SpringBoot(五)Web

Web

1、静态资源映射

(1)所有 /webjars/** ,都去 classpath:/META-INF/resources/webjars/ 找资源

pom.xml

<!--引入jquery-webjar-->在访问的时候只需要写webjars下面资源的名称即可
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.webjars</groupId>
			<artifactId>jquery</artifactId>
			<version>3.3.1</version>
		</dependency>

(2)"/" 访问当前项目的任何资源,都去静态资源的文件夹找映射

"classpath:/META-INF/resources/", 
"classpath:/resources/",
"classpath:/static/", 
"classpath:/public/" 
"/":当前项目的根路径resources

(3)欢迎页和图标

静态资源文件夹下的所有index.html页面;被"/**"映射

所有的 **/favicon.ico 也是在静态资源文件下找。

(4)自定义静态资源路径

会使默认路径失效,不太建议。

2、模板引擎

SpringBoot推荐的Thymeleaf:语法更简单,功能更强大;

(1)引入thymeleaf;

		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-thymeleaf</artifactId>
          	2.1.6
		</dependency>

切换thymeleaf版本
<properties>
		<thymeleaf.version>3.0.9.RELEASE</thymeleaf.version>
		<!-- 布局功能的支持程序  thymeleaf3主程序  layout2以上版本 -->
		<!-- thymeleaf2   layout1-->
		<thymeleaf-layout-dialect.version>2.2.2</thymeleaf-layout-dialect.version>
  </properties>

(2)使用

@ConfigurationProperties(prefix = "spring.thymeleaf")
public class ThymeleafProperties {

	private static final Charset DEFAULT_ENCODING = Charset.forName("UTF-8");

	private static final MimeType DEFAULT_CONTENT_TYPE = MimeType.valueOf("text/html");

	public static final String DEFAULT_PREFIX = "classpath:/templates/";

	public static final String DEFAULT_SUFFIX = ".html";
  	//

只要我们把HTML页面放在classpath:/templates/,thymeleaf就能自动渲染;

html

<!DOCTYPE html>
<!-- 导入thymeleaf的名称空间 -->
<html lang="en" xmlns:th="http://www.thymeleaf.org">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Title</title>
</head>
<body>
    <h1>成功!</h1>
    <!--th:text 将div里面的文本内容设置为 -->
    <div th:text="${hello}">这是显示欢迎信息</div>
</body>
</html>

(3)语法规则

a. th:text;改变当前元素里面的文本内容;

​ th:任意html属性;来替换原生属性的值

img

b.表达式

Simple expressions:(表达式语法)
    Variable Expressions: ${...}:获取变量值;OGNL;
    		1)、获取对象的属性、调用方法
    		2)、使用内置的基本对象:
    			#ctx : the context object.
    			#vars: the context variables.
                #locale : the context locale.
                #request : (only in Web Contexts) the HttpServletRequest object.
                #response : (only in Web Contexts) the HttpServletResponse object.
                #session : (only in Web Contexts) the HttpSession object.
                #servletContext : (only in Web Contexts) the ServletContext object.
                
                ${session.foo}
            3)、内置的一些工具对象:
#execInfo : information about the template being processed.
#messages : methods for obtaining externalized messages inside variables expressions, in the same way as they would be obtained using #{…} syntax.
#uris : methods for escaping parts of URLs/URIs
#conversions : methods for executing the configured conversion service (if any).
#dates : methods for java.util.Date objects: formatting, component extraction, etc.
#calendars : analogous to #dates , but for java.util.Calendar objects.
#numbers : methods for formatting numeric objects.
#strings : methods for String objects: contains, startsWith, prepending/appending, etc.
#objects : methods for objects in general.
#bools : methods for boolean evaluation.
#arrays : methods for arrays.
#lists : methods for lists.
#sets : methods for sets.
#maps : methods for maps.
#aggregates : methods for creating aggregates on arrays or collections.
#ids : methods for dealing with id attributes that might be repeated (for example, as a result of an iteration).

