oracle的一些函数、指令

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转自  http://www.cnblogs.com/yichengbo/archive/2011/07/27/2118949.html

内容包括三大项:
1.oracle基本操作语句
2.SQLServer基本操作语句
3.各种数据库连接方法

oracle基本操作语句 
打开服务器
net start oracleservicebinbo
打开监听器
lsnrctl start
关闭服务器
net stop oracleservicebinbo
关闭监听器
lsnrctl stop
===============================================================
清屏
clear screen

数据字典 ===========desc user_views(关键词)

===============================================================
查看当前用户的角色
SQL>select * from user_role_privs;
===============================================================
查看当前用户的系统权限和表级权限
SQL>select * from user_sys_privs;
SQL>select * from user_tab_privs;
===============================================================
查看当前用户的缺省表空间
SQL>select username,default_tablespace from user_users;
===============================================================
换用户
conn as sysdba
sys
oracle_db
sqlplus "sys/oracle_db as sysdba"
conn sys/zl as sysdba
===============================================================
修改表结构
alter table test modify(name not null);
alter table test add(name varchar2(20));
alter table test drop column sex;
alter table test set unused column sex;
alter table test drop unused columns;
===============================================================
更改用户密码
sql>alter user 管理员 identified by 密码;
===============================================================
创建表空间的数据文件
sql>create tablespace test datafile 'd:/oracle/binbo.dbf' size 10m;
===============================================================
创建用户
sql>create user 用户名 identified by 用户名;
===============================================================
bfile类型实例
创建目录
create directory tnpdir as 'c:/';
删除目录
drop directory tnpdir
授权
crant read on directory tnpdir to scott;
建表
create table bfiletest(id number(3), fname bfile);
添加数据
insert into bfiletest values(1,bfilename('TMPDIR','tmptest.java'));
===============================================================
查看用户
sql>show user
===============================================================
检查语句是否有错
show error
===============================================================
锁定用户
sql>alter user 用户名 account lock
===============================================================
解除用户
sql>alter user 用户名 account unlock
===============================================================
删除用户
sql>drop user zl;
===============================================================
给用户创建表权限
sql>grant create table to 用户名;
===============================================================
授管理员权限
sql>grant dba to 用户名;
===============================================================

给用户登录权限
sql>grant connect to 用户名
===============================================================
给用户无限表空间权限
sql>grant unlinmited tablespace to 用户名;
===============================================================
收回权限
sql>revoke dba from 用户名;
===============================================================
查看用户下所有的表
SQL>select * from user_tables;
===============================================================
查看名称包含log字符的表
SQL>select object_name,object_id from user_objects
where instr(object_name,'LOG')>0;
===============================================================
查看某表的创建时间
SQL>select object_name,created from user_objects where object_name=upper('&table_name');
===============================================================
查看某表的大小
SQL>select sum(bytes)/(1024*1024) as "size(M)" from user_segments
where segment_name=upper('&table_name');
===============================================================
查看放在ORACLE的内存区里的表
SQL>select table_name,cache from user_tables where instr(cache,'Y')>0;


===============================================================

再添加一个表空间的数据文件
sql>alter tablespace test add datafile 'd:/oracle/test1.dbf' size 10m;
===============================================================
建表 SQL>create table studen(stuno int,stuname varchar(8) not null,stubirth date default to_date('1987-5-9','YYYY-MM-DD'));
向表结构中加入一列 SQL>alter table studen add(stuphoto varchar(9));
从表结构中删除一列 SQL>alter table studen drop column stuphoto;
修改表一列的长度 SQL>alter table studen modify(stuno number(4));
隐藏将要删除的一列 SQL>alter table studen set unused column stuphoto;
删除隐藏的列 SQL>alter table studen drop unused columns;
向表中加入约束 SQL>alter table studen add constraint pk primary key(stuno);
删除约束 SQL>alter table studen drop constraint pk;
===============================================================
创建表

