在前后端分离的SpringBoot项目中集成Shiro权限框架

项目背景

       公司在几年前就采用了前后端分离的开发模式,前端所有请求都使用ajax。这样的项目结构在与CAS单点登录等权限管理框架集成时遇到了很多问题,使得权限部分的代码冗长丑陋,CAS的各种重定向也使得用户体验很差,在前端使用vue-router管理页面跳转时,问题更加尖锐。于是我就在寻找一个解决方案,这个方案应该对代码的侵入较少,开发速度快,实现优雅。最近无意中看到springboot与shiro框架集成的文章,在了解了springboot以及shiro的发展状况,并学习了使用方法后,开始在网上搜索前后端分离模式下这两个框架的适应性,在经过测试后发现可行,完全符合个人预期。

解决方案

       本文中项目核心包为SpringBoot1.5.9.RELEASE以及shiro-spring 1.4.0,为了加快开发效率,持久化框架使用hibernate-JPA,为增加可靠性,sessionId的管理使用了shiro-redis开源插件,避免sessionId断电丢失,同时使得多端可共享session,项目结构为多模块项目,详见下图。

 

       其中spring-boot-shiro模块为本文重点,该模块包含shiro核心配置,shiro数据源配置以及各种自定义实现,登录相关服务等。该模块在项目中使用时可直接在pom中引用,并在spring-boot-main入口模块中配置相应数据库连接信息即可,且该模块可以在多个项目中复用,避免重复开发。spring-boot-module1为模拟真实项目中的业务模块,可能会有多个。spring-boot-common中包含通用工具类,常量,异常等等。多模块项目的搭建在本文中不作赘述。

       母模块pom.xml代码如下

 

 

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <groupId>com.xxx</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-parent</artifactId>
    <packaging>pom</packaging>
    <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    <modules>
        <module>spring-boot-main</module>
        <module>spring-boot-module1</module>
        <module>spring-boot-shiro</module>
        <module>spring-boot-common</module>
    </modules>

    <properties>
        <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
        <project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding>
        <java.version>1.8</java.version>
        <spring-boot.version>1.5.9.RELEASE</spring-boot.version>
        <shiro.version>1.4.0</shiro.version>
    </properties>

    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
            <version>${spring-boot.version}</version>
        </dependency>
        <!--在外部tomcat中发布故移除内置包-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-tomcat</artifactId>
            <version>${spring-boot.version}</version>
            <scope>provided</scope>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
            <version>${spring-boot.version}</version>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-devtools</artifactId>
            <version>${spring-boot.version}</version>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-data-jpa</artifactId>
            <version>${spring-boot.version}</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.apache.shiro</groupId>
            <artifactId>shiro-spring</artifactId>
            <version>${shiro.version}</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.alibaba</groupId>
            <artifactId>fastjson</artifactId>
            <version>1.2.8</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.alibaba</groupId>
            <artifactId>druid</artifactId>
            <version>1.0.28</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>mysql</groupId>
            <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
            <version>5.1.39</version>
            <scope>runtime</scope>
        </dependency>
        <!--<dependency>-->
            <!--<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>-->
            <!--<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-thymeleaf</artifactId>-->
            <!--<version>${spring-boot.version}</version>-->
        <!--</dependency>-->
        <!--<dependency>-->
            <!--<groupId>net.sourceforge.nekohtml</groupId>-->
            <!--<artifactId>nekohtml</artifactId>-->
            <!--<version>1.9.22</version>-->
        <!--</dependency>-->
    </dependencies>
</project>

 

       spring-boot-shiro模块接口如下图

      

       传统结构项目中,shiro从cookie中读取sessionId以此来维持会话,在前后端分离的项目中(也可在移动APP项目使用),我们选择在ajax的请求头中传递sessionId,因此需要重写shiro获取sessionId的方式。自定义MySessionManager类继承DefaultWebSessionManager类,重写getSessionId方法,代码如下    

 

import org.apache.shiro.web.servlet.ShiroHttpServletRequest;
import org.apache.shiro.web.session.mgt.DefaultWebSessionManager;
import org.apache.shiro.web.util.WebUtils;
import org.springframework.util.StringUtils;
import javax.servlet.ServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.ServletResponse;
import java.io.Serializable;

