KVM虚拟化

1. 虚拟化介绍

虚拟化是云计算的基础。简单的说,虚拟化使得在一台物理的服务器上可以跑多台虚拟机,虚拟机共享物理机的 CPU、内存、IO 硬件资源,但逻辑上虚拟机之间是相互隔离的。

物理机我们一般称为宿主机(Host),宿主机上面的虚拟机称为客户机(Guest)。

那么 Host 是如何将自己的硬件资源虚拟化,并提供给 Guest 使用的呢?
这个主要是通过一个叫做 Hypervisor 的程序实现的。

根据 Hypervisor 的实现方式和所处的位置,虚拟化又分为两种:

  • 全虚拟化
  • 半虚拟化

全虚拟化:
Hypervisor 直接安装在物理机上,多个虚拟机在 Hypervisor 上运行。Hypervisor 实现方式一般是一个特殊定制的 Linux 系统。Xen 和 VMWare 的 ESXi 都属于这个类型

在这里插入图片描述
半虚拟化:

在这里插入图片描述

理论上讲:

全虚拟化一般对硬件虚拟化功能进行了特别优化,性能上比半虚拟化要高;
半虚拟化因为基于普通的操作系统,会比较灵活,比如支持虚拟机嵌套。嵌套意味着可以在KVM虚拟机中再运行KVM。

2. kvm介绍

kVM 全称是 Kernel-Based Virtual Machine。也就是说 KVM 是基于 Linux 内核实现的。
KVM有一个内核模块叫 kvm.ko,只用于管理虚拟 CPU 和内存。

那 IO 的虚拟化,比如存储和网络设备则是由 Linux 内核与Qemu来实现。

作为一个 Hypervisor,KVM 本身只关注虚拟机调度和内存管理这两个方面。IO 外设的任务交给 Linux 内核和 Qemu。

大家在网上看 KVM 相关文章的时候肯定经常会看到 Libvirt 这个东西。

Libvirt 就是 KVM 的管理工具。

其实,Libvirt 除了能管理 KVM 这种 Hypervisor,还能管理 Xen,VirtualBox 等。

Libvirt 包含 3 个东西:后台 daemon 程序 libvirtd、API 库和命令行工具 virsh

  • libvirtd是服务程序,接收和处理 API 请求;
  • API 库使得其他人可以开发基于 Libvirt 的高级工具,比如 virt-manager,这是个图形化的 KVM 管理工具;
  • virsh 是我们经常要用的 KVM 命令行工具

3. kvm部署

环境说明:

IP:192.168.157.99

3.1 kvm安装

部署前请确保你的CPU虚拟化功能已开启。分为两种情况:

  • 虚拟机要关机设置CPU虚拟化
  • 物理机要在BIOS里开启CPU虚拟化

//关闭防火墙与selinux

	[root@mp ~]# systemctl stop firewalld
	[root@mp ~]# systemctl disable firewalld
	Removed symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/firewalld.service.
	Removed symlink /etc/systemd/system/dbus-org.fedoraproject.FirewallD1.service.
	[root@mp ~]# setenforce 0
	[root@mp ~]# sed -ri 's/^(SELINUX=).*/\1disabled/g' /etc/selinux/config
	//这一步十分重要!!!

//配置网络源

	[root@mp yum.repos.d]# curl -o /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS7-Base-163.repo http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS7-Base-163.repo
	[root@mp ~]# sed -i 's/\$releasever/7/g' /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS7-Base-163.repo
	[root@mp ~]# sed -i 's/^enabled=.*/enabled=1/g' /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS7-Base-163.repo
	[root@mp ~]# yum -y install epel-release vim wget net-tools unzip zip gcc gcc-c++
	安装过程略.....

