Go实战--golang中使用WebSocket实时聊天室(gorilla/websocket、nkovacs/go-socket.io)

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生命不止,继续 go go go!!!

其实,早就应该跟大家分享golang中关于websocket的使用,但是一直不知道从何入手,也不能够很清晰的描述出来。

今天就浅尝辄止,通过第三方库实现websocket。

WebSocket

WebSocket协议是基于TCP的一种新的网络协议。它实现了浏览器与服务器全双工(full-duplex)通信——允许服务器主动发送信息给客户端。
WebSocket通信协议于2011年被IETF定为标准RFC 6455,并被RFC7936所补充规范。

WebSocket协议支持(在受控环境中运行不受信任的代码的)客户端与(选择加入该代码的通信的)远程主机之间进行全双工通信。用于此的安全模型是Web浏览器常用的基于原始的安全模式。 协议包括一个开放的握手以及随后的TCP层上的消息帧。 该技术的目标是为基于浏览器的、需要和服务器进行双向通信的(服务器不能依赖于打开多个HTTP连接(例如,使用XMLHttpRequest或iframe和长轮询))应用程序提供一种通信机制。

这里写图片描述

gorilla/websocket

A WebSocket implementation for Go.

github地址:
https://github.com/gorilla/websocket

Star: 4307

获取:

go get github.com/gorilla/websocket

Server

其中,用到了satori/go.uuid:
Go实战–golang生成uuid(The way to go)

server.go

package main

import (
    "encoding/json"
    "fmt"
    "net/http"

    "github.com/gorilla/websocket"
    "github.com/satori/go.uuid"
)

type ClientManager struct {
    clients    map[*Client]bool
    broadcast  chan []byte
    register   chan *Client
    unregister chan *Client
}

type Client struct {
    id     string
    socket *websocket.Conn
    send   chan []byte
}

type Message struct {
    Sender    string `json:"sender,omitempty"`
    Recipient string `json:"recipient,omitempty"`
    Content   string `json:"content,omitempty"`
}

var manager = ClientManager{
    broadcast:  make(chan []byte),
    register:   make(chan *Client),
    unregister: make(chan *Client),
    clients:    make(map[*Client]bool),
}

func (manager *ClientManager) start() {
    for {
        select {
        case conn := <-manager.register:
            manager.clients[conn] = true
            jsonMessage, _ := json.Marshal(&Message{Content: "/A new socket has connected."})
            manager.send(jsonMessage, conn)
        case conn := <-manager.unregister:
            if _, ok := manager.clients[conn]; ok {
                close(conn.send)
                delete(manager.clients, conn)
                jsonMessage, _ := json.Marshal(&Message{Content: "/A socket has disconnected."})
                manager.send(jsonMessage, conn)
            }
        case message := <-manager.broadcast:
            for conn := range manager.clients {
                select {
                case conn.send <- message:
                default:
                    close(conn.send)
                    delete(manager.clients, conn)
                }
            }
        }
    }
}

func (manager *ClientManager) send(message []byte, ignore *Client) {
    for conn := range manager.clients {
        if conn != ignore {
            conn.send <- message
        }
    }
}

func (c *Client) read() {
    defer func() {
        manager.unregister <- c
        c.socket.Close()
    }()

    for {
        _, message, err := c.socket.ReadMessage()
        if err != nil {
            manager.unregister <- c
            c.socket.Close()
            break
        }
        jsonMessage, _ := json.Marshal(&Message{Sender: c.id, Content: string(message)})
        manager.broadcast <- jsonMessage
    }
}

func (c *Client) write() {
    defer func() {
        c.socket.Close()
    }()

    for {
        select {
        case message, ok := <-c.send:
            if !ok {
                c.socket.WriteMessage(websocket.CloseMessage, []byte{})
                return
            }

            c.socket.WriteMessage(websocket.TextMessage, message)
        }
    }
}

func main() {
    fmt.Println("Starting application...")
    go manager.start()
    http.HandleFunc("/ws", wsPage)
    http.ListenAndServe(":12345", nil)
}

