python快速处理excel表格-python 处理 Excel 表格

see: http://www.cnblogs.com/sunada2005/p/3193300.html

一、可使用的第三方库

python中处理excel表格,常用的库有xlrd(读excel)表、xlwt(写excel)表、openpyxl(可读写excel表)等。xlrd读数据较大的excel表时效率高于openpyxl,所以我在写脚本时就采用了xlrd和xlwt这两个库。介绍及下载地址为:http://www.python-excel.org/ 这些库文件都没有提供修改现有excel表格内容的功能。一般只能将原excel中的内容读出、做完处理后,再写入一个新的excel文件。

二、常见问题

使用python处理excel表格时,发现两个个比较难缠的问题:unicode编码和excel中记录的时间。

因为python的默认字符编码都为unicode,所以打印从excel中读出的中文或读取中文名的excel表或sheet时,程序提示错误UnicodeEncodeError: 'ascii' codec can't encode characters in position 0-2: ordinal not in range(128)。这是由于在windows中,中文使用了gb2312编码方式,python将其当作unicode和ascii来解码都不正确才报出的错误。使用VAR.encode('gb2312')即可解决打印中文的问题。(很奇怪,有的时候虽然能打印出结果,但显示的不是中文,而是一堆编码。)若要从中文文件名的excel表中读取数据,可在文件名前加"u’表示将该中文文件名采用unicode编码。

有excel中,时间和日期都使用浮点数表示。可看到,当"2013年3月20日’所在单元格使用"常规’格式表示后,内容变为"41353’;当其单元格格式改变为日期后,内容又变为了"2013年3月20日’。而使用xlrd读出excel中的日期和时间后,得到是的一个浮点数。所以当向excel中写入的日期和时间为一个浮点数也不要紧,只需将表格的表示方式改为日期和时间,即可得到正常的表示方式。excel中,用浮点数1表示1899年12月31日。

importxlrddef read(filename, sheetNo=0):

book=xlrd.open_workbook(filename)

sh=book.sheet_by_index(sheetNo)

cols=sh.ncols

rows=sh.nrowsprint 'cols=',cols, 'rows=',rowsfor r in range(rows): #cols and rows start from 0

value = sh.cell_value(rowx=r,colx=0)

http://nullege.com/codes/search/xlwt.easyxf

#最简单的例子

importxlwt

workbook= xlwt.Workbook(encoding = 'ascii')

worksheet= workbook.add_sheet('My Worksheet')

worksheet.write(0, 0, label= 'Row 0, Column 0 Value')

workbook.save('Excel_Workbook.xls')#格式化cell的font

font = xlwt.Font() #Create the Font

font.name = 'Times New Roman'font.bold=True

font.underline=True

font.italic=True

style= xlwt.XFStyle() #Create the Style

style.font = font #Apply the Font to the Style

worksheet.write(0, 0, label = 'Unformatted value')

worksheet.write(1, 0, label = 'Formatted value', style) #Apply the Style to the Cell

#Font对象的属性

font.bold = True #May be: True, False

font.italic = True #May be: True, False

font.struck_out = True #May be: True, False

font.underline = xlwt.Font.UNDERLINE_SINGLE #May be: UNDERLINE_NONE, UNDERLINE_SINGLE, UNDERLINE_SINGLE_ACC, UNDERLINE_DOUBLE, UNDERLINE_DOUBLE_ACC

font.escapement = xlwt.Font.ESCAPEMENT_SUPERSCRIPT #May be: ESCAPEMENT_NONE, ESCAPEMENT_SUPERSCRIPT, ESCAPEMENT_SUBSCRIPT

font.family = xlwt.Font.FAMILY_ROMAN #May be: FAMILY_NONE, FAMILY_ROMAN, FAMILY_SWISS, FAMILY_MODERN, FAMILY_SCRIPT, FAMILY_DECORATIVE

font.charset = xlwt.Font.CHARSET_ANSI_LATIN #May be: CHARSET_ANSI_LATIN, CHARSET_SYS_DEFAULT, CHARSET_SYMBOL, CHARSET_APPLE_ROMAN, CHARSET_ANSI_JAP_SHIFT_JIS, CHARSET_ANSI_KOR_HANGUL, CHARSET_ANSI_KOR_JOHAB, CHARSET_ANSI_CHINESE_GBK, CHARSET_ANSI_CHINESE_BIG5, CHARSET_ANSI_GREEK, CHARSET_ANSI_TURKISH, CHARSET_ANSI_VIETNAMESE, CHARSET_ANSI_HEBREW, CHARSET_ANSI_ARABIC, CHARSET_ANSI_BALTIC, CHARSET_ANSI_CYRILLIC, CHARSET_ANSI_THAI, CHARSET_ANSI_LATIN_II, CHARSET_OEM_LATIN_I

font.colour_index = 2 #0:black, 1: white, 2: red, 3:light green, 4:blue

font.get_biff_record =?

font.height= 0x00C8 #C8 in Hex (in decimal) = 10 points in height.

font.name =?

font.outline=?

font.shadow=?#设置cell的宽度

worksheet.write(0, 0, 'My Cell Contents')

worksheet.col(0).width= 3333 #3333 = 1" (one inch).