sql>create table 用户名(name varchar2(20),password varchar(20)) tablespace 空间名;
===============================================================
添加字段
sql>alter table test add(column_x char(10) not null);
===============================================================
更改字段
sql>alter table emp modify(column_x char (20));
===============================================================
删除字段
如待删除域属于某个索引,则不允许删除操作,必须将此域先设置为NULL。
sql>alter table emp modify(column_x null);
sql>update emp set column_x=null;
sql>commit;
sql>alter table emp drop(column_x);
===============================================================
选择表空间
sql>alter user 用户名 default tablespace test;
===============================================================
管理员删除别的用户中的表
sql>drop table 用户名.表名;
===============================================================
退出
sql>exit;
===============================================================
默认进入
sql>sqlplus "/ as sysdba"
===============================================================
查看数据库
sql>show parameter block;
===============================================================
写大量语句用记事本,新建方式。
输入"ed"回车
保存后
输入"/"运行;
===============================================================
查询用户有多少表
sql>select * from tab;
===============================================================
SQLServer取时间
sql>select getdate
oracle 取时间
sql>select sysdate from dual;
===============================================================
操作表结构数据库定义语言命令
(不记录在日志文件中)
create table建表
sql>create table test(name varchar2(20),age date,sex char(2));
sql>insert into test(name,age,sex) values('aa',sysdate,'男');
sql>insert into test(name,age,sex) values('bb',to_date('1888-8-8',"yyyy-aa-dd hh24:mi:ss"),'男');///
sql>select * from test;
===============================================================
查询男和女总数
sql>select sex,count(sex) from test group by sex;
---------------------------------------------------------------
test表中数据输入test1表中
SQLSserver---select * into test1 from test;
oracle---create table test1 as select * from test;
---------------------------------------------------------------
更改会话时间
sql>alter session set nls_date_format='yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss';
---------------------------------------------------------------
sql>show parameter block 表和视图
sql>show parameter date 查数据结构
---------------------------------------------------------------
SQLServer中
--删除表中相同数据
sql>create table test1 as select distinct * from test;
--删除表数据
sql>truncate table test;
--把test中数据输入到test1中
sql>insert into test(select * from test1);
---------------------------------------------------------------
rowid(表中存储地址相当表id)和rownum(表序号)称伪列(用法)
sql>select name,age,sex,rowid,rownum from test1;
查出前三行
sql>select * from test where rownum<=3;
查出后三行
sql>select * from (select name n,age a,sex s,rownum r from test) where r>(select count(*) from test)-3;
删除后三行
SQL> delete from test where name not in(select name from test where rownum<=(select count(*) from test)-3);
删除相同行
sql>delete from test where rowid not in(select max(rowid) from test group by name,age,sex);
删除所有表
sql>select 'drop table' ||tname|| ':' from tab;
sql>spool c:/test.sql;
sql>select 'drop table' ||tname|| ':' from tab;
sql>spool off
sql>@c:/test.sql;
---------------------------------------------------------------
alter table修改表
truncate table节段表(只删除数据)
drop table删除表
===============================================================
查看表结构
desc 表名;
===============================================================
查出成绩的前三名
sql>select * from (select * from stu order by score desc) where rownum<=3;
===============================================================
更改字符集
SQL>startup mount
SQL>alter system enable restricted session;
SQL>alter system set job_queue_processes=0;
SQL>alter database open;
SQL>alter database character set ZHS16GBK;
SQL>shutdown
SQL>startup
===============================================================
将一张表或几张表中的域重新组合后插入新表。
假定原先的两张表为emp,work,现选择部分数据域合并为emp_work
建立emp_work
SQL>insert into emp_new select a.no, sysdate, a.name, b.service_duration from emp a, work b where a.no=b.no;
SQL>commit;
这样的方式仍然要使用回滚段,为加快数据迁移速度,可将insert替换成insert /*+APPEND*/(大小写不论),指示oracle以直通方式直接写数据文件,绕过回滚空间。
SQL>insert /*+APPEND*/ into emp_new select a.no, sysdate, a.name, b.service_duration from emp a, work b where a.no=b.no;
SQL>commit;
===============================================================
DDL数据定义语言(create,alter,drop)
DML数据操纵语言(insert,select,delete,update)
TCL事务控制语言(commit,savepoint,rollback)
DCL数据控制语言(GRANT REVOKE)
===============================================================

一个表中的某一列输到另一个表中
insert into stu1(name)(select name from stu);
===============================================================
事务
rollback;
insert into stu1(name)(select name from stu);
commit;提交
===============================================================
COMMIT - 提交并结束事务处理
ROLLBACK - 撤销事务中已完成的工作
SAVEPOINT – 标记事务中可以回滚的点
SQL> update order_master set del_date ='30-8月-05' WHERE orderno <= 'o002';