func wsPage(res http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
    conn, error := (&websocket.Upgrader{CheckOrigin: func(r *http.Request) bool { return true }}).Upgrade(res, req, nil)
    if error != nil {
        http.NotFound(res, req)
        return
    }
    client := &Client{id: uuid.NewV4().String(), socket: conn, send: make(chan []byte)}

    manager.register <- client

    go client.read()
    go client.write()
}

Go Client

package main

import (
    "flag"
    "fmt"
    "net/url"
    "time"

    "github.com/gorilla/websocket"
)

var addr = flag.String("addr", "localhost:12345", "http service address")

func main() {
    u := url.URL{Scheme: "ws", Host: *addr, Path: "/ws"}
    var dialer *websocket.Dialer

    conn, _, err := dialer.Dial(u.String(), nil)
    if err != nil {
        fmt.Println(err)
        return
    }

    go timeWriter(conn)

    for {
        _, message, err := conn.ReadMessage()
        if err != nil {
            fmt.Println("read:", err)
            return
        }

        fmt.Printf("received: %s\n", message)
    }
}

func timeWriter(conn *websocket.Conn) {
    for {
        time.Sleep(time.Second * 2)
        conn.WriteMessage(websocket.TextMessage, []byte(time.Now().Format("2006-01-02 15:04:05")))
    }
}

HTML Client

test_websocket.html

<html>
<head>
<title>Golang Chat</title>
<script type="text/javascript" src="http://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.4.2/jquery.min.js"></script>
<script type="text/javascript">
    $(function() {

    var conn;
    var msg = $("#msg");
    var log = $("#log");

    function appendLog(msg) {
        var d = log[0]
        var doScroll = d.scrollTop == d.scrollHeight - d.clientHeight;
        msg.appendTo(log)
        if (doScroll) {
            d.scrollTop = d.scrollHeight - d.clientHeight;
        }
    }

    $("#form").submit(function() {
        if (!conn) {
            return false;
        }
        if (!msg.val()) {
            return false;
        }
        conn.send(msg.val());
        msg.val("");
        return false
    });

    if (window["WebSocket"]) {
        conn = new WebSocket("ws://localhost:12345/ws");
        conn.onclose = function(evt) {
            appendLog($("<div><b>Connection Closed.</b></div>"))
        }
        conn.onmessage = function(evt) {
            appendLog($("<div/>").text(evt.data))
        }
    } else {
        appendLog($("<div><b>WebSockets Not Support.</b></div>"))
    }
    });
</script>
<style type="text/css">
html {
    overflow: hidden;
}

body {
    overflow: hidden;
    padding: 0;
    margin: 0;
    width: 100%;
    height: 100%;
    background: gray;
}

#log {
    background: white;
    margin: 0;
    padding: 0.5em 0.5em 0.5em 0.5em;
    position: absolute;
    top: 0.5em;
    left: 0.5em;
    right: 0.5em;
    bottom: 3em;
    overflow: auto;
}

#form {
    padding: 0 0.5em 0 0.5em;
    margin: 0;
    position: absolute;
    bottom: 1em;
    left: 0px;
    width: 100%;
    overflow: hidden;
}

</style>
</head>
<body>
<div id="log"></div>
<form id="form">
    <input type="submit" value="发送" />
    <input type="text" id="msg" size="64"/>
</form>
</body>
</html>

运行:
运行server,运行client,浏览器打开html文件:
这里写图片描述

这里写图片描述

实时聊天室

下面分享一个基于websocket的实时聊天室:
https://github.com/scotch-io/go-realtime-chat

main.go:

package main

import (
    "log"
    "net/http"

    "github.com/gorilla/websocket"
)

var clients = make(map[*websocket.Conn]bool) // connected clients
var broadcast = make(chan Message)           // broadcast channel