//验证CPU是否支持KVM;如果结果中有vmx(Intel)或svm(AMD)字样,就说明CPU的支持的

	[root@mp ~]# egrep -o 'vmx|svm' /proc/cpuinfo
	vmx
	vmx
	vmx
	vmx

//kvm安装

	[root@mp ~]# yum -y install qemu-kvm qemu-kvm-tools qemu-img virt-manager libvirt libvirt-python libvirt-client virt-install virt-viewer bridge-utils libguestfs-tools
	//安装过程省略......

//因为虚拟机中网络,我们一般都是和公司的其他服务器是同一个网段,所以我们需要把 KVM服务器的网卡配置成桥接模式。这样的话KVM的虚拟机就可以通过该桥接网卡和公司内部 其他服务器处于同一网段

//此处我的网卡是ens32,所以用br0来桥接ens32网卡

	//对应修改或者添加以下内容即可
	[root@mp ~]# vim /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-br0 
	TYPE=Bridge
	DEVICE=br0
	NM_CONTROLLED=no
	BOOTPROTO=static
	NAME=br0
	ONBOOT=yes
	IPADDR=192.168.157.99
	NETMASK=255.255.255.0
	GATEWAY=192.168.157.2
	DNS1=8.8.8.8


	//保留以下内容即可
	[root@mp ~]# vim /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ens32 
	TYPE=Ethernet
	BOOTPROTO=static
	NAME=ens33
	DEVICE=ens33
	ONBOOT=yes
	BRIDGE=br0
	NM_CONTROLLED=no


	[root@mp ~]# systemctl restart network
	
	[root@mp ~]# ip a 
	1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN qlen 1
	    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
	    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
	       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
	    inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
	       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
	2: ens32: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master br0 state UP qlen 1000
	    link/ether 00:0c:29:93:a6:6c brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
	    inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe93:a66c/64 scope link 
	       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
	3: ens35: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
	    link/ether 00:0c:29:93:a6:76 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
	4: br0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP qlen 1000
	    link/ether 00:0c:29:93:a6:6c brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
	    inet 192.168.157.99/24 brd 192.168.157.255 scope global br0
	       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
	    inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe93:a66c/64 scope link 
	       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

//启动服务

	[root@mp ~]# systemctl start libvirtd
	[root@mp ~]# systemctl enable libvirtd

//验证安装结果

	[root@mp ~]# lsmod|grep kvm
	kvm_intel             170086  0 
	kvm                   566340  1 kvm_intel
	irqbypass              13503  1 kvm

//测试并验证安装结果

	[root@mp ~]# virsh -c qemu:///system list
	 Id    名称                         状态
	----------------------------------------------------
	[root@mp ~]# virsh --version
	4.5.0
	[root@mp ~]# virt-install --version
	1.5.0
	[root@mp ~]# ln -s /usr/libexec/qemu-kvm /usr/bin/qemu-kvm
	[root@mp ~]# ll /usr/bin/qemu-kvm 
	lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 21 314 14:17 /usr/bin/qemu-kvm -> /usr/libexec/qemu-kvm
	
	[root@mp ~]# lsmod |grep kvm
	kvm_intel             170086  0 
	kvm                   566340  1 kvm_intel
	irqbypass              13503  1 kvm

//查看网桥信息

	[root@mp ~]# brctl show
	bridge name	bridge id		STP enabled	interfaces
	br0		8000.000c2993a66c	no		ens32
	virbr0		8000.5254009df26a	yes		virbr0-nic

3.2 kvm web管理界面安装

kvm 的 web 管理界面是由 webvirtmgr 程序提供的。

//安装依赖包

	[root@mp ~]# yum -y install git python-pip libvirt-python libxml2-python python-websockify supervisor nginx python-devel

//升级pip

		
	[root@mp ~]# pip install --upgrade pip
	//过程省略......

//从github上下载webvirtmgr代码

	[root@mp ~]# cd /usr/local/src/
	[root@mp src]# git clone git://github.com/retspen/webvirtmgr.git
	正克隆到 'webvirtmgr'...
	remote: Enumerating objects: 5614, done.
	remote: Total 5614 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 561
	接收对象中: 100% (5614/5614), 2.98 MiB | 1011.00 KiB/s, done.
	处理 delta 中: 100% (3602/3602), done.