SQL> savepoint mark1;
SQL> delete FROM order_master WHERE orderno = 'o002';
SQL> savepoint mark2;
SQL> rollback TO SAVEPOINT mark1;
SQL> COMMIT;
===============================================================
换名
set sqlprompt "scott>";
===============================================================
GRANT 授予权限
SQL> GRANT SELECT ON vendor_master TO accounts WITH GRANT OPTION;
REVOKE 撤销已授予的权限
SQL> REVOKE SELECT, UPDATE ON order_master FROM MARTIN;
===============================================================
比较操作符 
SQL> SELECT vencode,venname,tel_no 
FROM vendor_master 
WHERE venname LIKE 'j___s';
SQL> SELECT orderno FROM order_master 
WHERE del_date IN (‘06-1月-05’,‘05-2月-05');
SQL> SELECT itemdesc, re_level
FROM itemfile
WHERE qty_hand < max_level/2;
===============================================================
逻辑操作符
SQL> SELECT * FROM order_master 
WHERE odate > ‘10-5月-05' 
AND del_date < ‘26-5月-05’;
===============================================================
集合操作符将两个查询的结果组合成一个结果
SQL> SELECT orderno FROM order_master 
MINUS
SELECT orderno FROM order_detail;
-----------------------------------------------------------------
select * from scott.stu
union (all)重复的去掉[intersect把相同的取出来][minus显示不相同的数]
select * from stu
-----------------------------------------------------------------
显示相同的数据
select name from stu intersect select name from stu1;
===============================================================
连接操作符
连接操作符用于将多个字符串或数据值合并成一个字符串
SQL> SELECT (venname|| ' 的地址是 '
||venadd1||' '||venadd2 ||' '||venadd3) address
FROM vendor_master WHERE vencode='V001';
===============================================================
操作符的优先级
SQL 操作符的优先级从高到低的顺序是:
算术操作符 --------最高优先级
连接操作符
比较操作符
NOT 逻辑操作符
AND 逻辑操作符
OR 逻辑操作符 --------最低优先级

===============================================================
用来转换空值的函数
NVL
NVL2
NULLIF
SELECT itemdesc, NVL(re_level,0) FROM itemfile;
SELECT itemdesc, NVL2(re_level,re_level,max_level) FROM itemfile;
SELECT itemdesc, NULLIF(re_level,max_level) FROM itemfile;
===============================================================
GROUP BY和HAVING子句

GROUP BY子句
用于将信息划分为更小的组
每一组行返回针对该组的单个结果

HAVING子句
用于指定 GROUP BY 子句检索行的条件

SELECT p_category, MAX(itemrate) FROM itemfile GROUP BY p_category;
SELECT p_category, MAX(itemrate) FROM itemfile GROUP BY p_category HAVING p_category NOT IN ('accessories');
===============================================================
ROW_NUMBER (row_number)返回连续的排位,不论值是否相等
RANK(rank) 具有相等值的行排位相同,序数随后跳跃
DENSE_RANK(dense_rank) 具有相等值的行排位相同,序号是连续的
SELECT d.dname, e.ename, e.sal, DENSE_RANK()
OVER (PARTITION BY e.deptno ORDER BY e.sal DESC)
AS DENRANK
FROM emp e, dept d WHERE e.deptno = d.deptno;
===============================================================
日期函数
ADD_MONTHS(当前只加月)
alter session set nls_date_format='yyyymmdd hh24miss';
select add_months(sysdate,2) from dual;
----------------------------------------------------------------
MONTHS_BETWEEN(前面时间减后面时间=得之间月差)
select months_between(sysdate,to_date('2007-6-10','yyyy-mm-dd')) from dual;
----------------------------------------------------------------
LAST_DAY(求得当前月的最后一天)
select last_day(sysdate) from dual;
----------------------------------------------------------------
ROUND(round年-月-日-->四舍五入)
select round(2.3) from dual;
select round(to_date('2007-6-10','yyyy-mm-dd'),'year') from dual;
select round(to_date('2007-6-10','yyyy-mm-dd'),'month') from dual;
select round(to_date('2007-6-10','yyyy-mm-dd'),'day') from dual;
----------------------------------------------------------------
NEXT_DAY(下一星期的星期二)
select next_day(to_date('2007-6-10','yyyy-mm-dd'),'星期二') from dual;
----------------------------------------------------------------
TRUNC(trunc)
----------------------------------------------------------------
EXTRACT(extract)
select extract(year from date '1998-03-07') from dual;
select extract(month from to_date ('1998-03-07','yyyy-mm-dd')) from dual;

----------------------------------------------------------------
2008年2月有多少天
inbo---->select extract(day from last_day(to_date ('2008-02-07','yyyy-mm-dd'))) from dual;
----------------------------------------------------------------
2003-4-3与1956-3-1之间有多少天
inbo---->select round(months_between(to_date('2003-4-3','yyyy-mm-dd'),to_date('1956-3-1','yyyy-mm-dd'))/12) from dual;
===============================================================
把两边的9去掉
select trim('9' from '9999ddddddd99999') from dual;
去空格
select trim(' ' from ' 9999ddddddd99999') from dual;
===============================================================
函数 输入 输出
Initcap(char) Select initcap(‘hello’) from dual; Hello 
Lower(char) Select lower(‘FUN’) from dual; fun 
Upper(char) Select upper(‘sun’) from dual; SUN 
Ltrim(char,set) Select ltrim( ‘xyzadams’,’xyz’) from dual; adams
Rtrim(char,set) Select rtrim(‘xyzadams’,’ams’) from dual; xyzad 
Translate(char, from, to) Select translate(‘jack’,’j’ ,’b’) from dual; back 
Replace(char,searchstring,[rep string]) Select replace(‘jack and jue’ ,’j’,’bl’) from dual; black and blue 
Instr (char, m, n) Select instr (‘worldwide’,’d’) from dual; 5 
Substr (char, m, n) Select substr(‘abcdefg’,3,2) from dual; cd 
Concat (expr1, expr2) Select concat (‘Hello’,’ world’) from dual; Hello world