/**
 * Created by Administrator on 2017/12/11.
 * 自定义sessionId获取
 */
public class MySessionManager extends DefaultWebSessionManager {

    private static final String AUTHORIZATION = "Authorization";

    private static final String REFERENCED_SESSION_ID_SOURCE = "Stateless request";

    public MySessionManager() {
        super();
    }

    @Override
    protected Serializable getSessionId(ServletRequest request, ServletResponse response) {
        String id = WebUtils.toHttp(request).getHeader(AUTHORIZATION);
        //如果请求头中有 Authorization 则其值为sessionId
        if (!StringUtils.isEmpty(id)) {
            request.setAttribute(ShiroHttpServletRequest.REFERENCED_SESSION_ID_SOURCE, REFERENCED_SESSION_ID_SOURCE);
            request.setAttribute(ShiroHttpServletRequest.REFERENCED_SESSION_ID, id);
            request.setAttribute(ShiroHttpServletRequest.REFERENCED_SESSION_ID_IS_VALID, Boolean.TRUE);
            return id;
        } else {
            //否则按默认规则从cookie取sessionId
            return super.getSessionId(request, response);
        }
    }
}

 

 

 

       如何配置让shiro执行我们的自定义sessionManager呢?下面看ShiroConfig类。      

 

package com.xxx.shiro.config;

import org.apache.shiro.authc.credential.HashedCredentialsMatcher;
import org.apache.shiro.mgt.SecurityManager;
import org.apache.shiro.session.mgt.SessionManager;
import org.apache.shiro.spring.security.interceptor.AuthorizationAttributeSourceAdvisor;
import org.apache.shiro.spring.web.ShiroFilterFactoryBean;
import org.apache.shiro.web.mgt.DefaultWebSecurityManager;
import org.crazycake.shiro.RedisCacheManager;
import org.crazycake.shiro.RedisManager;
import org.crazycake.shiro.RedisSessionDAO;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Value;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.HandlerExceptionResolver;
import java.util.LinkedHashMap;
import java.util.Map;

/**
 * Created by Administrator on 2017/12/11.
 */
@Configuration
public class ShiroConfig {

    @Value("${spring.redis.shiro.host}")
    private String host;
    @Value("${spring.redis.shiro.port}")
    private int port;
    @Value("${spring.redis.shiro.timeout}")
    private int timeout;
    @Value("${spring.redis.shiro.password}")
    private String password;

    @Bean
    public ShiroFilterFactoryBean shirFilter(SecurityManager securityManager) {
        System.out.println("ShiroConfiguration.shirFilter()");
        ShiroFilterFactoryBean shiroFilterFactoryBean = new ShiroFilterFactoryBean();
        shiroFilterFactoryBean.setSecurityManager(securityManager);

        Map<String, String> filterChainDefinitionMap = new LinkedHashMap<String, String>();
        //注意过滤器配置顺序 不能颠倒
        //配置退出 过滤器,其中的具体的退出代码Shiro已经替我们实现了,登出后跳转配置的loginUrl
        filterChainDefinitionMap.put("/logout", "logout");
        // 配置不会被拦截的链接 顺序判断
        filterChainDefinitionMap.put("/static/**", "anon");
        filterChainDefinitionMap.put("/ajaxLogin", "anon");
        filterChainDefinitionMap.put("/login", "anon");
        filterChainDefinitionMap.put("/**", "authc");
        //配置shiro默认登录界面地址,前后端分离中登录界面跳转应由前端路由控制,后台仅返回json数据
        shiroFilterFactoryBean.setLoginUrl("/unauth");
        // 登录成功后要跳转的链接
//        shiroFilterFactoryBean.setSuccessUrl("/index");
        //未授权界面;
//        shiroFilterFactoryBean.setUnauthorizedUrl("/403");
        shiroFilterFactoryBean.setFilterChainDefinitionMap(filterChainDefinitionMap);
        return shiroFilterFactoryBean;
    }

    /**
     * 凭证匹配器
     * (由于我们的密码校验交给Shiro的SimpleAuthenticationInfo进行处理了
     * )
     *
     * @return
     */
    @Bean
    public HashedCredentialsMatcher hashedCredentialsMatcher() {
        HashedCredentialsMatcher hashedCredentialsMatcher = new HashedCredentialsMatcher();
        hashedCredentialsMatcher.setHashAlgorithmName("md5");//散列算法:这里使用MD5算法;
        hashedCredentialsMatcher.setHashIterations(2);//散列的次数,比如散列两次,相当于 md5(md5(""));
        return hashedCredentialsMatcher;
    }