//安装webvirtmgr

	[root@mp src]# cd webvirtmgr/
	[root@mp webvirtmgr]# pip install -r requirements.txt
	DEPRECATION: Python 2.7 will reach the end of its life on January 1st, 2020. Please upgrade your Python as Python 2.7 won't be maintained after that date. A future version of pip will drop support for Python 2.7.
	//安装过程省略......

//检查sqlite3是否安装

	[root@mp webvirtmgr]# python
	Python 2.7.5 (default, Oct 30 2018, 23:45:53) 
	[GCC 4.8.5 20150623 (Red Hat 4.8.5-36)] on linux2
	Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
	>>> import sqlite3
	>>> exit()

//初始化帐号信息

	[root@kvm webvirtmgr]# python manage.py syncdb
	WARNING:root:No local_settings file found.
	Creating tables ...
	Creating table auth_permission
	Creating table auth_group_permissions
	Creating table auth_group
	Creating table auth_user_groups
	Creating table auth_user_user_permissions
	Creating table auth_user
	Creating table django_content_type
	Creating table django_session
	Creating table django_site
	Creating table servers_compute
	Creating table instance_instance
	Creating table create_flavor
	
	You just installed Django's auth system, which means you don't have any superusers defined.
	Would you like to create one now? (yes/no): yes     //问你是否创建超级管理员帐号
	Username (leave blank to use 'root'):   //指定超级管理员帐号用户名,默认留空为root
	Email address: bebejo@126.com     //设置超级管理员邮箱
	Password:1       //设置超级管理员密码
	Password (again):1       //再次输入超级管理员密码
	Superuser created successfully.
	Installing custom SQL ...
	Installing indexes ...
	Installed 6 object(s) from 1 fixture(s)

//拷贝web网页至指定目录

	[root@mp webvirtmgr]# mkdir /var/www
	[root@mp webvirtmgr]# cp -r /usr/local/src/webvirtmgr/ /var/www/
	[root@mp webvirtmgr]# chown -R nginx.nginx /var/www/webvirtmgr/

//生成密钥

	//全部保持默认,回车即可
	[root@mp ~]# ssh-keygen -t rsa
	Generating public/private rsa key pair.
	Enter file in which to save the key (/root/.ssh/id_rsa): 
	Created directory '/root/.ssh'.
	Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): 
	Enter same passphrase again: 
	Your identification has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa.
	Your public key has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
	The key fingerprint is:
	SHA256:3/LDSmdcrWbrJxAXtt9HJD13UKlz4lTbYrCqzUNVkWQ root@mp
	The key's randomart image is:
	+---[RSA 2048]----+
	|             .E*o|
	|            ..*+=|
	|             =o=*|
	|            +==+o|
	|        S  oo+=+o|
	|         .oo.o .+|
	|         =+.=.+ .|
	|        ..+=oo...|
	|          .o.ooo |
	+----[SHA256]-----+

//由于这里webvirtmgr和kvm服务部署在同一台机器,所以这里本地信任。如果kvm部署在其他机器,那么这个是它的ip

	[root@mp ~]# ssh-copy-id 192.168.157.99
	/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: Source of key(s) to be installed: "/root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub"
	The authenticity of host '192.168.157.99 (192.168.157.99)' can't be established.
	ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:I20VCudXLSb+D75FPy0SjjexuAhmPkhN8hO4DZFjaT8.
	ECDSA key fingerprint is MD5:f2:04:78:0f:b3:30:ae:12:66:05:85:97:e6:ab:80:15.
	Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
	/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed
	/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys
	root@192.168.157.99's password: 
	
	Number of key(s) added: 1
	
	Now try logging into the machine, with:   "ssh '192.168.157.99'"
	and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added.