    Selection Variable Expressions: *{...}:选择表达式:和${}在功能上是一样;
    	补充:配合 th:object="${session.user}:
   <div th:object="${session.user}">
    <p>Name: <span th:text="*{firstName}">Sebastian</span>.</p>
    <p>Surname: <span th:text="*{lastName}">Pepper</span>.</p>
    <p>Nationality: <span th:text="*{nationality}">Saturn</span>.</p>
    </div>
    
    Message Expressions: #{...}:获取国际化内容
    Link URL Expressions: @{...}:定义URL;
    		@{/order/process(execId=${execId},execType='FAST')}
    Fragment Expressions: ~{...}:片段引用表达式
    		<div th:insert="~{commons :: main}">...</div>
    		
Literals(字面量)
      Text literals: 'one text' , 'Another one!' ,…
      Number literals: 0 , 34 , 3.0 , 12.3 ,…
      Boolean literals: true , false
      Null literal: null
      Literal tokens: one , sometext , main ,…
Text operations:(文本操作)
    String concatenation: +
    Literal substitutions: |The name is ${name}|
Arithmetic operations:(数学运算)
    Binary operators: + , - , * , / , %
    Minus sign (unary operator): -
Boolean operations:(布尔运算)
    Binary operators: and , or
    Boolean negation (unary operator): ! , not
Comparisons and equality:(比较运算)
    Comparators: > , < , >= , <= ( gt , lt , ge , le )
    Equality operators: == , != ( eq , ne )
Conditional operators:条件运算(三元运算符)
    If-then: (if) ? (then)
    If-then-else: (if) ? (then) : (else)
    Default: (value) ?: (defaultvalue)
Special tokens:
    No-Operation: _ 

3、MVC配置

(1)Spring MVC auto-configuration

Spring Boot 自动配置好了一部分SpringMVC。

(2)扩展SpringMVC

可以既保留原有的自动配置,也能用扩展的配置。

以前使用的SpringMVC的xml

    <mvc:view-controller path="/hello" view-name="success"/>
    <mvc:interceptors>
        <mvc:interceptor>
            <mvc:mapping path="/hello"/>
            <bean></bean>
        </mvc:interceptor>
    </mvc:interceptors>

也可编写一个配置类,不能标注@EnableWebMvc;

//使用继承WebMvcConfigurerAdapter可以来扩展SpringMVC的功能
@Configuration
public class MyMvcConfig extends WebMvcConfigurerAdapter {

    @Override
    public void addViewControllers(ViewControllerRegistry registry) {
       // super.addViewControllers(registry);
        //浏览器发送 /atguigu 请求来到 success
        registry.addViewController("/atguigu").setViewName("success");
    }
}

原理:

​ 1)、WebMvcAutoConfiguration是SpringMVC的自动配置类

​ 2)、在做其他自动配置时会导入;@Import(EnableWebMvcConfiguration.class)

    @Configuration
	public static class EnableWebMvcConfiguration extends DelegatingWebMvcConfiguration {
      private final WebMvcConfigurerComposite configurers = new WebMvcConfigurerComposite();

	 //从容器中获取所有的WebMvcConfigurer
      @Autowired(required = false)
      public void setConfigurers(List<WebMvcConfigurer> configurers) {
          if (!CollectionUtils.isEmpty(configurers)) {
              this.configurers.addWebMvcConfigurers(configurers);
            	//一个参考实现;将所有的WebMvcConfigurer相关配置都来一起调用;  
            	@Override
             // public void addViewControllers(ViewControllerRegistry registry) {
              //    for (WebMvcConfigurer delegate : this.delegates) {
               //       delegate.addViewControllers(registry);
               //   }
              }
          }
	}

​ 3)、容器中所有的WebMvcConfigurer都会一起起作用;

​ 4)、我们的配置类也会被调用;

(3)全面接管SpringMVC(不用)

所有的SpringMVC的自动配置都失效

//使用继承WebMvcConfigurerAdapter可以来扩展SpringMVC的功能
@Configuration
public class MyMvcConfig extends WebMvcConfigurerAdapter {

//在配置类中添加@EnableWebMvc即可
@EnableWebMvc
@Override
public void addViewControllers(ViewControllerRegistry registry) {
   // super.addViewControllers(registry);
    //浏览器发送 /atguigu 请求来到 success
    registry.addViewController("/atguigu").setViewName("success");
}

4、设置默认页

方案1:controller里添加一个"/"的映射路径

@RequestMapping("/")
public String index(Model model, HttpServletResponse response) {
    model.addAttribute("name", "simonsfan");
    return "/index";
}