    @Bean
    public MyShiroRealm myShiroRealm() {
        MyShiroRealm myShiroRealm = new MyShiroRealm();
        myShiroRealm.setCredentialsMatcher(hashedCredentialsMatcher());
        return myShiroRealm;
    }


    @Bean
    public SecurityManager securityManager() {
        DefaultWebSecurityManager securityManager = new DefaultWebSecurityManager();
        securityManager.setRealm(myShiroRealm());
        // 自定义session管理 使用redis
        securityManager.setSessionManager(sessionManager());
        // 自定义缓存实现 使用redis
        securityManager.setCacheManager(cacheManager());
        return securityManager;
    }

    //自定义sessionManager
    @Bean
    public SessionManager sessionManager() {
        MySessionManager mySessionManager = new MySessionManager();
        mySessionManager.setSessionDAO(redisSessionDAO());
        return mySessionManager;
    }

    /**
     * 配置shiro redisManager
     * <p>
     * 使用的是shiro-redis开源插件
     *
     * @return
     */
    public RedisManager redisManager() {
        RedisManager redisManager = new RedisManager();
        redisManager.setHost(host);
        redisManager.setPort(port);
        redisManager.setExpire(1800);// 配置缓存过期时间
        redisManager.setTimeout(timeout);
        redisManager.setPassword(password);
        return redisManager;
    }

    /**
     * cacheManager 缓存 redis实现
     * <p>
     * 使用的是shiro-redis开源插件
     *
     * @return
     */
    @Bean
    public RedisCacheManager cacheManager() {
        RedisCacheManager redisCacheManager = new RedisCacheManager();
        redisCacheManager.setRedisManager(redisManager());
        return redisCacheManager;
    }

    /**
     * RedisSessionDAO shiro sessionDao层的实现 通过redis
     * <p>
     * 使用的是shiro-redis开源插件
     */
    @Bean
    public RedisSessionDAO redisSessionDAO() {
        RedisSessionDAO redisSessionDAO = new RedisSessionDAO();
        redisSessionDAO.setRedisManager(redisManager());
        return redisSessionDAO;
    }

    /**
     * 开启shiro aop注解支持.
     * 使用代理方式;所以需要开启代码支持;
     *
     * @param securityManager
     * @return
     */
    @Bean
    public AuthorizationAttributeSourceAdvisor authorizationAttributeSourceAdvisor(SecurityManager securityManager) {
        AuthorizationAttributeSourceAdvisor authorizationAttributeSourceAdvisor = new AuthorizationAttributeSourceAdvisor();
        authorizationAttributeSourceAdvisor.setSecurityManager(securityManager);
        return authorizationAttributeSourceAdvisor;
    }

    /**
     * 注册全局异常处理
     * @return
     */
    @Bean(name = "exceptionHandler")
    public HandlerExceptionResolver handlerExceptionResolver() {
        return new MyExceptionHandler();
    }
}

 

 

 

       在定义的SessionManager的Bean中返回我们的MySessionManager,然后在SecurityManager的Bean中调用setSessionManager(SessionManager sessionManager)方法加载我们的自定义SessionManager。

 附上
MyShiroRealm的代码

 

package com.xxx.shiro.config;

import com.xxx.shiro.entity.SysPermission;
import com.xxx.shiro.entity.SysRole;
import com.xxx.shiro.entity.UserInfo;
import com.xxx.shiro.service.UserInfoService;
import org.apache.shiro.authc.*;
import org.apache.shiro.authz.AuthorizationInfo;
import org.apache.shiro.authz.SimpleAuthorizationInfo;
import org.apache.shiro.realm.AuthorizingRealm;
import org.apache.shiro.subject.PrincipalCollection;
import org.apache.shiro.util.ByteSource;

import javax.annotation.Resource;

/**
 * Created by Administrator on 2017/12/11.
 * 自定义权限匹配和账号密码匹配
 */
public class MyShiroRealm extends AuthorizingRealm {
    @Resource
    private UserInfoService userInfoService;

    @Override
    protected AuthorizationInfo doGetAuthorizationInfo(PrincipalCollection principals) {
//        System.out.println("权限配置-->MyShiroRealm.doGetAuthorizationInfo()");
        SimpleAuthorizationInfo authorizationInfo = new SimpleAuthorizationInfo();
        UserInfo userInfo = (UserInfo) principals.getPrimaryPrincipal();
        for (SysRole role : userInfo.getRoleList()) {
            authorizationInfo.addRole(role.getRole());
            for (SysPermission p : role.getPermissions()) {
                authorizationInfo.addStringPermission(p.getPermission());
            }
        }
        return authorizationInfo;
    }

