web.xml的加载及各节点常用节点的解析

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        web.xml加载顺序与web.xml常用节点解析        
           
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<p><strong><span style="font-size:12px; color:#ff0000">web.xml加载顺序</span></strong></p>
<p><span style="font-size:12px">应用服务器启动时web.xml加载过程,至于这些节点在xml文件中的前后顺序没有关系,不过有些应用服务器,我曾碰到过的 websphere就严格要求web.xml的节点顺序,否则部署不成功,所以还是赞成按照web.xml标准格式写<br>
content-param --&gt; listener --&gt; filter --&gt; servlet</span></p>
<p><span style="font-size:12px">1、启动WEB项目的时候,应用服务器会去读它的配置文件web.xml.读两个节点:&lt;listener&gt;&lt;/listener&gt; 和 &lt;context-param&gt;&lt;/context-param&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;
<br>
<br>
2、紧接着,容器创建一个ServletContext(上下文),这个WEB项目所有部分都将共享这个上下文.<br>
<br>
3、容器将&lt;context-param&gt;&lt;/context-param&gt;转化为键值对,并交给ServletContext.<br>
<br>
4、容器创建&lt;listener&gt;&lt;/listener&gt;中的类实例,即创建监听.<br>
<br>
5、在监听中会有contextInitialized(ServletContextEvent args)初始化方法,在这个方法中获得: <br>
&nbsp;ServletContext = ServletContextEvent.getServletContext();<br>
&nbsp;context-param的值 = ServletContext.getInitParameter("context-param的键");&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <br>
<br>
6、得到这个context-param的值之后,你就可以做一些操作了.注意,这个时候你的WEB项目还没有完全启动完成.这个动作会比所有的Servlet都要早.换句话说,这个时候,你对&lt;context-param&gt;中的键值做的操作,将在你的WEB项目完全启动之前被执行.如果想在项目启动之前就打开数据库,那么这里就可以在&lt;context-param&gt;中设置数据库的连接方式,在监听类中初始化数据库的连接,这个监听是自己写的一个类,除了初始化方法,它还有销毁方法.用于关闭应用前释放资源.比如说数据库连接的关闭.</span></p>
<p><br>
<span><span style="font-size:12px"><span style="color:#ff0000">对于某类配置节而言,与它们出现的顺序是有关的</span>。<br>
以 filter 为例,web.xml 中当然可以定义多个 filter,与 filter 相关的一个配置节是 filter-mapping,这里一定要注意,对于拥有相同 filter-name 的 filter 和 filter-mapping 配置节而言,filter-mapping 必须出现在 filter 之后,否则当解析到 filter-mapping 时,它所对应的 filter-name 还未定义。<br>
web 容器启动时初始化每个 filter 时,是按照 filter 配置节出现的顺序来初始化的,当请求资源匹配多个 filter-mapping 时,filter 拦截资源是按照 filter-mapping 配置节出现的顺序来依次调用 doFilter() 方法的。
<br>
servlet 同 filter 类似,此处不再赘述。</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size:12px">比如filter 需要用到 bean ,但加载顺序是: 先加载filter 后加载spring,则filter中初始化操作中的bean为null;所以,如果过滤器中要使用到 bean,可以将spring 的加载 改成 Listener的方式
<br>
&nbsp;&lt;listener&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &lt;listener-class&gt;org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener&lt;/listener-class&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;/listener&gt;</span></p>
<p><span style="font-size:12px">&nbsp;</span></p>
<p><span><span style="font-size:12px"><strong><span style="color:#ff0000">web.xml节点解析<br>
</span><br>
根节点</strong><br>
1、 </span></span><strong><span style="font-size:12px; color:#0000ff">&lt;web-app&gt;&lt;/web-app&gt;<br>
</span></strong></p>
<p><span><span style="font-size:12px"><strong>常用节点介绍</strong><br>
2、 <strong><span style="color:#0000ff">&lt;context-param /&gt;</span></strong>&nbsp; 用来设定web站台的环境参数<br>
&nbsp;它包含两个子元素:<br>
&nbsp;&lt;param-name&gt;&lt;/param-name&gt; 用来指定参数的名称<br>
&nbsp;&lt;param-value&gt;&lt;/param-value&gt; 用来设定参数值<br>
&nbsp;在此设定的参数,可以在servlet中用 getServletContext().getInitParameter("my_param") 来取得<br>
&nbsp;例子:<br>
&nbsp;&lt;context-param&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;param-name&gt;log4jConfigLocation&lt;/param-name&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;param-value&gt;classpath*:/log4j.properties&lt;/param-value&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;/context-param&gt;<br>
<br>
3、 <strong><span style="color:#0000ff">&lt;listener /&gt;</span></strong> 用来设定Listener接口<br>
&nbsp;它的主要子元素为<br>
&nbsp;&lt;listener-class&gt;&lt;/listener-class&gt; 定义Listener的类名称<br>
&nbsp;例子:<br>