方案二:设置默认的View跳转页面

@Configuration
public class DefaultView extends WebMvcConfigurerAdapter {
    @Override
    public void addViewControllers(ViewControllerRegistry registry) {
        registry.addViewController("/").setViewName("index");
        registry.setOrder(Ordered.HIGHEST_PRECEDENCE);
        super.addViewControllers(registry);
    }
}

5、国际化

(1)编写国际化配置文件,抽取页面需要显示的国际化消息
在这里插入图片描述

(2)SpringBoot自动配置好了管理国际化资源文件的组件;

@ConfigurationProperties(prefix = "spring.messages")
public class MessageSourceAutoConfiguration {
    
    /**
	 * Comma-separated list of basenames (essentially a fully-qualified classpath
	 * location), each following the ResourceBundle convention with relaxed support for
	 * slash based locations. If it doesn't contain a package qualifier (such as
	 * "org.mypackage"), it will be resolved from the classpath root.
	 */
	private String basename = "messages";  
    //我们的配置文件可以直接放在类路径下叫messages.properties;
    
    @Bean
	public MessageSource messageSource() {
		ResourceBundleMessageSource messageSource = new ResourceBundleMessageSource();
		if (StringUtils.hasText(this.basename)) {
            //设置国际化资源文件的基础名(去掉语言国家代码的)
			messageSource.setBasenames(StringUtils.commaDelimitedListToStringArray(
					StringUtils.trimAllWhitespace(this.basename)));
		}
		if (this.encoding != null) {
			messageSource.setDefaultEncoding(this.encoding.name());
		}
		messageSource.setFallbackToSystemLocale(this.fallbackToSystemLocale);
		messageSource.setCacheSeconds(this.cacheSeconds);
		messageSource.setAlwaysUseMessageFormat(this.alwaysUseMessageFormat);
		return messageSource;
	}

(3)前端页面获取国际化的值

6、嵌入式Servlet容器

SpringBoot默认使用Tomcat作为嵌入式的Servlet容器;
在这里插入图片描述

(1)定制和修改Servlet容器的相关配置

a.修改和server有关的配置

server.port=8081
server.context-path=/crud

server.tomcat.uri-encoding=UTF-8

//通用的Servlet容器设置
server.xxx
//Tomcat的设置
server.tomcat.xxx

b.编写一个EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer:嵌入式的Servlet容器的定制器

@Configuration
public class MyServerConfig {
   	@Bean  //一定要将这个定制器加入到容器中
    public EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer embeddedServletContainerCustomizer(){
        return new EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer() {

            //定制嵌入式的Servlet容器相关的规则
            @Override
            public void customize(ConfigurableEmbeddedServletContainer container) {
                container.setPort(8083);
            }
        };
	}
}

(2)前端控制器

SpringBoot帮我们自动SpringMVC的时候,自动的注册SpringMVC的前端控制器;DIspatcherServlet;

DispatcherServletAutoConfiguration中:

@Bean(name = DEFAULT_DISPATCHER_SERVLET_REGISTRATION_BEAN_NAME)
@ConditionalOnBean(value = DispatcherServlet.class, name = DEFAULT_DISPATCHER_SERVLET_BEAN_NAME)
public ServletRegistrationBean dispatcherServletRegistration(
      DispatcherServlet dispatcherServlet) {
   ServletRegistrationBean registration = new ServletRegistrationBean(
         dispatcherServlet, this.serverProperties.getServletMapping());
    //默认拦截: / 所有请求;包静态资源,但是不拦截jsp请求;   /* 会拦截jsp
    //可以通过server.servletPath来修改SpringMVC前端控制器默认拦截的请求路径
    
   registration.setName(DEFAULT_DISPATCHER_SERVLET_BEAN_NAME);
   registration.setLoadOnStartup(
         this.webMvcProperties.getServlet().getLoadOnStartup());
   if (this.multipartConfig != null) {
      registration.setMultipartConfig(this.multipartConfig);
   }
   return registration;
}

(3)替换为其他嵌入式Servlet容器

在这里插入图片描述

默认支持:

Tomcat(默认使用)

<dependency>
   <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
   <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
   <!--引入web模块默认就是使用嵌入式的Tomcat作为Servlet容器;-->
</dependency>

