python vue token_Flask与Vue的token认证

后端使用flask设计基于token认证方式的restful接口,前端使用vue.js全家桶,利用axios通讯。

感谢两篇文章的作者:

后端Flask

Flask采用token认证方式,主要思路是通过/api/login登录获取token,然后使用token调用各个接口。

所用到框架的库:

flask

flask-cors:flask跨域

flask-sqlachemy: flask数据库orm

flask-httpauth:flask的auth认证

passlib: python密码解析库

itsdangerous

后端结构图

flask/

├── app # 主目录

│   ├── __init__.py

│   ├── __init__.pyc

│   ├── models.py # 数据库

│   ├── models.pyc

│   ├── views.py # 视图

│   └── views.pyc

├── config.py # 配置信息

├── config.pyc

├── db_create.py # 创建数据库

├── db_migrate.py # 更新数据库

├── db_repository

│   ├── __init__.py

│   ├── __init__.pyc

│   ├── manage.py

│   ├── migrate.cfg

│   ├── README

│   └── versions

│   ├── 008_migration.py

│   ├── 008_migration.pyc

│   ├── 009_migration.py

│   ├── 009_migration.pyc

│   ├── __init__.py

│   └── __init__.pyc

├── index.html

└── run.py # app的运行文件

具体实现

系统初始化app/__init__.py

# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

from flask import Flask

from flask_sqlalchemy import SQLAlchemy

from flask_httpauth import HTTPBasicAuth

from flask_cors import CORS

app = Flask(__name__)

# flask的跨域解决

CORS(app)

app.config.from_object('config')

db = SQLAlchemy(app)

auth = HTTPBasicAuth()

from . import models, views

配置文件config.py

import os

basedir = os.path.abspath(os.path.dirname(__file__))

SQLALCHEMY_DATABASE_URI = "mysql://root:123456@127.0.0.1/rest"

SQLALCHEMY_MIGRATE_REPO = os.path.join(basedir, 'db_repository')

SQLALCHEMY_TRACK_MODIFICATIONS = True

BASEDIR = basedir

# 安全配置

CSRF_ENABLED = True

SECRET_KEY = 'jklklsadhfjkhwbii9/sdf\sdf'

环境中使用mysql数据库,版本为mariadb 10.1.22。创建rest表

$ mysql -uroot -p xxxxxx

$ create database rest default charset utf8;

创建数据库表app/models.py

# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

from app import db, app

from passlib.apps import custom_app_context

from itsdangerous import TimedJSONWebSignatureSerializer as Serializer, SignatureExpired, BadSignature

class User(db.Model):

__tablename__ = 'users'

id = db.Column(db.Integer, primary_key=True)

username = db.Column(db.String(32), index=True)

password = db.Column(db.String(128))

# 密码加密

def hash_password(self, password):

self.password = custom_app_context.encrypt(password)

# 密码解析

def verify_password(self, password):

return custom_app_context.verify(password, self.password)

# 获取token,有效时间10min

def generate_auth_token(self, expiration = 600):

s = Serializer(app.config['SECRET_KEY'], expires_in = expiration)

return s.dumps({ 'id': self.id })

# 解析token,确认登录的用户身份

@staticmethod

def verify_auth_token(token):

s = Serializer(app.config['SECRET_KEY'])

try:

data = s.loads(token)

except SignatureExpired:

return None # valid token, but expired

except BadSignature:

return None # invalid token

user = User.query.get(data['id'])

return user

创建数据库users表:

$ python db_create.py

$ python db_migrate.py

视图app/views.py

from app import app, db, auth

from flask import render_template, json, jsonify, request, abort, g

from app.models import *

@app.route("/")

@auth.login_required

def index():

return jsonify('Hello, %s' % g.user.username)

@app.route('/api/users', methods = ['POST'])

def new_user():

username = request.json.get('username')

password = request.json.get('password')

if username is None or password is None:

abort(400) # missing arguments

if User.query.filter_by(username = username).first() is not None:

abort(400) # existing user

user = User(username = username)

user.hash_password(password)

db.session.add(user)

db.session.commit()

return jsonify({ 'username': user.username })

@auth.verify_password

def verify_password(username_or_token, password):

if request.path == "/api/login":

user = User.query.filter_by(username=username_or_token).first()

if not user or not user.verify_password(password):

return False

else:

user = User.verify_auth_token(username_or_token)

if not user:

return False

g.user = user

return True

@app.route('/api/login')

@auth.login_required

def get_auth_token():

token = g.user.generate_auth_token()

return jsonify(token)

用户注册后密码加密存储,确认用户身份时密码解密。需要认证的api上添加@auth.login_required,它会在调用接口之前调用@auth.verify_password下的方法(此方法唯一)如verify_password。根据请求的路径选择不同的认证方式。