//端口转发

	[root@mp ~]# ssh 192.168.157.99 -L localhost:8000:localhost:8000 -L localhost:6080:localhost:60
	Last login: Fri Mar 15 02:23:10 2019 from 192.168.157.1
	[root@mp ~]# ss -antl 
	State      Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address:Port               Peer Address:Port              
	LISTEN     0      128        *:111                    *:*                  
	LISTEN     0      5      192.168.122.1:53                     *:*                  
	LISTEN     0      128        *:22                     *:*                  
	LISTEN     0      100    127.0.0.1:25                     *:*                  
	LISTEN     0      128    127.0.0.1:6080                   *:*                  
	LISTEN     0      128    127.0.0.1:8000                   *:*                  
	LISTEN     0      128       :::111                   :::*                  
	LISTEN     0      128       :::22                    :::*                  
	LISTEN     0      100      ::1:25                    :::*                  
	LISTEN     0      128      ::1:6080                  :::*                  
	LISTEN     0      128      ::1:8000                  :::*        

//配置nginx

	[root@mp ~]# vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
	[root@kvm ~]# vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
	user nginx;
	worker_processes auto;
	error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;
	pid /run/nginx.pid;
	
	include /usr/share/nginx/modules/*.conf;
	
	events {
	    worker_connections 1024;
	}
	
	http {
	    log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
	                      '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
	                      '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';
	
	    access_log  /var/log/nginx/access.log  main;
	
	    sendfile            on;
	    tcp_nopush          on;
	    tcp_nodelay         on;
	    keepalive_timeout   65;
	    types_hash_max_size 2048;
	
	    include             /etc/nginx/mime.types;
	    default_type        application/octet-stream;
	
	    include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf;
	
	    server {
	        listen       80;
	        server_name  localhost;
	
	        include /etc/nginx/default.d/*.conf;
	
	        location / {
	            root html;
	            index index.html index.htm;
	        }
	
	        error_page 404 /404.html;
	            location = /40x.html {
	        }
	
	        error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
	            location = /50x.html {
	        }
	    }
	}

	[root@mp ~]# vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/webvirtmgr.conf 
	server {
    listen 80 default_server;

    server_name $hostname;
    #access_log /var/log/nginx/webvirtmgr_access_log;

    location /static/ {
        root /var/www/webvirtmgr/webvirtmgr;
        expires max;
    }

    location / {
        proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:8000;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-for $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $host:$server_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto $remote_addr;
        proxy_connect_timeout 600;
        proxy_read_timeout 600;
        proxy_send_timeout 600;
        client_max_body_size 1024M;
    }
}

//确保bind绑定的是本机的8000端口

	[root@mp ~]# vim /var/www/webvirtmgr/conf/gunicorn.conf.py
	.....此处省略N行
	bind = '0.0.0.0:8000'     //确保此处绑定的是本机的8000端口,这个在nginx配置中定义了,被代理的端口
	backlog = 2048
	.....此处省略N

//重启nginx

	[root@mp ~]# systemctl start nginx 
	[root@mp ~]# ss -antl
	State      Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address:Port               Peer Address:Port              
	LISTEN     0      128        *:111                    *:*                  
	LISTEN     0      128        *:80                     *:*                  
	LISTEN     0      5      192.168.122.1:53                     *:*                  
	LISTEN     0      128        *:22                     *:*                  
	LISTEN     0      100    127.0.0.1:25                     *:*                  
	LISTEN     0      128    127.0.0.1:6080                   *:*                  
	LISTEN     0      128    127.0.0.1:8000                   *:*                  
	LISTEN     0      128       :::111                   :::*                  
	LISTEN     0      128       :::22                    :::*                  
	LISTEN     0      100      ::1:25                    :::*                  
	LISTEN     0      128      ::1:6080                  :::*                  
	LISTEN     0      128      ::1:8000                  :::*        

//设置supervisor

	[root@mp ~]# vim /etc/supervisord.conf 
	//.....此处省略上面的内容,在文件最后加上以下内容
	[program:webvirtmgr]
	command=/usr/bin/python2 /var/www/webvirtmgr/manage.py run_gunicorn -c /var/www/webvirtmgr/conf/gunicorn.conf.py
	directory=/var/www/webvirtmgr
	autostart=true
	autorestart=true
	logfile=/var/log/supervisor/webvirtmgr.log
	log_stderr=true
	user=nginx
	
