Mongo 聚合框架-Aggregate(三)

三 表达式操作符

6、字符串类型聚合操作符

 1)$concat
  作用:连接字符串,如果某个表达式字段不存在或字段值为null,则返回null
  语法:{ $concat: [ <expression1>, <expression2>, … ] }
  示例

{ "_id" : 1, "item" : "ABC1", quarter: "13Q1", "description" : "product 1" }
{ "_id" : 2, "item" : "ABC2", quarter: "13Q4", "description" : "product 2" }
{ "_id" : 3, "item" : "XYZ1", quarter: "14Q2", "description" : null }

db.inventory.aggregate(
   [
      { $project: { itemDescription: { $concat: [ "$item", " - ", "$description" ] } } }
   ]
)
结果如下
{ "_id" : 1, "itemDescription" : "ABC1 - product 1" }
{ "_id" : 2, "itemDescription" : "ABC2 - product 2" }
{ "_id" : 3, "itemDescription" : null }

 2)$toLower|$toUpper
  作用:将一个字符串全部转为小写|大写,如果该字符串为null,则返回空字符串。
  语法:{ $toLower: <expression> }|{ $toUpper: <expression> }
  示例

{ "_id" : 1, "item" : "ABC1", quarter: "13Q1", "description" : "PRODUCT 1" }
{ "_id" : 2, "item" : "abc2", quarter: "13Q4", "description" : "Product 2" }
{ "_id" : 3, "item" : "xyz1", quarter: "14Q2", "description" : null }

db.inventory.aggregate(
   [
     {
       $project:
         {
           upItem: { $toLower: "$item" },
           upDescription: { $toLower: "$description" },
           loItem: { $toUpper: "$item" },
                       loDescription: { $toUpper: "$description" }
         }
     }
   ]
)
结果如下
{ "_id" : 1, "upItem" : "ABC1", "upDescription" : "PRODUCT 1", "loItem" : "abc1", "loDescription" : "product 1" }
{ "_id" : 2, "upItem" : "ABC2", "upDescription" : "PRODUCT 2", "loItem" : "abc2", "loDescription" : "product 2" }
{ "_id" : 3, "upItem" : "XYZ1", "upDescription" : "", "loItem" : "xyz1", "loDescription" : "" }

 3)$split
  作用:根据指定字符串分割字符串,返回分割后的字符串数组
  语法:{ $split: [ <string expression>, <delimiter> ] }
  示例

{ "_id" : 1, "city" : "Berkeley, CA", "qty" : 648 }
{ "_id" : 2, "city" : "Bend, OR", "qty" : 491 }
{ "_id" : 3, "city" : "Kensington, CA", "qty" : 233 }
{ "_id" : 4, "city" : "Eugene, OR", "qty" : 842 }
{ "_id" : 5, "city" : "Reno, NV", "qty" : 655 }
{ "_id" : 6, "city" : "Portland, OR", "qty" : 408 }
{ "_id" : 7, "city" : "Sacramento, CA", "qty" : 574 }

汇总每个州的qty的总大小,并按其大小排序
db.deliveries.aggregate([
  { $project : { city_state : { $split: ["$city", ", "] }, qty : 1 } },
  { $unwind : "$city_state" },
  { $match : { city_state : /[A-Z]{2}/ } },
  { $group : { _id: { "state" : "$city_state" }, total_qty : { "$sum" : "$qty" } } },
  { $sort : { total_qty : -1 } }
]);
{ "_id" : { "state" : "OR" }, "total_qty" : 1741 }
{ "_id" : { "state" : "CA" }, "total_qty" : 1455 }
{ "_id" : { "state" : "NV" }, "total_qty" : 655 }

 4)$substr
 5)$indexOfBytes
 6)$indexOfCP
 7)$strLenBytes
 8)$strLenCP
 9)$strcasecmp
 10)$substrBytes
 11)$substrCP

7、日期类型聚合操作符

 1)年月日等
  $dayOfYear:该时间在一年中是第几天,范围1至366
  $dayOfMonth:该时间在一月中是第几天,范围1至31
  $dayOfWeek:该时间在一周中是第几天,范围1(Sunday)至7(Saturday)
  $year:该时间属于哪一年
  $month:该时间属于哪一月
  $week:该时间在一年中是第几周,范围从0至53
  $hour:该时间的小时
  $minute:该时间的分钟
  $second:该时间的秒数
  $millisecond:该时间的毫秒数
 示例

{ "_id" : 1, "item" : "abc", "price" : 10, "quantity" : 2, "date" : ISODate("2014-01-01T08:15:39.736Z") }

db.sales.aggregate(
   [
     {
       $project:
         {
           year: { $year: "$date" },
           month: { $month: "$date" },
           day: { $dayOfMonth: "$date" },
           hour: { $hour: "$date" },
           minutes: { $minute: "$date" },
           seconds: { $second: "$date" },
           milliseconds: { $millisecond: "$date" },
           dayOfYear: { $dayOfYear: "$date" },
           dayOfWeek: { $dayOfWeek: "$date" },
           week: { $week: "$date" }
         }
     }
   ]
)
结果如下
{
  "_id" : 1,
  "year" : 2014,
  "month" : 1,
  "day" : 1,
  "hour" : 8,
  "minutes" : 15,
  "seconds" : 39,
  "milliseconds" : 736,
  "dayOfYear" : 1,
  "dayOfWeek" : 4,
  "week" : 0
}

