java oracle序列化_各种Java序列化性能比较

转载:http://www.jdon.com/concurrent/serialization.html

这里比较Java对象序列化 XML JSON  Kryo  POF等序列化性能比较。

很多人以为JDK的Java序列化肯定是将Java对象转换成二进制序列化最快的方式,JDK7出来以后,我们发现实际上每次新的JDK比旧版本快。

我们通常以为将Java对象序列化成二进制比序列化成XML或Json更快,其实是错误的,如果你关心性能,建议避免Java序列化。

Java序列化有很多的要求,最主要的一个是包含能够序列化任何东西(或至少任何实现Serializable接口)。这样才能进入其他JVM之中,这很重要,所以有时性能不是主要的要求,标准的格式才最重要。

我们经常看到CPU花费很多时间内进行Java序列化,下面我们研究一下,假设一定Order,虽然只有几个字节,但是序列化以后不是几十个字节,而是600多个字节:

Ordr代码:

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public class Order implementsSerializable {private longid;privateString description;private BigDecimal totalCost = BigDecimal.valueOf(0);private List orderLines = newArrayList();privateCustomer customer;

...

}

View Code

序列化输出:

----sr--model.Order----h#-----J--idL--customert--Lmodel/Customer;L--descriptiont--Ljava/lang/String;L--orderLinest--Ljava/util/List;L--totalCostt--Ljava/math/BigDecimal;xp--------ppsr--java.util.ArrayListx-----a----I--sizexp----w-----sr--model.OrderLine--&-1-S----I--lineNumberL--costq-~--L--descriptionq-~--L--ordert--Lmodel/Order;xp----sr--java.math.BigDecimalT--W--(O---I--scaleL--intValt--Ljava/math/BigInteger;xr--java.lang.Number-----------xp----sr--java.math.BigInteger-----;-----I--bitCountI--bitLengthI--firstNonzeroByteNumI--lowestSetBitI--signum[--magnitudet--[Bxq-~----------------------ur--[B------T----xp----xxpq-~--xq-~--

正如你可能已经注意到,Java序列化写入不仅是完整的类名,也包含整个类的定义,包含所有被引用的类。类定义可以是相当大的,也许构成了性能和效率的问题,当然这是编写一个单一的对象。如果您正在编写了大量相同的类的对象,这时类定义的开销通常不是一个大问题。另一件事情是,如果你的对象有一类的引用(如元数据对象),那么Java序列化将写入整个类的定义,不只是类的名称,因此,使用Java序列化写出元数据(meta-data)是非常昂贵的。

Externalizable

通过实现Externalizable接口,这是可能优化Java序列化的。实现此接口,避免写出整个类定义,只是类名被写入。它需要你实施readExternal和writeExternal方法方法的,所以需要做一些工作,但相比仅仅是实现Serializable更快,更高效。

Externalizable对小数目对象有效的多。但是对大量对象,或者重复对象,则效率低。

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public class Order implementsExternalizable {private longid;privateString description;private BigDecimal totalCost = BigDecimal.valueOf(0);private List orderLines = newArrayList();privateCustomer customer;publicOrder() {

}public void readExternal(ObjectInput stream) throwsIOException, ClassNotFoundException {this.id =stream.readLong();this.description =(String)stream.readObject();this.totalCost =(BigDecimal)stream.readObject();this.customer =(Customer)stream.readObject();this.orderLines =(List)stream.readObject();

}public void writeExternal(ObjectOutput stream) throwsIOException {

stream.writeLong(this.id);

stream.writeObject(this.description);

stream.writeObject(this.totalCost);

stream.writeObject(this.customer);

stream.writeObject(this.orderLines);

}

}

View Code

序列化输出:

----sr--model.Order---*3--^---xpw---------psr--java.math.BigDecimalT--W--(O---I--scaleL--intValt--Ljava/math/BigInteger;xr--java.lang.Number-----------xp----sr--java.math.BigInteger-----;-----I--bitCountI--bitLengthI--firstNonzeroByteNumI--lowestSetBitI--signum[--magnitudet--[Bxq-~----------------------ur--[B------T----xp----xxpsr--java.util.ArrayListx-----a----I--sizexp----w-----sr--model.OrderLine-!!|---S---xpw-----pq-~--q-~--xxx

