基于 Docker、Consul、Registrator、Consul-template 的服务部署

最近准备自己实践一下基于 Consul 的服务发现,于是有了这篇文章。

本人的环境是 Google Cloud,CentOS 7.5,生产环境。

首先安装 Docker 和 docker-compose 。官网都有安装方法,这里不详细说了。

然后安装 Consul 和 Registrator。因为这两个有关联,所以我直接编排在了一个 docker-compose.yml 文件里。文件如下:

version: "3"
services:
  consul:
    image: consul:latest
    container_name: consul
    network_mode: "host"
    volumes:
    - ${PWD}/cert/server-key.pem:/etc/pki/tls/private/server-key.pem
    - ${PWD}/cert/server.pem:/etc/pki/tls/certs/server.pem
    - ${PWD}/cert/consul-ca.pem:/etc/pki/tls/certs/consul-ca.pem
    - ${PWD}/config.json:/consul/config/config.json
    command: agent
    # see consul.io/docs/agent/options/html for more information
    # -server: server mode
    # -ui: enable ui on :8500/ui/
    # -bind: used for communication in a cluster
    # -advertise-wan: used for WAN communication
    # -node: node name
    # -datacenter: datacenter
    # -bootstrap-expect: number of servers expected to be connected when bootstraping

# listen on local docker sock to register the container with public ports to the consul service
  registrator:
    image: gliderlabs/registrator:master
    container_name: registrator
    network_mode: "host"
    depends_on:
      - "consul"
    volumes:
    - "/var/run/docker.sock:/tmp/docker.sock"
    command: -tags registrator -retry-attempts 10 -retry-interval 5000 consul://localhost:8500

从上往下注释一下:

  • Consul:向 Consul 容器共享了四个文件,分别是本服务器的证书和 key、自签 CA 的证书、以及 consul 节点的配置文件。关于如何签署证书,参考官网:https://www.consul.io/docs/agent/encryption.html
  • Registrator:-tags registrator 表示所有通过 registrator 注册的服务都加上这个 tag,主要是便于标识。-retry 相关的是因为即使设置了 depend on consul,registrator 也几乎是和 consul 同时启动的, 因此可能出现第一次连不上的情况。

 

我的 config.json 配置文件如下:

{
  "datacenter": "google",
  "node_name": "gce-node1",
  "server": true,
  "bootstrap": true,
  "ui": true,
  "ports": {
    "https": 8501
  },
  "bind_addr": "lan ip",
  "advertise_addr_wan": "wan ip",
  "client_addr": "127.0.0.1",
  "encrypt": "=================",
  "key_file": "/etc/pki/tls/private/server-key.pem",
  "cert_file": "/etc/pki/tls/certs/server.pem",
  "ca_file": "/etc/pki/tls/certs/consul-ca.pem",
  "verify_incoming": true,
  "verify_outgoing": true,
  "verify_server_hostname": true
}

简单介绍一下各个配置项:

  • 数据中心和node name 这个不多说。
  • server 表示这个 agent 是在 server 模式,bootstrap 表示是 bootstrap 模式,因为这是第一个 consul 节点所以要 bootstrap。
  • ui 表示在 HTTP(HTTPS)端口开启 Web UI,现在的 consul 版本已经自带静态资源文件了,不需要手动下载静态资源并指定 ui-dir。
  • encrypt 表示集群内通信使用的 key,这个在官方的页面(https://www.consul.io/docs/agent/encryption.html)上有提到。
  • key_file、cert_file、ca_file、verify_incoming、verify_outgoing、verify_server_hostname 这些在官方的 Encryption 页面上也有详细介绍,不多说了

 

docker-compose up 测试一下是否正常运行,有问题看官方文档。之后进入最后一步:Conusl-template 。

首先下载,地址是:https://releases.hashicorp.com/consul-template/,解压并放到$PATH的任意目录里。

然后写 consul-template 的配置文件:

# See https://github.com/hashicorp/consul-template
consul {
  # This is the address of the Consul agent. By default, this is
  # 127.0.0.1:8500, which is the default bind and port for a local Consul
  # agent. It is not recommended that you communicate directly with a Consul
  # server, and instead communicate with the local Consul agent. There are many
  # reasons for this, most importantly the Consul agent is able to multiplex
  # connections to the Consul server and reduce the number of open HTTP
  # connections. Additionally, it provides a "well-known" IP address for which
  # clients can connect.
  address = "127.0.0.1:8501"