===============================================================
数字函数接受数字输入并返回数值结果

函数 输入 输出
Abs(n) Select abs(-15) from dual; 15

Ceil(n) Select ceil(44.778) from dual; 45

Cos(n) Select cos(180) from dual; -.5984601

Cosh(n) Select cosh(0) from dual; 1

Floor(n) Select floor(100.2) from dual; 100

Power(m,n) Select power(4,2) from dual; 16

Mod(m,n) Select mod(10,3) from dual; 1

Round(m,n) Select round(100.256,2) from dual; 100.26

Trunc(m,n) Select trunc(100.256,2) from dual; 100.25

Sqrt(n) Select sqrt(4) from dual; 2

Sign(n) Select sign(-30) from dual; -1

===============================================================
字符函数 
查看有多少个字符
SQL> SELECT LENGTH('frances') FROM dual;
-----------------------------------------------------------------
SQL> SELECT vencode, 
DECODE(venname,'frances','Francis') name 
FROM vendor_master WHERE vencode='v001';
-----------------------------------------------------------------
查找人是否存在 加字段decode主明是否有人
select name,decode(name,'rbb','有人') from stu;

===================================================================
排续
select dense_rank() over(partition by sex order by score) from test;
select row_number() over(order by score),name,sex,score from test;
select rank() over(order by score) from test;
select dense_rank() over(order by score) from test;
==========================================================================

创建同义词
SQL> create public synonym test for rbb.test;
SQL> create synonym test for mytest;
同一类的才可以替换,同义词替换同义词
替换
SQL> create or replace synonym emp_sysn for scott.emp;


创建序列
SQL>create sequence xule increment by 1 start with 1 maxvalue 999;
increment by 增长值
start with 起始值
maxvalue 最大值
minvalue 最小值
nocycle 不循环
chare 10缓存
xule.nextval ===========下一个序列的值
xule.currval ===========可以查询序列当前的值
更改序列 start with 不能改
alter sequence xule maxvalue 100 [sycle nocycle];

序列用法
SQL>create table xl(name varchar2(4));
SQL>insert into test values(xule.nextval);
SQL>select xl.currval from dual;

删除序列
drop sequence x;
desc user_sequences

创建视图 视图中可以使用函数和表达式
create or replace view 

创建视图
SQL> create or replace view 视图名 as select * from rbb union all select * from rbbb union all select * from test;
SQL> create or replace view 视图名 as
2 select empno as 编号,ename as 姓名 from scott.emp
3 where deptno=10;
==========================================================================
如果在当前用户下没有这个视图就创建此视图
如果有此视图就覆盖此视图
create or replace view view_name as select empno,ename from emp where deptno=10;

在创建视图前要为当前用户授权
grant resource to scott;
create or replace view v_sal as select ename,sal from emp order by sal desc;

使用视图 
select * from v_sal;

删除一个视图
drop view view_name;

重新编译已有的视图
alter view view_name compile;

数据字典 ===========desc user_views

常用的转换函数有
TO_CHAR
SELECT TO_CHAR(sysdate,'YYYY"年"fmMM"月"fmDD"日" HH24:MI:SS') FROM dual; 

TO_DATE
SELECT TO_DATE('2005-12-06', 'yyyy-mm-dd') FROM dual;

TO_NUMBER
SELECT TO_NUMBER('100') FROM dual;

集合操作符
union all 连接两个表或者多个表为一个视图
MINUS 操作符返回从第一个查询结果中排除第二个查询中出现的行。
INTERSECT 操作符只返回两个查询的公共行。

锁定的优点

1.一致性 - 一次只允许一个用户修改数据

2.完整性 - 为所有用户提供正确的数据。如果一个用户进行了修改并保存,所做的修改将反映给所有用户

3.并行性 -允许多个用户访问同一数据

行级锁和表级锁

行级锁:是一种排他锁,防止其他事务修改此行.