EclipseLink MOXy - XML 和 JSON

序列化成XML或JSON可以允许其他语言访问,可以实现REST服务等。缺点是文本格式的效率比优化的二进制格式低一些,使用JAXB,你需要使用JAXB注释类,或提供一个XML配置文件。使用@XmlIDREF处理循环。

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@XmlRootElementpublic classOrder {

@XmlID

@XmlAttributeprivate longid;

@XmlAttributeprivateString description;

@XmlAttributeprivate BigDecimal totalCost = BigDecimal.valueOf(0);private List orderLines = newArrayList();privateCustomer customer;

}public classOrderLine {

@XmlIDREFprivateOrder order;

@XmlAttributeprivate intlineNumber;

@XmlAttributeprivateString description;

@XmlAttributeprivate BigDecimal cost = BigDecimal.valueOf(0);

}

View Code

XML输出:

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0

View Code

JSOn输出:

{"order":{"id":0,"totalCost":0,"orderLines":[{"lineNumber":1,"cost":0,"order":0}]}}

Kryo

Kryo 是一种快速,高效的序列化的Java框架。 KRYO是新的BSD许可下一个开源项目提供。这是一个很小的项目,只有3名成员,它首先在2009年出品。

工作原理类似于Java序列化KRYO,尊重瞬态字段,但不要求一类是可序列化的。KRYO有一定的局限性,比如需要有一个默认的构造函数的类,在序列化将java.sql.Time java.sql.Date java.sql.Timestamp类会遇到一些问题。

order序列化结果:

------java-util-ArrayLis-----model-OrderLin----java-math-BigDecima---------model-Orde-----

Oracle Coherence POF

Oracle Coherence 产品提供其自己优化的二进制格式,称为POF (可移植对象格式) 。 Oracle Coherence的是一个内存中的数据网格解决方案(分布式缓存) 。是一个商业产品,并需要许可证。

POF提供了一个序列化框架,并可以独立使用。 POF要求类实现一个PortableObject接口和读/写方法。您还可以实现一个单独的序列化类,或使用最新版本的序列化的注解。 POF要求每个类都被提前分配一个固定ID,所以你需要通过某种方式确定这个ID 。 POF格式是二进制格式,非常紧凑,高效,快速的,但确实需要你付出一些工作。

POF的总字节数为一个单一的订单/订单行对象为32个字节, 1593字节100 OrderLines的。我不会放弃的结果, POF是一个商业许可产品的一部分,但是是非常快的。

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public class Order implementsPortableObject {private longid;privateString description;private BigDecimal totalCost = BigDecimal.valueOf(0);private List orderLines = newArrayList();privateCustomer customer;publicOrder() {

}public void readExternal(PofReader in) throwsIOException {this.id = in.readLong(0);this.description = in.readString(1);this.totalCost = in.readBigDecimal(2);this.customer = (Customer)in.readObject(3);this.orderLines = (List)in.readCollection(4, newArrayList());

}public void writeExternal(PofWriter out) throwsIOException {

out.writeLong(0, this.id);

out.writeString(1, this.description);

out.writeBigDecimal(2, this.totalCost);

out.writeObject(3, this.customer);

out.writeCollection(4, this.orderLines);

}

}

View Code

序列化结果:

-----B--G---d-U------A--G-------

性能比较

一个订单包含一个Oderline

SerializerSize (bytes)Serialize (operations/second)Deserialize (operations/second)% Difference (from Java serialize)% Difference (deserialize)

Java Serializable

636

128,634

19,180

0%

0%

Java Externalizable

435

160,549

26,678

24%

39%

EclipseLink MOXy XML

101

348,056

47,334

170%

146%

Kryo

90

359,368

346,984

179%

1709%

一个订单100个oderlines:

SerializerSize (bytes)Serialize (operations/second)Deserialize (operations/second)% Difference (from Java serialize)% Difference (deserialize)

Java Serializable

2,715

16,470

10,215

0%

0%

Java Externalizable

2,811

16,206

11,483

-1%

12%

EclipseLink MOXy XML

6,628

7,304

2,731

-55%

-73%

Kryo

1216

22,862

31,499

38%

208%

要获得象C那样的序列化性能,直接自己编写。

Serialization  ByteBuffer  Unsafe三者性能比较:

