javax.servlet.ServletException {

final java.lang.String _jspx_method = request.getMethod();
if (!"GET".equals(_jspx_method) && !"POST".equals(_jspx_method) && !"HEAD".equals(_jspx_method) && !javax.servlet.DispatcherType.ERROR.equals(request.getDispatcherType())) {
response.sendError(HttpServletResponse.SC_METHOD_NOT_ALLOWED, "JSPs only permit GET POST or HEAD");
return;
}

    final javax.servlet.jsp.PageContext pageContext;
    javax.servlet.http.HttpSession session = null;
    final javax.servlet.ServletContext application;
    final javax.servlet.ServletConfig config;
    javax.servlet.jsp.JspWriter out = null;
    final java.lang.Object page = this;
    javax.servlet.jsp.JspWriter _jspx_out = null;
    javax.servlet.jsp.PageContext _jspx_page_context = null;


    try {
      response.setContentType("text/html; charset=UTF-8");
      pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response,
      			null, true, 8192, true);
      _jspx_page_context = pageContext;
      application = pageContext.getServletContext();
      config = pageContext.getServletConfig();
      session = pageContext.getSession();
      out = pageContext.getOut();
      _jspx_out = out;

      out.write("\n");
      out.write("<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n");
      out.write("    \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n");
      out.write("<html>\n");
      out.write("<head>\n");
      out.write("<meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n");
      out.write("<title>文件上传结果</title>\n");
      out.write("</head>\n");
      out.write("<body>\n");
      out.write("    <center>\n");
      out.write("        <h2>");
      out.write((java.lang.String) org.apache.jasper.runtime.PageContextImpl.proprietaryEvaluate("${message}", java.lang.String.class, (javax.servlet.jsp.PageContext)_jspx_page_context, null));
      out.write("</h2>\n");
      out.write("    </center>\n");
      out.write("</body>\n");
      out.write("</html>");
    } catch (java.lang.Throwable t) {
      if (!(t instanceof javax.servlet.jsp.SkipPageException)){
        out = _jspx_out;
        if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0)
          try {
            if (response.isCommitted()) {
              out.flush();
            } else {
              out.clearBuffer();
            }
          } catch (java.io.IOException e) {}
        if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t);
        else throw new ServletException(t);
      }
    } finally {
      _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context);
    }
  }
}

查看eclipse web项目中jsp编译后的servlet源文件

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