  # This is the ACL token to use when connecting to Consul. If you did not
  # enable ACLs on your Consul cluster, you do not need to set this option.
  #
  # This option is also available via the environment variable CONSUL_TOKEN.
  # token = "abcd1234"

  # This controls the retry behavior when an error is returned from Consul.
  # Consul Template is highly fault tolerant, meaning it does not exit in the
  # face of failure. Instead, it uses exponential back-off and retry functions
  # to wait for the cluster to become available, as is customary in distributed
  # systems.
  retry {
    # This enabled retries. Retries are enabled by default, so this is
    # redundant.
    enabled = true

    # This specifies the number of attempts to make before giving up. Each
    # attempt adds the exponential backoff sleep time. Setting this to
    # zero will implement an unlimited number of retries.
    attempts = 12

    # This is the base amount of time to sleep between retry attempts. Each
    # retry sleeps for an exponent of 2 longer than this base. For 5 retries,
    # the sleep times would be: 250ms, 500ms, 1s, 2s, then 4s.
    backoff = "250ms"

    # This is the maximum amount of time to sleep between retry attempts.
    # When max_backoff is set to zero, there is no upper limit to the
    # exponential sleep between retry attempts.
    # If max_backoff is set to 10s and backoff is set to 1s, sleep times
    # would be: 1s, 2s, 4s, 8s, 10s, 10s, ...
    max_backoff = "1m"
  }

  ssl {
    # This enables SSL. Specifying any option for SSL will also enable it.
    enabled = true

    # This enables SSL peer verification. The default value is "true", which
    # will check the global CA chain to make sure the given certificates are
    # valid. If you are using a self-signed certificate that you have not added
    # to the CA chain, you may want to disable SSL verification. However, please
    # understand this is a potential security vulnerability.
    verify = false

    # This is the path to the certificate to use to authenticate. If just a
    # certificate is provided, it is assumed to contain both the certificate and
    # the key to convert to an X509 certificate. If both the certificate and
    # key are specified, Consul Template will automatically combine them into an
    # X509 certificate for you.
    cert = "/root/service_discovery/cert/client.pem"
    key  = "/root/service_discovery/cert/client-key.pem"

    # This is the path to the certificate authority to use as a CA. This is
    # useful for self-signed certificates or for organizations using their own
    # internal certificate authority.
    ca_cert = "/root/service_discovery/cert/consul-ca.pem"

    # This sets the SNI server name to use for validation.
    server_name = "server.google-tw.consul"
  }
}

# This block defines the configuration for connecting to a syslog server for
# logging.
syslog {
  # This enables syslog logging. Specifying any other option also enables
  # syslog logging.
  #enabled = true

  # This is the name of the syslog facility to log to.
  #facility = "LOCAL5"
}


template {
  source = "/root/service_discovery/consul-template/upstream-everyclass-server.conf"
  destination = "/www/server/panel/vhost/nginx/upstream-server.conf"
  command = "nginx -s reload"

  # This option backs up the previously rendered template at the destination
  # path before writing a new one. It keeps exactly one backup. This option is
  # useful for preventing accidental changes to the data without having a
  # rollback strategy.
  backup = true

  wait {
    min = "2s"
    max = "10s"
  }
}

官方的 README 对每一个项目都有非常详尽的说明(https://github.com/hashicorp/consul-template),可供参考。

模板如下:

upstream everyclass-server {
    {{ range service "everyclass-server" }}
    server {{ .Address }}:{{ .Port }};
    {{ end }}
}

在 nginx 的 server 配置里:

    location /
    {
        proxy_set_header Host $host;
    	proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
    	proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
    	proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto $scheme;
        proxy_pass http://everyclass-server;
    }

把 upstream 和 server 分离成两个文件主要是考虑到 server 部分可能会在服务器可视化面板中修改,如果写在了 consul-template 的模板里就只能上机器手动改了,不太方便。

运行:

consul-template -config "/root/service_discovery/consul-template/config.hcl"

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