Linux下yum安装MySQL yum安装MySQL指定版本

yum 安装MySQL

1. 检查安装情况

        查看有没有安装过:
        yum list installed MySQL* (有存在要卸载yum remove MySQL*)
        rpm -qa | grep mysql*

        查看有没有安装包:
        yum list mysql*

2. 安装 MySQL

        安装 MySQL 客户端:
        yum -y install mysql

        安装 MySQL 服务器端:
        yum -y install mysql-server  mysql-devel

3. 配置和启动

        数据库字符集设置:
        MySQL 配置文件/etc/my.cnf中加入default-character-set=utf8
    
        启动 MySQL 服务: 
        service mysqld start或者/etc/init.d/mysqld start

        设置开机启动:
        添加开机启动:chkconfig --add mysqld;
        开机启动:chkconfig mysqld on;
        查看开机启动设置是否成功chkconfig --list | grep mysql* mysqld 0:关闭 1:关闭 2:启用 3:启用 4:启用 5:启用 6:关闭停止:

        停止 MySQL 服务: 
        service mysqld stop

4.  MySQL 登陆等权限设置

        登录 MySQL 数据库:
        mysq -u root password 123456

        首次使用创建root管理员和密码:
        (mysql -u root -p输入密码即可?)
        mysql -u root;
        use mysql ;
        update user set password=password("123456") where user="root";
        flush privileges;

        忘记密码:
        service mysqld stop;
        mysqld_safe --user=root --skip-grant-tables;
        这一步骤执行的时候不会出现新的命令行,你需要重新打开一个窗口执行下面的命令
        mysql -u root;
        use mysql ;
        update user set password=password("123456") where user="root";
        flush privileges;

        如果需要外网可以访问需要再做如下设置:
        授权用户可以从远程登陆
        grant all PRIVILEGES on *.* to root@'%'  identified by 'pwd123';
        flush privileges ;

5. 远程访问,开放防火墙的端口号 MySQL

        一般开发测试我直接把防火墙关闭,生产的开发对应端口即可:
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su root
service iptables stop #关闭防火墙
service iptables status #验证是否关闭
chkconfig iptables off #关闭防火墙的开机自动运行
chkconfig –list | grep iptables #验证防火墙的开机自动运行
vim /etc/sysconfig/selinux # 禁用selinux,将SELINUX=disabled

6. Linux MySQL 的几个重要目录

        数据库目录 /var/lib/mysql/
        配置文件 /usr/share /mysql(mysql.server命令及配置文件)
        相关命令 /usr/bin(mysqladmin mysqldump等命令)
        启动脚本 /etc/rc.d/init.d/(启动脚本文件mysql的目录)

7. 删除 MySQL  数据库

        如果使用的是 yum 安装的 mysql,需要删除的话,就使用如下命令:
        yum -y remove mysql*
        然后将 /var/lib/mysql文件夹下的所有文件都删除干净,最后再重新执行上面的安装步骤。


yum 安装 MySQL 指定版本

        默认yum只能安装mysql 5.1,我们可以自己配置通过yum安装5.6或者其他版本。

1. 查看系统里面有没有mysql 的repo(可以参考上面第一步卸载)

        yum repolist all | grep mysql

2. 如果没有发现,则需要配置repo

        只能有一个是 enabled=1的,其他的都得enabled=0。
        vim /etc/yum.repos.d/mysql-community.repo
        输入如下内容
[mysql-connectors-community]
name=MySQL Connectors Community
baseurl=http://repo.mysql.com/yum/mysql-connectors-community/el/6/$basearch/
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:/etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-mysql

[mysql-tools-community]
name=MySQL Tools Community
baseurl=http://repo.mysql.com/yum/mysql-tools-community/el/6/$basearch/
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:/etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-mysql

# Enable to use MySQL 5.5
[mysql55-community]
name=MySQL 5.5 Community Server
baseurl=http://repo.mysql.com/yum/mysql-5.5-community/el/6/$basearch/
enabled=0
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:/etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-mysql

# Enable to use MySQL 5.6
[mysql56-community]
name=MySQL 5.6 Community Server
baseurl=http://repo.mysql.com/yum/mysql-5.6-community/el/6/$basearch/
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:/etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-mysql

# Note: MySQL 5.7 is currently in development. For use at your own risk.
# Please read with sub pages: https://dev.mysql.com/doc/relnotes/mysql/5.7/en/
[mysql57-community-dmr]
name=MySQL 5.7 Community Server Development Milestone Release
baseurl=http://repo.mysql.com/yum/mysql-5.7-community/el/6/$basearch/
enabled=0
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:/etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-mysql

3. 再看看是否存在 MySQL 的 repo

        yum repolist enabled | grep mysql
        可以看到已经有了。

4. 签名

        vim /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-mysql
        写入如下内容
-----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
Version: GnuPG v1.4.9 (SunOS)

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=443I
-----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
5. 安装

        yum install mysql-community-server -y

6. 启动

        service mysqld start 
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