# 带宽与延时知识整理

## 基础

### 带宽

“带宽”(bandwidth)本来是指信号具有的频带宽度，单位是赫（或千赫、兆赫、吉赫等）。

### 信道带宽

1. 基波频率（与采样周期、信号等级有关）
2. 窗口大小（传输数据量/耗费时间）

The communication link considered is viewed as a bit pipe over which a given number
of bits per second can be transmitted. This number is called the transmission capacity of
the link. It depends on both the physical channel and the interface (e.g., modems), and is
simply the rate at which the interface accepts bits.

## 时延

In what follows, we will mostly focus on packet delay within the communication
subnet (i.e., the network layer). This delay is the sum of delays on each subnet link
traversed by the packet. Each link delay in tum consists of four components.

1. The processing delay between the time the packet is correctly received at the head
node of the link and the time the packet is assigned to an outgoing link queue
for transmission. (In some systems, we must add to this delay some additional
processing time at the DLC and physical layers.)
2. The queueing delay between the time the packet is assigned to a queue for transmission and the time it starts being transmitted. During this time, the packet waits
while other packets in the transmission queue are transmitted.
3. The transmission delay between the times that the first and last bits of the packet
are transmitted.
4. The propagation delay between the time the last bit is transmitted at the head
node of the link and the time the last bit is received at the tail node. This is
proportional to the physical distance between transmitter and receiver; it can be
relatively substantial, particularly for a satellite link or a very high speed link.

## QoS

In time-division (TDM) and frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) with m traffic
streams, the link capacity is essentially subdivided into m portions-one per traffic
stream. In FOM, the channel bandwidth W is subdivided into m channels each with
bandwidth W /m (actually slightly less because of the need for guard bands between
channels). The transmission capacity of each channel is roughly C /m, where C is
the capacity that would be obtained if the entire bandwidth were allocated to a single
channel. The transmission time of a packet that is L bits long is Lm/C, or m times
larger than in the corresponding statistical multiplexing scheme. In TOM, allocation is
done by dividing the time axis into slots of fixed length (e.g., one bit or one byte long,
or perhaps one packet long for fixed length packets). Again, conceptually, we may view
the communication link as consisting of m separate links with capacity C /m. In the case
where the slots are short relative to packet length, we may again regard the transmission
time of a packet L bits long as Lm/C. In the case where the slots are of packet length,
the transmission time of an L bit packet is L/C, but there is a wait of (m - 1) packet
transmission times between packets of the same stream.

03-12 552

05-06 2492

12-29 6551

09-29 1114

10-24 3761

10-22 2250

09-11 3651

11-25 1511

06-20 1322

08-26 2.8万