解锁:提交事务(commit),(rollback)
---------------------------------------------------------------
更新表数据:update test set score=80 where name='xiaoli';
--------------------------------------------------------------
自动提交
set autocommit on
set sutocommit off
------------------------------------------------------------
锁定某行更新语句
select * from scott.test where name='xiaoli' for update;
SELECT * FROM order_master WHERE vencode='V002' FOR UPDATE OF odate,del_date;
select * from scott.test where name='xiaoli' for update of score;

select * from scott.test atest,test b where a.name=b.name and b.name='bbb' for update of b.score; 
--------------------------------------------------------------------
等待update
select * from scott.test where name='xiaoli' for update wait 2;
select * from scott.test where name='xiaoli' for update nowait;

-------------------------------------------------------------------
表级锁:锁定整个表
表级锁语法:lock table 表名 in mode mode;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
行共享row share--行排他row exclusive--共享share-共享行排他share row exclusive-----排他exclusive
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
行共享(row share):lock table scott.test in (row share) mode;
[其他用户.行共享---其他用户.行排他---其他用户.共享----其他用户.共享行排他----其他用户.不可以(排他)]

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
行排他(row exclusive):lock table scott.test in (row exclusive) mode;

[其他用户.行共享----其他用户.行排他----其他用户.不可以(共享)---其他用户.不可以(共享行排他)--其他用户.不可以(排他)]

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
共享(share):lock table scott.test in (share) mode;

[其他用户.行共享---其他用户.不可以(行排他)---其他用户.共享----其他用户.不可以(共享行排他)---其他用户.不可以(排他)]

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
共享行排他(share row exclusive):lock table scott.test in (share row exclusive) mode;

[其他用户.行共享,其他用户.不可以(行排他),其他用户.不可以(共享),其他用户.不可以(共享行排他),其他用户.不可以(排他)]

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
排他(exclusive):lock table scott.test in (exclusive) mode;

[其他用户.不可以(行共享),其他用户.不可以(行排他),其他用户.不可以(共享),其他用户.不可以(共享行排他,)其他用户.不可以(排他)]

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
死锁

当两个事务相互等待对方释放资源时,就会形成死锁

Oracle会自动检测死锁,并通过结束其中的一个事务来解决死锁
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

表分区

---范围分区
create table test(name varchar2(20),sex char(2),score number(3))
partition by range(score)
(
partition p1 values less than (50) tablespace users,
partition p2 values less than (80),
partitiom p3 values less than (maxvalue)
)
select * from test partition(p1) union select * from test partitiom(p3);
---
删除分区
alter table test drop partition p3;
添加分区
alter table test add partition p3 values less than (maxvalue);
拆分分区
alter table test split partition p2 at(60) 
into (partition p21,partition p22);
合并分区
alter table test merge partitions p21,p22 into partition p2;
截断分区(删除数据)
alter table test truncate partition p3;

现有表分区
create table str as select * from student;
drop table student;
create table student(
studentid integer not null,
studentname varchar2(20),
score integer
)
partition by range(score)(
partition p1 values less than(60),
partition p2 values less than(75),
partition p3 values less than(85),
partition p4 values less than(maxvalue)
)
insert into student(select * from stu);


select * from test scott.emp@oracle_db

表分区
Oracle允许用户对表进一步的规化,即对表进一步拆分,将表分成若干个逻辑部分,每个部分称其为表分区
优点:增强可用性,单个分区出现故障,不影响其他分区
均衡的I/O,不同的分区可以映射到不同的磁盘 改善性能

①范围分区法
create table st(
studentid integer not null,
studentname varchar2(20),
score integer
)
partition by range(score)(
partition p1 values less than(60),
partition p2 values less than(75),
partition p3 values less than(85),
partition p4 values less than(maxvalue)
)
========================select * from stu partition(p1)============
②散列分区
create table st(deptno int,deptname varchar(14))
partition by hash(deptno)(
partition p1,partition p2
)
组合分区
alter table test coalesce partition;

③复合分区
范围分区和列表分区
create table salgrade(
grade number(2),losal number(2),hisal number(2)
)
partition by range(grade)
subpartition by list(losal)
(
partition p1 values less than(10)

(
subpartition p1a values('湖北'),
subpartition p1b values(default)
),
partition p2 values less than(20)
(
subpartition p1a values('河南'),
subpartition p1b values(default)
),
partition p3 values less than(30)
(
subpartition p1a values('上海'),
subpartition p1b values(default)
)
)

范围分区和散列分区
create table salgrade(
grade number(2),losal number(2),hisal number(2)
)
partition by range(grade)
subpartition by hash(losal)
[subpartitions 5]
(
partition p1 values less than(10)(subpartition p1a,subpartition p1b),
partition p2 values less than(20)(subpartition p2a,subpartition p2b),
partition p3 values less than(30)(subpartition p3a,subpartition p3b)
)
--------------------------------------------
create table salg(
grade number(2),losal number(2),hisal number(2)
)
partition by range(grade)
subpartition by hash(losal)
subpartitions 3
(
partition p1 values less than(10),
partition p2 values less than(20),
partition p3 values less than(30)
)

④列表分区
create table test stu(id int,name varchar(20),add varchar(8))
partition by list(add)
(
partition p1 values('中国'),
partition p2 values('英国'),
partition p3 values(default)
)

移动分区

alter table test move partition p5 tablespace users;