    /*主要是用来进行身份认证的,也就是说验证用户输入的账号和密码是否正确。*/
    @Override
    protected AuthenticationInfo doGetAuthenticationInfo(AuthenticationToken token)
            throws AuthenticationException {
//        System.out.println("MyShiroRealm.doGetAuthenticationInfo()");
        //获取用户的输入的账号.
        String username = (String) token.getPrincipal();
//        System.out.println(token.getCredentials());
        //通过username从数据库中查找 User对象,如果找到,没找到.
        //实际项目中,这里可以根据实际情况做缓存,如果不做,Shiro自己也是有时间间隔机制,2分钟内不会重复执行该方法
        UserInfo userInfo = userInfoService.findByUsername(username);
//        System.out.println("----->>userInfo="+userInfo);
        if (userInfo == null) {
            return null;
        }
        if (userInfo.getState() == 1) { //账户冻结
            throw new LockedAccountException();
        }
        SimpleAuthenticationInfo authenticationInfo = new SimpleAuthenticationInfo(
                userInfo, //用户名
                userInfo.getPassword(), //密码
                ByteSource.Util.bytes(userInfo.getCredentialsSalt()),//salt=username+salt
                getName()  //realm name
        );
        return authenticationInfo;
    }

}

 

 

 

       传统项目中,登录成功后应该重定向请求,但在前后端分离项目中,通过ajax登录后应该返回登录状态标志以及相关信息。Web层登录方法代码如下

       

    /**
     * 登录方法
     * @param userInfo
     * @return
     */
    @RequestMapping(value = "/ajaxLogin", method = RequestMethod.POST)
    @ResponseBody
    public String ajaxLogin(UserInfo userInfo) {
        JSONObject jsonObject = new JSONObject();
        Subject subject = SecurityUtils.getSubject();
        UsernamePasswordToken token = new UsernamePasswordToken(userInfo.getUsername(), userInfo.getPassword());
        try {
            subject.login(token);
            jsonObject.put("token", subject.getSession().getId());
            jsonObject.put("msg", "登录成功");
        } catch (IncorrectCredentialsException e) {
            jsonObject.put("msg", "密码错误");
        } catch (LockedAccountException e) {
            jsonObject.put("msg", "登录失败,该用户已被冻结");
        } catch (AuthenticationException e) {
            jsonObject.put("msg", "该用户不存在");
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return jsonObject.toString();
    }

 

 

 

       本项目使用SpringMVC框架,可以自行修改使用其他MVC框架。登录成功则返回sessionId作为token给前端存储,前端请求时将该token放入请求头,以Authorization为key,以此来鉴权。如果出现账号或密码错误等异常则返回错误信息。

       传统项目中,登出后应重定向请求,到登录界面或其他指定界面,在前后端分离的项目中,我们应该返回json信息。在上面提到的ShiroConfig中配置了默认登录路由

      

       在Web层加入方法

       

/**
     * 未登录,shiro应重定向到登录界面,此处返回未登录状态信息由前端控制跳转页面
     * @return
     */
    @RequestMapping(value = "/unauth")
    @ResponseBody
    public Object unauth() {
        Map<String, Object> map = new HashMap<String, Object>();
        map.put("code", "1000000");
        map.put("msg", "未登录");
        return map;
    }

 

 

 

       此处简单提示未登录返回状态码,也可自行定义信息。

       在项目中,权限相关表可能不在业务库中,因此有必要单独配置权限相关表的数据源。详细配置可以参见《Spring Boot多数据源配置与使用》一文。

       Shiro数据源配置代码

       

package com.xxx.shiro.datasource;

import java.util.Map;
import javax.persistence.EntityManager;
import javax.sql.DataSource;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Qualifier;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.orm.jpa.JpaProperties;
import org.springframework.boot.orm.jpa.EntityManagerFactoryBuilder;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.data.jpa.repository.config.EnableJpaRepositories;
import org.springframework.orm.jpa.JpaTransactionManager;
import org.springframework.orm.jpa.LocalContainerEntityManagerFactoryBean;
import org.springframework.transaction.PlatformTransactionManager;
import org.springframework.transaction.annotation.EnableTransactionManagement;

