HTTPS站点使用WebSocket的常见错误及解决方案

因为HTTPS是基于SSL依靠证书来验证服务器的身份,并为浏览器和服务器之间的通信加密,所以在HTTPS站点调用某些非SSL验证的资源时浏览器可能会阻止。比如使用ws://***调用websocket服务器或者引入类似http://***.js的js文件等都会报错。这里简述一下连接websocket服务器时的错误及解决方案。当使用ws://连接websocket服务器时会出现类似如下错误:

Mixed Content: The page at '*****' was loaded over HTTPS, but attempted to connect to the insecure WebSocket endpoint 'ws://*****'. This request has been blocked; this endpoint must be available over WSS.
(anonymous) 
Uncaught DOMException: Failed to construct 'WebSocket': An insecure WebSocket connection may not be initiated from a page loaded over HTTPS.

如果浏览器不阻止,那在https站点下调用ssl资源才可以,面说一下解决方案:

方案一:假设HTTPS站点使用Nginx服务器,其他服务器也是类似的思路,可以用服务器代理ws服务,可以用nginx的WebSocket proxying,简述一下配置方案

#首先将客户端请求websocket时的地址更改为wss://代理服务器url(代理服务器必须支持https) 例如
var ws = new WebSocket("wss://www.liminghulian.com/websocket");
#在代理服务器上的nginx配置文件中的server中增加如下配置项
location /websocket/ {
    proxy_pass http://backend;
    proxy_http_version 1.1;
    proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
    proxy_set_header Connection "upgrade";
}

#http中增加
upstream backend{
   server websocket服务器的ip:端口;
}

这样客户端请求的是wss://服务器,通过nginx的WebSocket proxying代理到实际不支持ssl的websocket服务器。

方案二:直接为WebSocket服务器增加ssl证书,这样就可以直接通过wss://来请求服务器了,以swoole为例,其他服务器也是类似的思路,下面给出示例代码

//使用SSL必须在编译swoole时加入--enable-openssl选项
$server = new Swoole\WebSocket\Server("0.0.0.0", 9502, SWOOLE_PROCESS, SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP | SWOOLE_SSL);
$server->set(
	[
      'ssl_cert_file' => '证书',
       'ssl_key_file' => '/usr/local/nginx/conf/cert/214517325220006.key',
	]
);
$server->on('open', function (Swoole\WebSocket\Server $server, $request) {
    echo "server: handshake success with fd{$request->fd}\n";
});

$server->on('message', function (Swoole\WebSocket\Server $server, $frame) {
    echo "receive from {$frame->fd}:{$frame->data},opcode:{$frame->opcode},fin:{$frame->finish}\n";
    $server->push($frame->fd, "this is server");
});

$server->on('close', function ($ser, $fd) {
    echo "client {$fd} closed\n";
});

$server->start();

 

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