修改存档

SQL> shutdown immediate
数据库已经关闭。
已经卸载数据库。
ORACLE 例程已经关闭。

SQL> startup mount
ORACLE 例程已经启动。

Total System Global Area 135338868 bytes 
Fixed Size 453492 bytes 
Variable Size 109051904 bytes 
Database Buffers 25165824 bytes 
Redo Buffers 667648 bytes 
数据库装载完毕。

SQL> alter database archivelog;

数据库已更改。
alter database open;

SQL> archive log list;
数据库日志模式 存档模式
自动存档 禁用
存档终点 d:/oracle/ora92/RDBMS
最早的概要日志序列 1
下一个存档日志序列 2
当前日志序列 2

SQL> alter system set log_archive_dest=true scope=spfile;

系统已更改。

SQL> alter database open;

数据库已更改。

SQL> spool off

PL/SSQL(过程化语言) 声明部分 执行语句部分 异常处理部分

identifier constant datatype not null
[:=|default expr];

declare 
my number(5);
begin
select quantity into my
from products where product='wawa'
for update of quantity;
if my>0 then
update products set quantity=quantity+1
where product='wawa';
insert into purchase_record
values('wawawa',sysdate);
end if;
commit;
Exception
where others then
dbms_output.put_line('chucuo'||SQLERRM);
END;

declare icode varchar2(6)
p_catg varchar2(20);
c_catg constant datatype:=0.10

数字类型
number
decrmdl
int/integer
real(实数)
binary_integer(带符号的整数)
pls_integer(同上)
字符类型
character 
char 3276
Raw(2000)
long/long Raw(32760)
Rowid/rowid()
varchar2 (string(nchar/nvarchar)/varchar)
日期时间
date
timeStamp(固定日期dd-mm-yy 秒6位)
子 timestamp with time zone
ti timestamp(9)
布尔
boolean
true
false
null
打印出时间
declare
test_tz timestamp with time zone;
begin test_tz:=to_timestamp_tz('2006-6-22 09:07:11','yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss');
dbms_output.put_line(test_tz);
end;


lob类型
BFILE
BLOB
CLOB
NCLOB
属性类型
%type %rowtype
===============================================================
bfile类型实例
创建目录
create directory tnpdir as 'c:/';
删除目录
drop directory tnpdir
授权
crant read on directory tnpdir to scott;
建表
create table bfiletest(id number(3), fname bfile);
添加数据
insert into bfiletest values(1,bfilename('TMPDIR','tmptest.java'));

===============================================================
向数据库中添加图片
create directory images as 'c:/images';
crant read on directory images to scott;
create table my_diagrams(
chapter_descr varchar2(40);
diagram_no integer,
diagram blob
);

declare
l_bfile bfile;
l_blob blob;
begin
insert into my_diagrams(diagram)
values(emptv_blob())
return diagram into l_blob;
l_bfile:=bfilename('images','/nvimage.jpg');
dbms_lob.open(l_bfile,dbms_lob.file_readonly);
dbms_lob.loadfromfile(l_blob,l_bfile,dbms_lob,getlength(l_bfile));
dbms_lob.close(l_bfile);
commit;
end;

===============================================================
%type实例 查询
declare 
dtr dept.dname%type;
begin
select dname into str from dept where deptno=30;
dbms_output.put_line(str);
end;
set serverout on

===============================================================
%rowtype实例

declare
row dept%rowtype;
begin
select * into row from dept where deptno=30;
dbms_output.put.line(row.dname||' '||row.deptno||' '||row.loc);
//异常
exception
when no_data_found then
dbms_output.put_lin('没有数据');
when too_many_rows(others) then
dbms_output.put_lin('太多拉');
end;

===============================================================
格式

if 条件 then

elsif 条件 then

else

end if
===============================================================
格式

begin
case'&grade'
when 'a' then dbms_output.put_line('优异');
when 'b' then dbms_output.put_line('良好');
else dbms_output.put_line('其它')
end case;
end;
===============================================================
外界变量
var vnm varchar2(20);
begin
:v:='aaaaa';
end;
打印
print v
===============================================================
loop实例

begin
loop
exit when 3>4;

end loop;
end;
===============================================================
while实例
begin
while (条件)condition loop
语句体;
end loop;
end;
===============================================================
循环实例

begin
for c in 1..10
loop
dbms_output.put_line(c);
end loop
end;

begin
for c in reverse(倒) 1..10
loop
dbms_output.put_line(c);
end loop
end;
===============================================================

declare
num number(3):=1;
begin
while num<10 loop
dbms_output.put_line(num);
num:=num+1;
end loop;
end;

declare
num number(3):=1;
begin
loop
dbms_output.put_line(num);
exit when num>10;//退出
num:=num+1;
end loop;
end;
===============================================================
goto实例
DECLARE
qtyhand itemfile.qty_hand%type;
relevel itemfile.re_level%type;
BEGIN
SELECT qty_hand,re_level INTO qtyhand,relevel
FROM itemfile WHERE itemcode = 'i201';
IF qtyhand < relevel THEN
GOTO updation;
ELSE
GOTO quit;
END IF;
<<updation>>
UPDATE itemfile SET qty_hand = qty_hand + re_level
WHERE itemcode = 'i201';
<<quit>>
NULL;
END;
===============================================================
动态SQL 查询
declare
cl varchar2(20);
va varchar2(20);
tb varchar2(20);
nm number(13);

begin
tb:='&table';
cl:='&aadd';
nm:=&num;
EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 
'select '||cl||' from '||tb||' where '||cl||'=:1' into va using nm;
dbms_output.put_line(va);
end;