三者性能测试代码:

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packagecom.ifenglian.test.safe;importsun.misc.Unsafe;importjava.io.ByteArrayInputStream;importjava.io.ByteArrayOutputStream;importjava.io.ObjectInputStream;importjava.io.ObjectOutputStream;importjava.io.Serializable;importjava.lang.reflect.Field;importjava.nio.ByteBuffer;importjava.util.Arrays;public final classTestSerialisationPerf {public static final int REPETITIONS = 1 * 1000 * 1000;private static ObjectToBeSerialised ITEM = new ObjectToBeSerialised(1010L, true, 777, 99,new double[] { 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0},new long[] { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10});public static void main(final String[] arg) throwsException {for (finalPerformanceTestCase testCase : testCases) {for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {

testCase.performTest();

System.out.format("%d %s\twrite=%,dns read=%,dns total=%,dns\n", i, testCase.getName(),

testCase.getWriteTimeNanos(), testCase.getReadTimeNanos(),

testCase.getWriteTimeNanos()+testCase.getReadTimeNanos());if (!ITEM.equals(testCase.getTestOutput())) {throw new IllegalStateException("Objects do not match");

}

System.gc();

Thread.sleep(3000);

}

}

}private static final PerformanceTestCase[] testCases ={new PerformanceTestCase("Serialisation", REPETITIONS, ITEM) {

ByteArrayOutputStream baos= newByteArrayOutputStream();public void testWrite(ObjectToBeSerialised item) throwsException {for (int i = 0; i < REPETITIONS; i++) {

baos.reset();

ObjectOutputStream oos= newObjectOutputStream(baos);

oos.writeObject(item);

oos.close();

}

}public ObjectToBeSerialised testRead() throwsException {

ObjectToBeSerialised object= null;for (int i = 0; i < REPETITIONS; i++) {

ByteArrayInputStream bais= newByteArrayInputStream(baos.toByteArray());

ObjectInputStream ois= newObjectInputStream(bais);

object=(ObjectToBeSerialised) ois.readObject();

}returnobject;

}

},new PerformanceTestCase("ByteBuffer", REPETITIONS, ITEM) {

ByteBuffer byteBuffer= ByteBuffer.allocate(1024);public void testWrite(ObjectToBeSerialised item) throwsException {for (int i = 0; i < REPETITIONS; i++) {

byteBuffer.clear();

item.write(byteBuffer);

}

}public ObjectToBeSerialised testRead() throwsException {

ObjectToBeSerialised object= null;for (int i = 0; i < REPETITIONS; i++) {

byteBuffer.flip();

object=ObjectToBeSerialised.read(byteBuffer);

}returnobject;

}

},new PerformanceTestCase("UnsafeMemory", REPETITIONS, ITEM) {

UnsafeMemory buffer= new UnsafeMemory(new byte[1024]);public void testWrite(ObjectToBeSerialised item) throwsException {for (int i = 0; i < REPETITIONS; i++) {

buffer.reset();

item.write(buffer);

}

}public ObjectToBeSerialised testRead() throwsException {

ObjectToBeSerialised object= null;for (int i = 0; i < REPETITIONS; i++) {

buffer.reset();

object=ObjectToBeSerialised.read(buffer);

}returnobject;

}

}, };

}abstract classPerformanceTestCase {private finalString name;private final intrepetitions;private finalObjectToBeSerialised testInput;privateObjectToBeSerialised testOutput;private longwriteTimeNanos;private longreadTimeNanos;public PerformanceTestCase(final String name, final int repetitions, finalObjectToBeSerialised testInput) {this.name =name;this.repetitions =repetitions;this.testInput =testInput;

}publicString getName() {returnname;

}publicObjectToBeSerialised getTestOutput() {returntestOutput;

}public longgetWriteTimeNanos() {returnwriteTimeNanos;

}public longgetReadTimeNanos() {returnreadTimeNanos;

}public void performTest() throwsException {final long startWriteNanos =System.nanoTime();

testWrite(testInput);

writeTimeNanos= (System.nanoTime() - startWriteNanos) /repetitions;final long startReadNanos =System.nanoTime();

testOutput=testRead();

readTimeNanos= (System.nanoTime() - startReadNanos) /repetitions;