// Configure the upgrader
var upgrader = websocket.Upgrader{
    CheckOrigin: func(r *http.Request) bool {
        return true
    },
}

// Define our message object
type Message struct {
    Email    string `json:"email"`
    Username string `json:"username"`
    Message  string `json:"message"`
}

func main() {
    // Create a simple file server
    fs := http.FileServer(http.Dir("../public"))
    http.Handle("/", fs)

    // Configure websocket route
    http.HandleFunc("/ws", handleConnections)

    // Start listening for incoming chat messages
    go handleMessages()

    // Start the server on localhost port 8000 and log any errors
    log.Println("http server started on :8000")
    err := http.ListenAndServe(":8000", nil)
    if err != nil {
        log.Fatal("ListenAndServe: ", err)
    }
}

func handleConnections(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
    // Upgrade initial GET request to a websocket
    ws, err := upgrader.Upgrade(w, r, nil)
    if err != nil {
        log.Fatal(err)
    }
    // Make sure we close the connection when the function returns
    defer ws.Close()

    // Register our new client
    clients[ws] = true

    for {
        var msg Message
        // Read in a new message as JSON and map it to a Message object
        err := ws.ReadJSON(&msg)
        if err != nil {
            log.Printf("error: %v", err)
            delete(clients, ws)
            break
        }
        // Send the newly received message to the broadcast channel
        broadcast <- msg
    }
}

func handleMessages() {
    for {
        // Grab the next message from the broadcast channel
        msg := <-broadcast
        // Send it out to every client that is currently connected
        for client := range clients {
            err := client.WriteJSON(msg)
            if err != nil {
                log.Printf("error: %v", err)
                client.Close()
                delete(clients, client)
            }
        }
    }
}

app.js:

new Vue({
    el: '#app',

    data: {
        ws: null, // Our websocket
        newMsg: '', // Holds new messages to be sent to the server
        chatContent: '', // A running list of chat messages displayed on the screen
        email: null, // Email address used for grabbing an avatar
        username: null, // Our username
        joined: false // True if email and username have been filled in
    },

    created: function() {
        var self = this;
        this.ws = new WebSocket('ws://' + window.location.host + '/ws');
        this.ws.addEventListener('message', function(e) {
            var msg = JSON.parse(e.data);
            self.chatContent += '<div class="chip">'
                    + '<img src="' + self.gravatarURL(msg.email) + '">' // Avatar
                    + msg.username
                + '</div>'
                + emojione.toImage(msg.message) + '<br/>'; // Parse emojis

            var element = document.getElementById('chat-messages');
            element.scrollTop = element.scrollHeight; // Auto scroll to the bottom
        });
    },

    methods: {
        send: function () {
            if (this.newMsg != '') {
                this.ws.send(
                    JSON.stringify({
                        email: this.email,
                        username: this.username,
                        message: $('<p>').html(this.newMsg).text() // Strip out html
                    }
                ));
                this.newMsg = ''; // Reset newMsg
            }
        },

        join: function () {
            if (!this.email) {
                Materialize.toast('You must enter an email', 2000);
                return
            }
            if (!this.username) {
                Materialize.toast('You must choose a username', 2000);
                return
            }
            this.email = $('<p>').html(this.email).text();
            this.username = $('<p>').html(this.username).text();
            this.joined = true;
        },

        gravatarURL: function(email) {
            return 'http://www.gravatar.com/avatar/' + CryptoJS.MD5(email);
        }
    }
});

index.html:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Simple Chat</title>

    <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/materialize/0.97.8/css/materialize.min.css">
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://fonts.googleapis.com/icon?family=Material+Icons">
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/emojione/2.2.6/assets/css/emojione.min.css"/>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="/style.css">