===============================================================
动态SQL

declare

sql_stmt varchar2(200);
emp_id number(4):=7566;
emp_rec emp% rowtype;

begin
Execute immedlate
'create table bonus1(id number,amt number)';

sql_stmt:='select * from emp where empno=:id';
Execute immedlate sql_stmt into emp_rec using emp_id;

end;
===============================================================
declare
aaa varchar2(20);
num number(10);
bbb varchar2(20);
begin
aaa='&aaa';
num=&kkk;
execute immedlate 'select '||aaa||' from test where age=:a'into bbb using num;(标准SQL语句)
dbms_output.put_line(bbb);
end;
into 变量(给值)
:a(外界参数) using bb(邦定常量)

===============================================================
自己定义异常
declare 
invar exception;
cate varchar2(10);
begin
cate:='&cate';
if cate not in('aa','ff','dd') then
raise invar;
else
dbms_output.put_line('你输入的类别是:'||cate);
end if;
exception
when invar then
dbms_output.put_line('无法认识这个类别!');
raise_application_error(-20200,'自己写');
end;
让数据库真正出错
raise_application_error(-20200,'自己写');

例子2
declare 
rate itemfile.itemrate%type;
ratee exception;
begin
select nvl(itemrate,0) into rate from itemfile
where itemcode='i207';
if rate=0 then
raise ratee;
else
dbms_output.put_line('项费率是:'||rate);
end if;
exception
when ratee then
RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR(-20001, '未指定项费率');
end;
===============================================================
create procedure存储过程
===============================================================
创建标准索引
SQL> CREATE INDEX item_index ON itemfile (itemcode)
TABLESPACE index_tbs;
重建索引
SQL> ALTER INDEX item_index REBUILD; 
删除索引
SQL> DROP INDEX item_index; 
唯一索引确保在定义索引的列中没有重复值
Oracle 自动在表的主键列上创建唯一索引
使用CREATE UNIQUE INDEX语句创建唯一索引
SQL> CREATE UNIQUE INDEX item_index
ON itemfile (itemcode);
组合索引是在表的多个列上创建的索引
索引中列的顺序是任意的
如果 SQL 语句的 WHERE 子句中引用了组合索引的所有列或大多数列,则可以提高检索速度

SQL> CREATE INDEX comp_index
ON itemfile(p_category, itemrate);
反向键索引反转索引列键值的每个字节
通常建立在值是连续增长的列上,使数据均匀地分布在整个索引上
创建索引时使用REVERSE关键字
SQL> CREATE INDEX rev_index 
ON itemfile (itemcode) REVERSE;
SQL> ALTER INDEX rev_index REBUID NOREVERSE;
位图索引适合创建在低基数列上
位图索引不直接存储ROWID,而是存储字节位到ROWID的映射
减少响应时间
节省空间占用
SQL> CREATE BITMAP INDEX bit_index
ON order_master (orderno);
基于一个或多个列上的函数或表达式创建的索引
表达式中不能出现聚合函数
不能在LOB类型的列上创建
创建时必须具有 QUERY REWRITE 权限
SQL> CREATE INDEX lowercase_idx 
ON toys (LOWER(toyname));
SQL> SELECT toyid FROM toys
WHERE LOWER(toyname)='doll';
与索引有关的数据字典视图有:
USER_INDEXES - 用户创建的索引的信息
USER_IND_PARTITIONS - 用户创建的分区索引的信息
USER_IND_COLUMNS - 与索引相关的表列的信息
SQL> SELECT INDEX_NAME, TABLE_NAME, COLUMN_NAME
FROM USER_IND_COLUMNS
ORDER BY INDEX_NAME, COLUMN_POSITION;
可以将索引存储在不同的分区中
与分区有关的索引有三种类型:
局部分区索引 - 在分区.
表上创建的索引,在每个表分区上创建独立的索引,索引的分区范围与表一致
全局分区索引 - 在分区表或非分区表上创建的索引,索引单独指定分区的范围,与表的分区范围或是否分区无关
全局非分区索引 - 在分区表上创建的全局普通索引,索引没有被分区

SQL> CREATE TABLE ind_org_tab (
vencode NUMBER(4) PRIMARY KEY,
venname VARCHAR2(20)