}public abstract void testWrite(ObjectToBeSerialised item) throwsException;public abstract ObjectToBeSerialised testRead() throwsException;

}class ObjectToBeSerialised implementsSerializable {private static final long serialVersionUID = 10275539472837495L;private final longsourceId;private final booleanspecial;private final intorderCode;private final intpriority;private final double[] prices;private final long[] quantities;public ObjectToBeSerialised(final long sourceId, final boolean special, final int orderCode, final intpriority,final double[] prices, final long[] quantities) {this.sourceId =sourceId;this.special =special;this.orderCode =orderCode;this.priority =priority;this.prices =prices;this.quantities =quantities;

}public void write(finalByteBuffer byteBuffer) {

byteBuffer.putLong(sourceId);

byteBuffer.put((byte) (special ? 1 : 0));

byteBuffer.putInt(orderCode);

byteBuffer.putInt(priority);

byteBuffer.putInt(prices.length);for (final doubleprice : prices) {

byteBuffer.putDouble(price);

}

byteBuffer.putInt(quantities.length);for (final longquantity : quantities) {

byteBuffer.putLong(quantity);

}

}public static ObjectToBeSerialised read(finalByteBuffer byteBuffer) {final long sourceId =byteBuffer.getLong();final boolean special = 0 !=byteBuffer.get();final int orderCode =byteBuffer.getInt();final int priority =byteBuffer.getInt();final int pricesSize =byteBuffer.getInt();final double[] prices = new double[pricesSize];for (int i = 0; i < pricesSize; i++) {

prices[i]=byteBuffer.getDouble();

}final int quantitiesSize =byteBuffer.getInt();final long[] quantities = new long[quantitiesSize];for (int i = 0; i < quantitiesSize; i++) {

quantities[i]=byteBuffer.getLong();

}return newObjectToBeSerialised(sourceId, special, orderCode, priority, prices, quantities);

}public void write(finalUnsafeMemory buffer) {

buffer.putLong(sourceId);

buffer.putBoolean(special);

buffer.putInt(orderCode);

buffer.putInt(priority);

buffer.putDoubleArray(prices);

buffer.putLongArray(quantities);

}public static ObjectToBeSerialised read(finalUnsafeMemory buffer) {final long sourceId =buffer.getLong();final boolean special =buffer.getBoolean();final int orderCode =buffer.getInt();final int priority =buffer.getInt();final double[] prices =buffer.getDoubleArray();final long[] quantities =buffer.getLongArray();return newObjectToBeSerialised(sourceId, special, orderCode, priority, prices, quantities);

}

@Overridepublic boolean equals(finalObject o) {if (this ==o) {return true;

}if (o == null || getClass() !=o.getClass()) {return false;

}final ObjectToBeSerialised that =(ObjectToBeSerialised) o;if (orderCode !=that.orderCode) {return false;

}if (priority !=that.priority) {return false;

}if (sourceId !=that.sourceId) {return false;

}if (special !=that.special) {return false;

}if (!Arrays.equals(prices, that.prices)) {return false;

}if (!Arrays.equals(quantities, that.quantities)) {return false;

}return true;

}

}classUnsafeMemory {private static finalUnsafe unsafe;static{try{

Field field= Unsafe.class.getDeclaredField("theUnsafe");

field.setAccessible(true);

unsafe= (Unsafe) field.get(null);

}catch(Exception e) {throw newRuntimeException(e);

}

}private static final long byteArrayOffset = unsafe.arrayBaseOffset(byte[].class);private static final long longArrayOffset = unsafe.arrayBaseOffset(long[].class);private static final long doubleArrayOffset = unsafe.arrayBaseOffset(double[].class);private static final int SIZE_OF_BOOLEAN = 1;private static final int SIZE_OF_INT = 4;private static final int SIZE_OF_LONG = 8;private int pos = 0;private final byte[] buffer;public UnsafeMemory(final byte[] buffer) {if (null ==buffer) {throw new NullPointerException("buffer cannot be null");

}this.buffer =buffer;

}public voidreset() {this.pos = 0;

}public void putBoolean(final booleanvalue) {

unsafe.putBoolean(buffer, byteArrayOffset+pos, value);

pos+=SIZE_OF_BOOLEAN;