</head>
<body>
<header>
    <nav>
        <div class="nav-wrapper">
            <a href="/" class="brand-logo right">Simple Chat</a>
        </div>
    </nav>
</header>
<main id="app">
    <div class="row">
        <div class="col s12">
            <div class="card horizontal">
                <div id="chat-messages" class="card-content" v-html="chatContent">
                </div>
            </div>
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="row" v-if="joined">
        <div class="input-field col s8">
            <input type="text" v-model="newMsg" @keyup.enter="send">
        </div>
        <div class="input-field col s4">
            <button class="waves-effect waves-light btn" @click="send">
                <i class="material-icons right">chat</i>
                Send
            </button>
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="row" v-if="!joined">
        <div class="input-field col s8">
            <input type="email" v-model.trim="email" placeholder="Email">
        </div>
        <div class="input-field col s8">
            <input type="text" v-model.trim="username" placeholder="Username">
        </div>
        <div class="input-field col s4">
            <button class="waves-effect waves-light btn" @click="join()">
                <i class="material-icons right">done</i>
                Join
            </button>
        </div>
    </div>
</main>
<footer class="page-footer">
</footer>
<script src="https://unpkg.com/vue@2.1.3/dist/vue.min.js"></script>
<script src="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/emojione/2.2.6/lib/js/emojione.min.js"></script>
<script src="https://code.jquery.com/jquery-2.1.1.min.js"></script>
<script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/crypto-js/3.1.2/rollups/md5.js"></script>
<script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/materialize/0.97.8/js/materialize.min.js"></script>
<script src="/app.js"></script>
</body>
</html>

style.css:

body {
    display: flex;
    min-height: 100vh;
    flex-direction: column;
}

main {
    flex: 1 0 auto;
}

#chat-messages {
    min-height: 10vh;
    height: 60vh;
    width: 100%;
    overflow-y: scroll;
}

这里写图片描述

nkovacs/go-socket.io

github地址:
https://github.com/nkovacs/go-socket.io

获取:
go get github.com/nkovacs/go-socket.io

main.go

package main

import (
    "log"
    "net/http"

    "github.com/nkovacs/go-socket.io"
)

func main() {
    server, err := socketio.NewServer(nil)
    if err != nil {
        log.Fatal(err)
    }
    server.On("connection", func(so socketio.Socket) {
        log.Println("on connection")
        so.Join("chat")
        so.On("chat message", func(msg string) {
            log.Println("emit:", so.Emit("chat message", msg))
            so.BroadcastTo("chat", "chat message", msg)
        })
        so.On("disconnection", func() {
            log.Println("on disconnect")
        })
    })
    server.On("error", func(so socketio.Socket, err error) {
        log.Println("error:", err)
    })

    http.Handle("/socket.io/", server)
    http.Handle("/", http.FileServer(http.Dir("./public")))
    log.Println("Serving at localhost:12345...")
    log.Fatal(http.ListenAndServe(":12345", nil))
}

index.html

<!doctype html>
<html>
  <head>
    <title>Socket.IO chat</title>
    <style>
      * { margin: 0; padding: 0; box-sizing: border-box; }
      body { font: 13px Helvetica, Arial; }
      form { background: #000; padding: 3px; position: fixed; bottom: 0; width: 100%; }
      form input { border: 0; padding: 10px; width: 90%; margin-right: .5%; }
      form button { width: 9%; background: rgb(130, 224, 255); border: none; padding: 10px; }
      #messages { list-style-type: none; margin: 0; padding: 0; }
      #messages li { padding: 5px 10px; }
      #messages li:nth-child(odd) { background: #eee; }
    </style>
  </head>
  <body>
    <ul id="messages"></ul>
    <form action="">
      <input id="m" autocomplete="off" /><button>Send</button>
    </form>
    <script>
      var socket = io();
      $('form').submit(function(){
        socket.emit('chat message', $('#m').val());
        $('#m').val('');
        return false;
      });
      socket.on('chat message', function(msg){
        $('#messages').append($('<li>').text(msg));
      });
    </script>
  </body>
</html>

浏览器输入:
http://localhost:12345/
这里写图片描述

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