&nbsp;&lt;listener&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &lt;listener-class&gt;org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener&lt;/listener-class&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;/listener&gt;<br>
<br>
4、 <strong><span style="color:#0000ff">&lt;filter /&gt;</span></strong>&nbsp; 是用来声明filter的相关设定<br>
&nbsp;&lt;filter-name&gt;&lt;/filter-name&gt; 这当然就是指定filter的名字<br>
&nbsp;&lt;filter-class&gt;&lt;/filter-class&gt; 这是用来定义filter的类的名称<br>
&nbsp;&lt;init-param&gt;&lt;/init-param&gt; 用来定义参数,它有两个子元素:<br>
&nbsp;&lt;param-name&gt;&lt;/param-name&gt; 用来指定参数的名称<br>
&nbsp;&lt;param-value&gt;&lt;/param-value&gt; 用来设定参数值<br>
&nbsp;例子:<br>
&nbsp;&lt;filter&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;filter-name&gt;encodingFilter&lt;/filter-name&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;filter-class&gt;org.springframework.web.filter.CharacterEncodingFilter&lt;/filter-class&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;init-param&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;param-name&gt;encoding&lt;/param-name&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;param-value&gt;GBK&lt;/param-value&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;/init-param&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;init-param&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;param-name&gt;forceEncoding&lt;/param-name&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;param-value&gt;true&lt;/param-value&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;/init-param&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;/filter&gt;<br>
<br>
5、 <strong><span style="color:#0000ff">&lt;servlet /&gt;</span></strong> 用来声明一个servlet的数据,主要有以下子元素:<br>
&nbsp;&lt;servlet-name&gt;&lt;/servlet-name&gt; 指定servlet的名称<br>
&nbsp;&lt;servlet-class&gt;&lt;/servlet-class&gt; 指定servlet的类名称<br>
&nbsp;&lt;jsp-file&gt;&lt;/jsp-file&gt; 指定web站台中的某个JSP网页的完整路径<br>
&nbsp;&lt;init-param&gt;&lt;/init-param&gt; 用来定义参数,和前面的&lt;init-param&gt;差不多<br>
&nbsp;同样,与&lt;servlet&gt;&lt;/servlet&gt;一起使用的是<br>
&nbsp;&lt;servlet-mapping&gt;&lt;/servlet-mapping&gt; 用来定义servlet所对应的URL,包含两个子元素:<br>
&nbsp;&lt;servlet-name&gt;&lt;/servlet-name&gt; 指定servlet的名称<br>
&nbsp;&lt;url-pattern&gt;&lt;/url-pattern&gt; 指定servlet所对应的URL<br>
&nbsp;&lt;servlet&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;servlet-name&gt;DemoServlet&lt;/servlet-name&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;servlet-class&gt;com.test.DemoServlet&lt;/servlet-class&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;/servlet&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;servlet-mapping&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;servlet-name&gt;DemoServlet&lt;/servlet-name&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;url-pattern&gt;/demoServlet&lt;/url-pattern&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;/servlet-mapping&gt;<br>
<br>
</span></span></p>
<p><span><span style="font-size:12px"><strong>基本节点:<br>
</strong><br>
6、 <strong><span style="color:#0000ff">&lt;description/&gt;</span></strong> 是对站台的描述<br>
&nbsp;例子:&lt;description&gt;传道、授业、解惑&lt;/description&gt; <br>
<br>
7、 <strong><span style="color:#0000ff">&lt;display-name/&gt;</span></strong> 定义站台的名称<br>
&nbsp;例子:&lt;display-name&gt;我的站点&lt;/display-name&gt;<br>
<br>
8、 <strong><span style="color:#0000ff">&lt;icon&gt;</span></strong> <br>
icon元素包含small-icon和large-icon两个子元素.用来指定web站台中小图标和大图标的路径. <br>
&lt;small-icon&gt;/路径/smallicon.gif&lt;/small-icon&gt; <br>
small-icon元素应指向web站台中某个小图标的路径,大小为16 X 16 pixel,但是图象文件必须为GIF或JPEG格式,扩展名必须为:.gif或.jpg.
<br>
&lt;large-icon&gt;/路径/largeicon-jpg&lt;/large-icon&gt; <br>
large-icon元素应指向web站台中某个大图表路径,大小为32 X 32 pixel,但是图象文件必须为GIF或JPEG的格式,扩展名必须为; gif或jpg.