	[program:webvirtmgr-console]
	command=/usr/bin/python2 /var/www/webvirtmgr/console/webvirtmgr-console
	directory=/var/www/webvirtmgr
	autostart=true
	autorestart=true
	stdout_logfile=/var/log/supervisor/webvirtmgr-console.log
	redirect_stderr=true
	user=nginx

//启动supervisor并设置开机自动启动

	[root@mp ~]# systemctl start supervisord
	[root@mp ~]# systemctl enable supervisord
	Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/supervisord.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/supervisord.service.
	[root@mp ~]# systemctl status supervisord
	● supervisord.service - Process Monitoring and Control Daemon
	   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/supervisord.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
	   Active: active (running) since 五 2019-03-15 03:06:19 CST; 20s ago
	 Main PID: 3326 (supervisord)
	   CGroup: /system.slice/supervisord.service
	           └─3326 /usr/bin/python /usr/bin/supervisord -c /etc/supervisor...
	
	315 03:06:18 mp systemd[1]: Starting Process Monitoring and Control.....
	315 03:06:19 mp systemd[1]: Started Process Monitoring and Control ...n.
	Hint: Some lines were ellipsized, use -l to show in full.



	[root@mp ~]# ss -antl 
	State      Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address:Port               Peer Address:Port              
	LISTEN     0      128        *:111                    *:*                  
	LISTEN     0      128        *:80                     *:*                  
	LISTEN     0      5      192.168.122.1:53                     *:*                  
	LISTEN     0      128        *:22                     *:*                  
	LISTEN     0      100    127.0.0.1:25                     *:*                  
	LISTEN     0      128    127.0.0.1:6080                   *:*                  
	LISTEN     0      128    127.0.0.1:8000                   *:*                  
	LISTEN     0      128       :::111                   :::*                  
	LISTEN     0      128       :::22                    :::*                  
	LISTEN     0      100      ::1:25                    :::*                  
	LISTEN     0      128      ::1:6080                  :::*                  
	LISTEN     0      128      ::1:8000                  :::*     

//配置nginx用户

	//未创建nginx用户,所以用su命令赋予它交互式登录的权限
	[root@mp ~]# su - nginx -s /bin/bash
	-bash-4.2$ ssh-keygen -t rsa
	//全部保持默认,回车即可,密码除外。
	Generating public/private rsa key pair.
	Enter file in which to save the key (/var/lib/nginx/.ssh/id_rsa): 
	Created directory '/var/lib/nginx/.ssh'.
	
	Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): 
	
	Enter same passphrase again: 
	
	Your identification has been saved in /var/lib/nginx/.ssh/id_rsa.
	Your public key has been saved in /var/lib/nginx/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
	The key fingerprint is:
	SHA256:86tvVfX2z7hqCHz/rqVUKMQPReWO26hNWlpZaZOTOgg nginx@mp
	The key's randomart image is:
	+---[RSA 2048]----+
	|           .o..  |
	|         . . .  .|
	|          +   ...|
	|         . o +.+o|
	|       .E . +.@..|
	|        o+.o.X o.|
	|         oo+@ oo.|
	|          o@o+. o|
	|        .+*.==+. |
	+----[SHA256]-----+
	-bash-4.2$ touch ~/.ssh/config && echo -e "StrictHostKeyChecking=no\nUserKnownHostsFile=/dev/null" >> ~/.ssh/config
	-bash-4.2$ chmod 0600 ~/.ssh/config
	-bash-4.2$ ssh-copy-id root@192.168.157.99
	/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: Source of key(s) to be installed: "/var/lib/nginx/.ssh/id_rsa.pub"
	/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed
	/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys
	Warning: Permanently added '192.168.157.99' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
	root@192.168.157.99's password: 
	
	Number of key(s) added: 1
	
	Now try logging into the machine, with:   "ssh 'root@192.168.157.99'"
	and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added.
	