 2)$dateToString
  作用:根据要求格式化时间对象
  语法:{ $dateToString: { format: <formatString>, date: <dateExpression> } }
  示例

{"_id" : 1,"item" : "abc","price" : 10,"quantity" : 2,"date" : ISODate("2014-01-01T08:15:39.736Z")}

db.sales.aggregate(
  [
    {
      $project: {
         yearMonthDayUTC: { $dateToString: { format: "%Y-%m-%d", date: "$date" } },
         time: { $dateToString: { format: "%H:%M:%S:%L", date: "$date" } }
      }
    }
  ]
)
结果如下
{ "_id" : 1, "yearMonthDayUTC" : "2014-01-01", "time" : "08:15:39:736" }

 3)$isoDayOfWeek:
 4)$isoWeek:
 5)$isoWeekYear:

8、条件类型聚合操作符

 1)$cond
  语法
   { $cond: { if: <boolean-expression>, then: <true-case>, else: <false-case-> } } 或
   { $cond: [ <boolean-expression>, <true-case>, <false-case> ] }
  作用
   $cond为mongoDB的三元运算符
  示例

{ "_id" : 1, "item" : "abc1", qty: 300 }
{ "_id" : 2, "item" : "abc2", qty: 200 }
{ "_id" : 3, "item" : "xyz1", qty: 250 }
查询如果qty大于250,则discount为30,否则为20
db.inventory.aggregate(
   [
      {
         $project:
           {
             item: 1,
             discount:
               {
                 $cond: { if: { $gte: [ "$qty", 250 ] }, then: 30, else: 20 }
               }
           }
      }
   ]
)
或
db.inventory.aggregate(
   [
      {
         $project:
           {
             item: 1,
             discount:
               {
                 $cond: [ { $gte: [ "$qty", 250 ] }, 30, 20 ]
               }
           }
      }
   ]
)
结果如下
{ "_id" : 1, "item" : "abc1", "discount" : 30 }
{ "_id" : 2, "item" : "abc2", "discount" : 20 }
{ "_id" : 3, "item" : "xyz1", "discount" : 30 }

 2)$ifNull
  作用:非空判断操作,如果为空,则用默认的值替代,如果非空,则保持原值
  语法:{ $ifNull: [ <expression>, <replacement-expression-if-null> ] }
  示例

{ "_id" : 1, "item" : "abc1", description: "product 1", qty: 300 }
{ "_id" : 2, "item" : "abc2", description: null, qty: 200 }
{ "_id" : 3, "item" : "xyz1", qty: 250 }

db.inventory.aggregate(
   [
      {
         $project: {
            item: 1,
            description: { $ifNull: [ "$description", "Unspecified" ] }
         }
      }
   ]
)
结果如下
{ "_id" : 1, "item" : "abc1", "description" : "product 1" }
{ "_id" : 2, "item" : "abc2", "description" : "Unspecified" }
{ "_id" : 3, "item" : "xyz1", "description" : "Unspecified" }

 3)$switch
  作用:
  语法:

$switch: {
       branches: [
          { case: <expression>, then: <expression> },
          { case: <expression>, then: <expression> },
          ...
       ],
       default: <expression>
    }

示例

{ "_id" : 1, "name" : "Susan Wilkes", "scores" : [ 87, 86, 78 ] }
{ "_id" : 2, "name" : "Bob Hanna", "scores" : [ 71, 64, 81 ] }
{ "_id" : 3, "name" : "James Torrelio", "scores" : [ 91, 84, 97 ] }

db.grades.aggregate( [
  {
    $project:
      {
        "name" : 1,
        "summary" :
        {
          $switch:
            {
              branches: [
                {
                  case: { $gte : [ { $avg : "$scores" }, 90 ] },
                  then: "Doing great!"
                },
                {
                  case: { $and : [ { $gte : [ { $avg : "$scores" }, 80 ] },
                                   { $lt : [ { $avg : "$scores" }, 90 ] } ] },
                  then: "Doing pretty well."
                },
                {
                  case: { $lt : [ { $avg : "$scores" }, 80 ] },
                  then: "Needs improvement."
                }
              ],
              default: "No scores found."
            }
         }
      }
   }
] )
结果如下
{ "_id" : 1, "name" : "Susan Wilkes", "summary" : "Doing pretty well." }
{ "_id" : 2, "name" : "Bob Hanna", "summary" : "Needs improvement." }
{ "_id" : 3, "name" : "James Torrelio", "summary" : "Doing great!" }

9、集合类型聚合操作符

 1)$setEquals
 2)$setIntersection
  语法:
   { $setIntersection: [ <array1>, <array2>, … ] }
  作用
   获取两个或多个数组的交集
  示例

{ "_id" : 4, "A" : [ "red", "blue" ], "B" : [ "green", "red" ] }

db.experiments.aggregate([{ $project: { A: 1, B: 1, commonToBoth: { $setIntersection: [ "$A", "$B" ] }, _id: 0 } }])
结果如下
{ "A" : [ "red", "blue" ], "B" : [ "green", "red" ], "commonToBoth" : [ "red" ] }

 3)$setUnion
 4)$setDifference
 5)$setIsSubset
 6)$anyElementTrue
 7)$allElementsTrue

10、文本搜索类型聚合操作符

 1)$meta

11、变量类型聚合操作符

 1)$let

12、文字类型聚合操作符

 1)$literal

13、数据类型聚合操作符

 1)$type

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