Jetty

<!-- 引入web模块 -->
<dependency>
   <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
   <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
   <exclusions>
      <exclusion>
         <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-tomcat</artifactId>
         <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
      </exclusion>
   </exclusions>
</dependency>

<!--引入其他的Servlet容器-->
<dependency>
   <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-jetty</artifactId>
   <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
</dependency>

Undertow

<!-- 引入web模块 -->
<dependency>
   <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
   <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
   <exclusions>
      <exclusion>
         <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-tomcat</artifactId>
         <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
      </exclusion>
   </exclusions>
</dependency>

<!--引入其他的Servlet容器-->
<dependency>
   <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-undertow</artifactId>
   <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
</dependency>

(4)使用外置的Servlet容器

嵌入式Servlet容器:应用打成可执行的jar

​ 优点:简单、便携;

​ 缺点:默认不支持JSP、优化定制比较复杂

外置的Servlet容器:外面安装Tomcat—应用war包的方式打包;

步骤:

1)、创建一个war项目,idea自动部署如下

a.idea自动将嵌入式的Tomcat指定为provided;

<dependency>
   <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
   <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-tomcat</artifactId>
   <scope>provided</scope>
</dependency>

b.idea自动编写了一个SpringBootServletInitializer的子类,并调用configure方法

public class ServletInitializer extends SpringBootServletInitializer {

   @Override
   protected SpringApplicationBuilder configure(SpringApplicationBuilder application) {
       //传入SpringBoot应用的主程序
      return application.sources(SpringBoot04WebJspApplication.class);
   }

}

2)、配置tomcat服务器

7、拦截器

写拦截器

/**
 * 登陆检查,
 */
public class LoginHandlerInterceptor implements HandlerInterceptor {
    //目标方法执行之前
    @Override
    public boolean preHandle(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, Object handler) throws Exception {
        Object user = request.getSession().getAttribute("loginUser");
        if(user == null){
            //未登陆,返回登陆页面
            request.setAttribute("msg","没有权限请先登陆");
            request.getRequestDispatcher("/index.html").forward(request,response);
            return false;
        }else{
            //已登陆,放行请求
            return true;
        }

    }

    @Override
    public void postHandle(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, Object handler, ModelAndView modelAndView) throws Exception {

    }

    @Override
    public void afterCompletion(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, Object handler, Exception ex) throws Exception {

    }
}

配置拦截器

  //所有的WebMvcConfigurerAdapter组件都会一起起作用
    @Bean //将组件注册在容器
    public WebMvcConfigurerAdapter webMvcConfigurerAdapter(){
        WebMvcConfigurerAdapter adapter = new WebMvcConfigurerAdapter() {
            @Override
            public void addViewControllers(ViewControllerRegistry registry) {
                registry.addViewController("/").setViewName("login");
                registry.addViewController("/index.html").setViewName("login");
                registry.addViewController("/main.html").setViewName("dashboard");
            }

            //配置拦截器
            @Override
            public void addInterceptors(InterceptorRegistry registry) {
                //super.addInterceptors(registry);
                //静态资源;  *.css , *.js注意放行
                registry.addInterceptor(new LoginHandlerInterceptor()).addPathPatterns("/**")
                        .excludePathPatterns("/index.html","/","/user/login");
            }
        };
        return adapter;
    }

8、三大组件

SpringBoot默认是以jar包的方式启动嵌入式的Servlet容器来启动SpringBoot的web应用,没有web.xml文件。

故在EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer中注册三大组件。

(1)Servlet:ServletRegistrationBean

//注册三大组件
@Bean
public ServletRegistrationBean myServlet(){
    ServletRegistrationBean registrationBean = new ServletRegistrationBean(new MyServlet(),"/myServlet");
    return registrationBean;
}

(2)过滤器:FilterRegistrationBean

@Bean
public FilterRegistrationBean myFilter(){
    FilterRegistrationBean registrationBean = new FilterRegistrationBean();
    registrationBean.setFilter(new MyFilter());
    registrationBean.setUrlPatterns(Arrays.asList("/hello","/myServlet"));
    return registrationBean;
}

(3)监听器:ServletListenerRegistrationBean

@Bean
public ServletListenerRegistrationBean myListener(){
    ServletListenerRegistrationBean<MyListener> registrationBean = new ServletListenerRegistrationBean<>(new MyListener());
    return registrationBean;
}