}public booleangetBoolean() {boolean value = unsafe.getBoolean(buffer, byteArrayOffset +pos);

pos+=SIZE_OF_BOOLEAN;returnvalue;

}public void putInt(final intvalue) {

unsafe.putInt(buffer, byteArrayOffset+pos, value);

pos+=SIZE_OF_INT;

}public intgetInt() {int value = unsafe.getInt(buffer, byteArrayOffset +pos);

pos+=SIZE_OF_INT;returnvalue;

}public void putLong(final longvalue) {

unsafe.putLong(buffer, byteArrayOffset+pos, value);

pos+=SIZE_OF_LONG;

}public longgetLong() {long value = unsafe.getLong(buffer, byteArrayOffset +pos);

pos+=SIZE_OF_LONG;returnvalue;

}public void putLongArray(final long[] values) {

putInt(values.length);long bytesToCopy = values.length << 3;

unsafe.copyMemory(values, longArrayOffset, buffer, byteArrayOffset+pos, bytesToCopy);

pos+=bytesToCopy;

}public long[] getLongArray() {int arraySize =getInt();long[] values = new long[arraySize];long bytesToCopy = values.length << 3;

unsafe.copyMemory(buffer, byteArrayOffset+pos, values, longArrayOffset, bytesToCopy);

pos+=bytesToCopy;returnvalues;

}public void putDoubleArray(final double[] values) {

putInt(values.length);long bytesToCopy = values.length << 3;

unsafe.copyMemory(values, doubleArrayOffset, buffer, byteArrayOffset+pos, bytesToCopy);

pos+=bytesToCopy;

}public double[] getDoubleArray() {int arraySize =getInt();double[] values = new double[arraySize];long bytesToCopy = values.length << 3;

unsafe.copyMemory(buffer, byteArrayOffset+pos, values, doubleArrayOffset, bytesToCopy);

pos+=bytesToCopy;returnvalues;

}

}

View Code

测试结果:

2.8GHz Nehalem - Java 1.7.0_04

==============================

0 Serialisation write=2,517ns read=11,570ns total=14,087ns

1 Serialisation write=2,198ns read=11,122ns total=13,320ns

2 Serialisation write=2,190ns read=11,011ns total=13,201ns

3 Serialisation write=2,221ns read=10,972ns total=13,193ns

4 Serialisation write=2,187ns read=10,817ns total=13,004ns

0 ByteBuffer write=264ns read=273ns total=537ns

1 ByteBuffer write=248ns read=243ns total=491ns

2 ByteBuffer write=262ns read=243ns total=505ns

3 ByteBuffer write=300ns read=240ns total=540ns

4 ByteBuffer write=247ns read=243ns total=490ns

0 UnsafeMemory write=99ns read=84ns total=183ns

1 UnsafeMemory write=53ns read=82ns total=135ns

2 UnsafeMemory write=63ns read=66ns total=129ns

3 UnsafeMemory write=46ns read=63ns total=109ns

4 UnsafeMemory write=48ns read=58ns total=106ns

2.4GHz Sandy Bridge - Java 1.7.0_04

===================================

0 Serialisation write=1,940ns read=9,006ns total=10,946ns

1 Serialisation write=1,674ns read=8,567ns total=10,241ns

2 Serialisation write=1,666ns read=8,680ns total=10,346ns

3 Serialisation write=1,666ns read=8,623ns total=10,289ns

4 Serialisation write=1,715ns read=8,586ns total=10,301ns

0 ByteBuffer write=199ns read=198ns total=397ns

1 ByteBuffer write=176ns read=178ns total=354ns

2 ByteBuffer write=174ns read=174ns total=348ns

3 ByteBuffer write=172ns read=183ns total=355ns

4 ByteBuffer write=174ns read=180ns total=354ns

0 UnsafeMemory write=38ns read=75ns total=113ns

1 UnsafeMemory write=26ns read=52ns total=78ns

2 UnsafeMemory write=26ns read=51ns total=77ns

3 UnsafeMemory write=25ns read=51ns total=76ns

4 UnsafeMemory write=27ns read=50ns total=77ns

很显然允许自己内存操作的 Unsafe性能是最快的。

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