	-bash-4.2$ exit
	登出



	[root@mp ~]#  vim /etc/polkit-1/localauthority/50-local.d/50-libvirt-remote-access.pkla
	[Remote libvirt SSH access]
	Identity=unix-user:root
	Action=org.libvirt.unix.manage
	ResultAny=yes
	ResultInactive=yes
	ResultActive=yes

	[root@mp ~]# chown -R root.root /etc/polkit-1/localauthority/50-local.d/50-libvirt-remote-access.pkla
	[root@mp ~]# systemctl restart nginx
	[root@mp ~]# systemctl restart libvirtd

3.3 kvm web界面管理

通过ip地址在浏览器上访问kvm,例如我这里就是:http://192.168.157.99

在这里插入图片描述此处的用户为:root
密码为:执行python manage syncdb时设置的超级管理员密码


在这里插入图片描述此处的Label要与下面的FQDN / IP一致!


在这里插入图片描述点击上方的IP地址,不是点击Host:192.168.157.99

3.3.2 kvm存储管理

//创建存储

在这里插入图片描述点击New Storage


在这里插入图片描述****

进入存储
在这里插入图片描述点击default


在这里插入图片描述池路径 /var/lib/libvirt/images:磁盘镜像ISO文件存储的位置


//通过远程连接软件上传ISO镜像文件至存储目录/var/lib/libvirt/images/

[root@mp ~]# cd /var/lib/libvirt/images/
[root@mp images]# ll
总用量 3963904
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4059037696 3月  15 03:50 rhel-server-7.4-x86_64-dvd.iso

//在web界面查看ISO镜像文件是否存在
在这里插入图片描述


//创建系统安装镜像
在这里插入图片描述


//添加成功如下图
在这里插入图片描述

3.3.3 kvm网络管理

在这里插入图片描述点击New Network


在这里插入图片描述


3.3.4 实例管理

实例(虚拟机的创建)
在这里插入图片描述


//虚拟机插入光盘

在这里插入图片描述


//设置在web上访问虚拟机的密码

在这里插入图片描述


//启动虚拟机

在这里插入图片描述在这里插入图片描述


//虚拟机安装

在这里插入图片描述此步骤为虚拟机的安装步骤,不再阐述

4. 所遇问题

4.1 故障一

第一次通过web访问kvm时可能会一直访问不了,一直转圈,而命令行界面一直报错(too many open files)


	永久生效方法:
		修改/etc/security/limits.conf,在文件底部添加:
		* soft nofile 655360
		* hard nofile 655360
		星号代表全局, soft为软件,hard为硬件,nofile为这里指可打开文件数。
	 
	另外,要使limits.conf文件配置生效,必须要确保 pam_limits.so 文件被加入到启动文件中。
	查看 /etc/pam.d/login 文件中有:
	session required /lib/security/pam_limits.so

4.2 故障二

web界面配置完成后可能会出现以下错误界面
在这里插入图片描述
解决方法是安装novnc并通过novnc_server启动一个vnc

	[root@mp ~]# ll /etc/rc.local
	lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 13 Aug  6  2018 /etc/rc.local -> rc.d/rc.local
	[root@mp ~]# ll /etc/rc.d/rc.local
	-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 513 Mar 11 22:35 /etc/rc.d/rc.local
	[root@mp ~]# chmod +x /etc/rc.d/rc.local
	[root@mp ~]# ll /etc/rc.d/rc.local
	-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 513 Mar 11 22:35 /etc/rc.d/rc.local
	
	[root@mp ~]# vim /etc/rc.d/rc.local
	......此处省略N行
	# that this script will be executed during boot.
	
	touch /var/lock/subsys/local
	nohup novnc_server 172.16.12.128:5920 &
	
	[root@mp ~]# . /etc/rc.d/rc.local
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