9、错误处理机制

(1)SpringBoot默认的错误处理机制

浏览器,返回一个默认的错误页面
在这里插入图片描述

其他客户端,默认响应一个json数据

img

原理:

​ ErrorMvcAutoConfiguration;错误处理的自动配置给容器中添加了以下组件

​ a、DefaultErrorAttributes:

//页面共享信息
@Override
	public Map<String, Object> getErrorAttributes(RequestAttributes requestAttributes,
			boolean includeStackTrace) {
		Map<String, Object> errorAttributes = new LinkedHashMap<String, Object>();
		errorAttributes.put("timestamp", new Date());
		addStatus(errorAttributes, requestAttributes);
		addErrorDetails(errorAttributes, requestAttributes, includeStackTrace);
		addPath(errorAttributes, requestAttributes);
		return errorAttributes;
	}

​ b、BasicErrorController:处理默认/error请求

浏览器发送请求的请求头:

[img](

@Controller
@RequestMapping("${server.error.path:${error.path:/error}}")
public class BasicErrorController extends AbstractErrorController {
    
    @RequestMapping(produces = "text/html")//产生html类型的数据;浏览器发送的请求来到这个方法处理
	public ModelAndView errorHtml(HttpServletRequest request,
			HttpServletResponse response) {
		HttpStatus status = getStatus(request);
		Map<String, Object> model = Collections.unmodifiableMap(getErrorAttributes(
				request, isIncludeStackTrace(request, MediaType.TEXT_HTML)));
		response.setStatus(status.value());
        
        //去哪个页面作为错误页面;包含页面地址和页面内容
		ModelAndView modelAndView = resolveErrorView(request, response, status, model);
		return (modelAndView == null ? new ModelAndView("error", model) : modelAndView);
	}

其他客户端发送请求的请求头:

img

	@RequestMapping
	@ResponseBody    //产生json数据,其他客户端来到这个方法处理;
	public ResponseEntity<Map<String, Object>> error(HttpServletRequest request) {
		Map<String, Object> body = getErrorAttributes(request,
				isIncludeStackTrace(request, MediaType.ALL));
		HttpStatus status = getStatus(request);
		return new ResponseEntity<Map<String, Object>>(body, status);
	}

​ c、ErrorPageCustomizer:

	@Value("${error.path:/error}")
	private String path = "/error";  系统出现错误以后来到error请求进行处理;(web.xml注册的错误页面规则)

​ d、DefaultErrorViewResolver:

@Override
	public ModelAndView resolveErrorView(HttpServletRequest request, HttpStatus status,
			Map<String, Object> model) {
		ModelAndView modelAndView = resolve(String.valueOf(status), model);
		if (modelAndView == null && SERIES_VIEWS.containsKey(status.series())) {
			modelAndView = resolve(SERIES_VIEWS.get(status.series()), model);
		}
		return modelAndView;
	}

	private ModelAndView resolve(String viewName, Map<String, Object> model) {
        //默认SpringBoot可以去找到一个页面?  error/404
		String errorViewName = "error/" + viewName;
        
        //模板引擎可以解析这个页面地址就用模板引擎解析
		TemplateAvailabilityProvider provider = this.templateAvailabilityProviders
				.getProvider(errorViewName, this.applicationContext);
		if (provider != null) {
            //模板引擎可用的情况下返回到errorViewName指定的视图地址
			return new ModelAndView(errorViewName, model);
		}
        //模板引擎不可用,就在静态资源文件夹下找errorViewName对应的页面   error/404.html
		return resolveResource(errorViewName, model);
	}

(2)定制错误页面

​ 1)、有模板引擎的情况下;创建error/状态码页面 ,放在模板引擎文件夹里面的 error文件夹下。发生此状态码的错误就会来到 对应的页面;

​ 我们可以使用4xx和5xx作为错误页面的文件名来匹配这种类型的所有错误,精确优先(优先寻找精确的状态码.html);

​ 页面能获取的信息;

​ timestamp:时间戳

​ status:状态码

​ error:错误提示

​ exception:异常对象

​ message:异常消息

​ errors:JSR303数据校验的错误都在这里

​ 2)、没有模板引擎(模板引擎找不到这个错误页面),静态资源文件夹下找;

​ 3)、以上都没有错误页面,就是默认来到SpringBoot默认的错误提示页面;

(3)定制错误json数据

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