<br>
例子: <br>
&lt;icon&gt; <br>
&nbsp;&lt;small-icon&gt;/images/small.gif&lt;/small-icon&gt; <br>
&nbsp;&lt;large-icon&gt;/images/large.gir&lt;/large-icon&gt; <br>
&lt;/icon&gt;<br>
<br>
9、 <span style="color:#0000ff"><strong>&lt;distributable/&gt;</strong></span> 是指定该站台是否可分布式处理<br>
<br>
10、 <span style="color:#0000ff"><strong>&lt;session-config/&gt;</strong></span> 用来定义web站台中的session参数<br>
&nbsp;包含一个子元素:<br>
&nbsp;&lt;session-timeout&gt;&lt;/session-timeout&gt; 用来定义这个web站台所有session的有效期限,单位为 分钟<br>
</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size:12px">11、 <strong><span style="color:#0000ff">&lt;mime-mapping /&gt;</span></strong> 定义某一个扩展名和某一个MIME Type做对应该<br>
&nbsp;包含两个子元素:<br>
&nbsp;&lt;extension&gt;&lt;/extension&gt; 扩展名的名称<br>
&nbsp;&lt;mime-type&gt;&lt;/mime-type&gt; MIME格式<br>
&nbsp;例子:<br>
&nbsp;&lt;mime-mapping&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;extension&gt;doc&lt;/extension&gt;&nbsp; <br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;mime-type&gt;application/vnd.ms-word&lt;/mime-type&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;/mime-mapping&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <br>
&nbsp;&lt;mime-mapping&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;extension&gt;xls&lt;/extension&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;mime-type&gt;application/vnd.ms-excel&lt;/mime-type&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;/mime-mapping&gt;<br>
</span></p>
<p><span style="font-size:12px">12、 </span><span><span style="font-size:12px"><span style="color:#0000ff"><strong>&lt;error-page&gt;<br>
</strong></span>&nbsp;&lt;error-page&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &lt;error-code&gt;500&lt;/error-code&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &lt;location&gt;/message.jsp&lt;/location&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;/error-page&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;error-page&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &lt;error-code&gt;400&lt;/error-code&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &lt;location&gt;/message.jsp&lt;/location&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;/error-page&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;error-page&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &lt;error-code&gt;403&lt;/error-code&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &lt;location&gt;/message.jsp&lt;/location&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;/error-page&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;error-page&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &lt;error-code&gt;404&lt;/error-code&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &lt;location&gt;/message.jsp&lt;/location&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;/error-page&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;error-page&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &lt;error-code&gt;502&lt;/error-code&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &lt;location&gt;/index.jsp&lt;/location&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;/error-page&gt;<br>
<br>
13、</span></span><span><span style="font-size:12px"><span style="color:#0000ff"><strong> &lt;jsp-config/&gt;<br>
</strong></span>&nbsp;&lt;jsp-config&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;taglib&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;taglib-uri&gt;/struts-tags&lt;/taglib-uri&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;taglib-location&gt;/WEB-INF/struts-tags.tld&lt;/taglib-location&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;/taglib&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;taglib&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;taglib-uri&gt;/struts-dojo-tags&lt;/taglib-uri&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;taglib-location&gt;/WEB-INF/struts-dojo-tags.tld&lt;/taglib-location&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;/taglib&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;taglib&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;taglib-uri&gt;/s&lt;/taglib-uri&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;taglib-location&gt;/WEB-INF/struts-tags.tld&lt;/taglib-location&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;/taglib&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;/jsp-config&gt;<br>
<br>
14、 <span style="color:#0000ff"><strong>&lt;welcome-file-list/&gt;</strong></span><br>
&nbsp;&lt;welcome-file-list&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;welcome-file&gt;index.html&lt;/welcome-file&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;welcome-file&gt;index.htm&lt;/welcome-file&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;welcome-file&gt;index.jsp&lt;/welcome-file&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;/welcome-file-list&gt;<br>
<br>
15<strong>、 <span style="color:#0000ff">&lt;</span></strong><span style="color:#0000ff"><strong><span style="color:#0000ff">resource-ref&gt;&lt;/resource-ref&gt;</span></strong>
</span>定义利用JNDI取得站台可利用的资源<br>
&nbsp;有五个子元素:<br>
&nbsp;&lt;description&gt;&lt;/description&gt; 资源说明<br>
&nbsp;&lt;rec-ref-name&gt;&lt;/rec-ref-name&gt; 资源名称<br>
&nbsp;&lt;res-type&gt;&lt;/res-type&gt; 资源种类<br>
&nbsp;&lt;res-auth&gt;&lt;/res-auth&gt; 资源经由Application或Container来许可<br>
&nbsp;&lt;res-sharing-scope&gt;&lt;/res-sharing-scope&gt; 资源是否可以共享,有Shareable和Unshareable两个值,默认为Shareable</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size:12px">&nbsp;比如,配置数据库连接池就可在此配置<br>
&nbsp;&lt;resource-ref&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;description&gt;JNDI JDBC DataSource of shop&lt;/description&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;res-ref-name&gt;jdbc/sample_db&lt;/res-ref-name&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;res-type&gt;javax.sql.DataSource&lt;/res-type&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;res-auth&gt;Container&lt;/res-auth&gt;<br>
&nbsp;&lt;/resource-ref&gt;</span></p>
<span style="font-size:12px">还有其他元素如果想更为详细的了解它可以到</span><a target="_blank" href="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/j2ee/web-mapp_2_4.xsd"><span style="font-size:12px">http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/j2ee/web-mapp_2_4.xsd</span></a><span style="font-size:12px">网</span>
   
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