/**
 * Created by Administrator on 2017/12/11.
 */
@Configuration
@EnableTransactionManagement
@EnableJpaRepositories(
        entityManagerFactoryRef="shiroEntityManagerFactory",
        transactionManagerRef="shiroTransactionManager",
        basePackages= { "com.xxx.shiro.dao" })
public class ShiroDataSourceConfig {
    @Autowired
    private JpaProperties jpaProperties;

    @Autowired
    @Qualifier("shiroDataSource")
    private DataSource shiroDataSource;

    @Bean(name = "shiroEntityManager")
    public EntityManager shiroEntityManager(EntityManagerFactoryBuilder builder) {
        return shiroEntityManagerFactory(builder).getObject().createEntityManager();
    }

    @Bean(name = "shiroEntityManagerFactory")
    public LocalContainerEntityManagerFactoryBean shiroEntityManagerFactory (EntityManagerFactoryBuilder builder) {
        return builder
                .dataSource(shiroDataSource)
                .properties(getVendorProperties(shiroDataSource))
                .packages("com.xxx.shiro.entity")
                .persistenceUnit("shiroPersistenceUnit")
                .build();
    }

    private Map<String, String> getVendorProperties(DataSource dataSource) {
        return jpaProperties.getHibernateProperties(dataSource);
    }

    @Bean(name = "shiroTransactionManager")
    PlatformTransactionManager shiroTransactionManager(EntityManagerFactoryBuilder builder) {
        return new JpaTransactionManager(shiroEntityManagerFactory(builder).getObject());
    }
}

       

       IDEA下JpaProperties可能会报错,可以忽略。

       入口模块结构如下图

 

       DataSourceConfig中配置了多个数据源的Bean,其中shiro数据源Bean代码

       

    /**
     * shiro数据源
     * @return
     */
    @Bean(name = "shiroDataSource")
    @Qualifier("shiroDataSource")
    @ConfigurationProperties(prefix="spring.datasource.shiro")
    public DataSource shiroDataSource() {
        return DataSourceBuilder.create().build();
    }

 

 

 

       ServletInitializer和StartApp为SpringBoot在外部tomcat启动配置,不赘述。

       SpringBoot的相关配置在application.yml中,shiro配置代码如下图

      

       Primary为主库配置。当在某个项目中引入spring-boot-shiro模块时,只需要在配置文件中加入shiro数据源及redis的相关配置,并在DataSourceConfig加入shiro数据源Bean即可。

       Shiro框架会根据用户登录及权限状态抛出异常,建议使用SpringMVC的全局异常捕获来处理异常,避免重复代码。该项目中代码如下

package com.xxx.shiro.config;

import com.alibaba.fastjson.support.spring.FastJsonJsonView;
import org.apache.shiro.authz.UnauthenticatedException;
import org.apache.shiro.authz.UnauthorizedException;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.HandlerExceptionResolver;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.ModelAndView;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

/**
 * Created by Administrator on 2017/12/11.
 * 全局异常处理
 */
public class MyExceptionHandler implements HandlerExceptionResolver {

    public ModelAndView resolveException(HttpServletRequest httpServletRequest, HttpServletResponse httpServletResponse, Object o, Exception ex) {
        ModelAndView mv = new ModelAndView();
        FastJsonJsonView view = new FastJsonJsonView();
        Map<String, Object> attributes = new HashMap<String, Object>();
        if (ex instanceof UnauthenticatedException) {
            attributes.put("code", "1000001");
            attributes.put("msg", "token错误");
        } else if (ex instanceof UnauthorizedException) {
            attributes.put("code", "1000002");
            attributes.put("msg", "用户无权限");
        } else {
            attributes.put("code", "1000003");
            attributes.put("msg", ex.getMessage());
        }

        view.setAttributesMap(attributes);
        mv.setView(view);
        return mv;
    }
}

 

      该Bean在ShiroConfig中已有注册代码。

 

       至此,shiro框架的集成就结束了。至于shiro框架的使用细节,可以自行查阅相关资料。项目代码本人测试可正常工作,未应用到生产环境,仅供学习交流使用。

参考文章

1.  《在前后端分离的项目中,后台使用shiro框架时,怎样使用它的会话管理系统(session),从而实现权限控制

 

2.  《Spring Boot多数据源配置与使用

 

3.  《springboot整合shiro-登录认证和权限管理

 

需要源码的朋友可以看看我的另一篇博文《SpringBoot+Shiro+MyBatisPlus搭建前后端分离的多模块项目

更优雅的源代码,更新的springboot版本,热点问题解答,可以看看最新博文《SpringBoot2.0,Thymeleaf与Shiro整合

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