#向cell添加一个日期

style =xlwt.XFStyle()

style.num_format_str= 'M/D/YY' #Other options: D-MMM-YY, D-MMM, MMM-YY, h:mm, h:mm:ss, h:mm, h:mm:ss, M/D/YY h:mm, mm:ss, [h]:mm:ss, mm:ss.0

worksheet.write(0, 0, datetime.datetime.now(), style)#向cell添加一个Formula

worksheet.write(0, 0, 5) #Outputs 5

worksheet.write(0, 1, 2) #Outputs 2

worksheet.write(1, 0, xlwt.Formula('A1*B1')) #Should output "10" (A1[5] * A2[2])

worksheet.write(1, 1, xlwt.Formula('SUM(A1,B1)')) #Should output "7" (A1[5] + A2[2])

#向cell添加一个Hyperlink

worksheet.write(0, 0, xlwt.Formula('HYPERLINK("http://www.google.com";"Google")')) #Outputs the text "Google" linking to http://www.google.com

#合并行列

worksheet.write_merge(0, 0, 0, 3, 'First Merge') #Merges row 0's columns 0 through 3.

font = xlwt.Font() #Create Font

font.bold = True #Set font to Bold

style = xlwt.XFStyle() #Create Style

style.font = font #Add Bold Font to Style

worksheet.write_merge(1, 2, 0, 3, 'Second Merge', style) #Merges row 1 through 2's columns 0 through 3.

#设置cell内部定位

alignment = xlwt.Alignment() #Create Alignment

alignment.horz = xlwt.Alignment.HORZ_CENTER #May be: HORZ_GENERAL, HORZ_LEFT, HORZ_CENTER, HORZ_RIGHT, HORZ_FILLED, HORZ_JUSTIFIED, HORZ_CENTER_ACROSS_SEL, HORZ_DISTRIBUTED

alignment.vert = xlwt.Alignment.VERT_CENTER #May be: VERT_TOP, VERT_CENTER, VERT_BOTTOM, VERT_JUSTIFIED, VERT_DISTRIBUTED

style = xlwt.XFStyle() #Create Style

style.alignment = alignment #Add Alignment to Style

worksheet.write(0, 0, 'Cell Contents', style)#添加cell的边框#Please note: While I was able to find these constants within the source code, on my system (using LibreOffice,) I was only presented with a solid line, varying from thin to thick; no dotted or dashed lines.

borders = xlwt.Borders() #Create Borders

borders.left = xlwt.Borders.DASHED #May be: NO_LINE, THIN, MEDIUM, DASHED, DOTTED, THICK, DOUBLE, HAIR, MEDIUM_DASHED, THIN_DASH_DOTTED, MEDIUM_DASH_DOTTED, THIN_DASH_DOT_DOTTED, MEDIUM_DASH_DOT_DOTTED, SLANTED_MEDIUM_DASH_DOTTED, or 0x00 through 0x0D.

borders.right =xlwt.Borders.DASHED

borders.top=xlwt.Borders.DASHED

borders.bottom=xlwt.Borders.DASHED

borders.left_colour= 0x40borders.right_colour= 0x40borders.top_colour= 0x40borders.bottom_colour= 0x40style= xlwt.XFStyle() #Create Style

style.borders = borders #Add Borders to Style

worksheet.write(0, 0, 'Cell Contents', style)#设置cell的背景颜色

pattern = xlwt.Pattern() #Create the Pattern

pattern.pattern = xlwt.Pattern.SOLID_PATTERN #May be: NO_PATTERN, SOLID_PATTERN, or 0x00 through 0x12

pattern.pattern_fore_colour = 5 #May be: 8 through 63. 0 = Black, 1 = White, 2 = Red, 3 = Green, 4 = Blue, 5 = Yellow, 6 = Magenta, 7 = Cyan, 16 = Maroon, 17 = Dark Green, 18 = Dark Blue, 19 = Dark Yellow , almost brown), 20 = Dark Magenta, 21 = Teal, 22 = Light Gray, 23 = Dark Gray, the list goes on...

style = xlwt.XFStyle() #Create the Pattern

style.pattern = pattern #Add Pattern to Style

worksheet.write(0, 0, 'Cell Contents', style)

TODO: Things Left to Document- Panes -- separate views which are always inview- Border Colors (documented above, but nottaking effect as it should)- Border Widths (document above, but notworking as expected)-Protection-Row Styles- Zoom /Manification-WS Props?

Source Codefor reference available at: https://secure.simplistix.co.uk/svn/xlwt/trunk/xlwt/

print xlrd.cellname(0, 0) #(0,0)转换成 A1

print xlrd.cellnameabs(0, 0) #(0,0)转换成 $A$1

print xlrd.colname(30) #把列由数字转换为字母表示AE

#取类型

print sheet1.cell(1, 2).ctype

print sheet1.cell_type(1, 2)

print sheet1.row(1)[2].ctype

数据类型:

空:0

字符串:1数字:2日期:3布尔:4error:5

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