测试

使用curl命令测试接口

注册用户:

$ curl -i -X POST -H "Content-Type: application/json" -d '{"username":"admin","password":"123456"}' http://127.0.0.1:5000/api/register

HTTP/1.0 200 OK

Content-Type: application/json

Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *

Content-Length: 26

Server: Werkzeug/0.12.2 Python/2.7.13

Date: Wed, 20 Sep 2017 06:33:46 GMT

{

"username": "admin"

}

查看数据库:

MariaDB [rest]> select * from users\G;

*************************** 1. row ***************************

id: 1

username: admin

password: $6$rounds=656000$etV4F3xLL0dwflX8$mLFX9l5dumBnQFtajGmey346viGuQ4bxR7YhQdKtB/nQH9ij2e3HHMEBPj.ef/o//4o9P2Wd3Y7dxQfjwR2hY/

1 row in set (0.00 sec)

获取token:

curl -i -u admin:123456 -X GET -H "Content-Type: application/json" http://127.0.0.1:5000/api/login

HTTP/1.0 200 OK

Content-Type: application/json

Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *

Content-Length: 125

Server: Werkzeug/0.12.2 Python/2.7.13

Date: Wed, 20 Sep 2017 06:37:01 GMT

"eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsImV4cCI6MTUwNTg5MDAyMSwiaWF0IjoxNTA1ODg5NDIxfQ.eyJpZCI6MX0.nUIKq-ZhFOiLPwZyUmfgWPfHYNy8o6eoR6lmzdsY0oQ"

使用token调用api:

$ curl -i -u eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsImV4cCI6MTUwNTg5MDAyMSwiaWF0IjoxNTA1ODg5NDIxfQ.eyJpZCI6MX0.nUIKq-ZhFOiLPwZyUmfgWPfHYNy8o6eoR6lmzdsY0oQ:unused -X GET -H "Content-Type: application/json" http://127.0.0.1:5000/

HTTP/1.0 200 OK

Content-Type: application/json

Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *

Content-Length: 15

Server: Werkzeug/0.12.2 Python/2.7.13

Date: Wed, 20 Sep 2017 06:38:22 GMT

"Hello, admin"

基于token的Flask api成功!!!!

前端Vue.js

前端使用vue的全家桶,axios前后端通讯,axios拦截器,localStorage保存token

所使用的框架和库:

vue2.0

iview2.X

axios

vuex

vue-router

具体实现

main.js

// 初始化axios

axios.defaults.baseURL = 'http://127.0.0.1:5000'

axios.defaults.auth = {

username: '',

password: '',

}

// axios.interceptors.request.use((config) => {

// console.log(config)

// return config;

// }, (error) => {

// return Promise.reject(error)

// })

// axios拦截器,401状态时跳转登录页并清除token

axios.interceptors.response.use((response) => {

return response;

}, (error) => {

if (error.response) {

switch (error.response.status) {

case 401:

store.commit('del_token')

router.push('/login')

}

}

return Promise.reject(error.response.data)

})

// 路由跳转

router.beforeEach((to, from, next) => {

if (to.meta.required) {

// 检查localStorage

if (localStorage.token) {

store.commit('set_token', localStorage.token)

// 添加axios头部Authorized

axios.defaults.auth = {

username: store.state.token,

password: store.state.token,

}

// iview的页面加载条

iView.LoadingBar.start();

next()

} else {

next({

path: '/login',

})

}

} else {

iView.LoadingBar.start();

next()

}

})

router.afterEach((to, from, next) => {

iView.LoadingBar.finish();

})

路由

export default new Router({

routes: [{

path: '/',

name: 'index',

component: Index,

meta: {

required: true,

}

}, {

path: '/login',

name: 'login',

component: Login,

}]

})

路由添加meta字段,作为需要认证路由的标志

vuex

export default new Vuex.Store({

state: {

token: ''

},

mutations: {

set_token(state, token) {

state.token = token

localStorage.token = token

},

del_token(state) {

state.token = ''

localStorage.removeItem('token')

}

}

})

vuex中保存token,同时修改删除token和localStorage.token

登录和登出

登录:

handleSubmit(name, form) {

this.$refs[name].validate((valid) => {

if (valid) {

// 用户名密码简单验证后添加到axios的auth中

this.$axios.defaults.auth = {

username: form.username,

password: form.password,

}

this.$axios.get('/api/login').then(response => {

this.$Message.success("提交成功")

let data = response.data

// 保存token

this.$store.commit('set_token', data)

this.$router.push('/')

}).catch(error => {

this.$Message.error(error.status)

})

} else {

this.$Message.error('表单验证失败!');

}

})

}

登出:

logout() {

this.$store.commit('del_token')

this.$router.push('/login')

}

删除token并跳转到登录页

flask和vue的token认证就完成了!!!!

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