ORGANIZATION INDEX;
与索引有关的数据字典视图有:
USER_INDEXES - 用户创建的索引的信息
USER_IND_PARTITIONS - 用户创建的分区索引的信息
USER_IND_COLUMNS - 与索引相关的表列的信息

SQL> SELECT INDEX_NAME, TABLE_NAME, COLUMN_NAME
FROM USER_IND_COLUMNS
ORDER BY INDEX_NAME, COLUMN_POSITION;

----游标简介

逐行处理查询结果,经编程的方式访问数据

---游标类型:
隐式游标:在 PL/SQL 程序中执行DML SQL 语句时自动创建隐式游标。
显式游标:显式游标用于处理返回多行的查询。
REF 游标:REF 游标用于处理运行时才能确定的动态 SQL 查询的结果

------隐式游标的属性有:
%FOUND – SQL 语句影响了一行或多行时为 TRUE
%NOTFOUND – SQL 语句没有影响任何行时为TRUE
%ROWCOUNT – SQL 语句影响的行数
%ISOPEN - 游标是否打开,始终为FALSE


删除游标

delete from table_name where cursor of cursor_name;
===============================================================
------隐式游标示例
------too_many_rows的用法!

1 declare
2 empid varchar2(20);
3 begin
4 select name into empid from test;
5 exception
6 when too_many_rows then
7 dbms_output.put_line('该查询多于两行!');
8* end;
SQL> /
该查询多于两行!

PL/SQL 过程已成功完成。

===============================================================

------no_data_found的用法!
SQL> set serverout on
SQL> ed


1 declare
2 empid varchar2(20);
3 desig varchar2(20);
4 begin
5 empid:='&emp';
6 select name into desig from test where name=empid;
7 dbms_output.put_line('你查询的名字是:'||desig);
8 exception
9 when no_data_found then
10 dbms_output.put_line('没有时间!');
11* end;
SQL> /
输入 emp 的值: xiaoli
原值 5: empid:='&emp';
新值 5: empid:='xiaoli';
你查询的名字是:xiaoli

PL/SQL 过程已成功完成。

SQL> /
输入 emp 的值: ss
原值 5: empid:='&emp';
新值 5: empid:='ss';
没有时间!

PL/SQL 过程已成功完成。

===============================================================
SQL> set serveroutput on
SQL> begin
2 update test set name='renbinbo' where name='binbo';
3 if sql%found then
4 dbms_output.put_line('表已经更新!');
5 end if;
6 end;
7 /
test_t表中name也已经更新!
表已经更新!

===============================================================
SQL>
declare
aa varchar2(20);
bb varchar2(20);
begin
bb:='&bb';
select score into aa from test where name=bb;
if sql%found then
dbms_output.put_line(bb||'的分数为:'||aa);
end if;
end;
SQL> /
输入 bb 的值: renbinbo
原值 5: bb:='&bb';
新值 5: bb:='renbinbo';
renbinbo的分数为:100

PL/SQL 过程已成功完成。
===============================================================
SQL> ed


1 declare
2 my_toy rbb.test.name%type;
3 cursor toy_cur is
4 select name from test where name='xiaoli';
5 begin
6 open toy_cur;
7 loop
8 fetch toy_cur into my_toy;
9 exit when toy_cur%notfound;
10 dbms_output.put_line('你查询人的姓名:'||my_toy);
11 end loop;
12 close toy_cur;
13* end;
SQL> /
你查询人的姓名:xiaoli

PL/SQL 过程已成功完成。

SQL> ed


1 declare
2 name_n rbb.test.name%type;
3 sex_s rbb.test.name%type;
4 sex_t rbb.test.name%type;
5 cursor test_t is
6 select name,sex,score from test;
7 begin
8 open test_t;
9 dbms_output.put_line('你所查资料列表:');
10 loop
11 fetch test_t into name_n,sex_s,sex_t;
12 exit when test_t%notfound;
13 dbms_output.put_line(name_n||' '||sex_s||' '||sex_t);
14 end loop;
15 close test_t;
16* end;
17 /
你所查资料列表:
xiaoli 女 90
renbinbo 男 100
xiaoming 男 89
xiaowang 男 91
xiaohua 女 98
yunfeng 男 88
wangming 男 78
wuming 男 98
xiaobin 男 68
binbin 男 44
tianhua 女 55
liyun 女 65

PL/SQL 过程已成功完成。

===============================================================

bibno-->ed


1 declare
2 cursor test_cur is
3 select name,sex,score from test;
4 begin
5 dbms_output.put_line('用户资料列表:');
6 for namet in test_cur
7 loop
8 dbms_output.put_line(namet.name||' '||namet.sex||' '||namet.score);
9 end loop;
10* end;
11 /
用户资料列表:
xiaoli 女 90
renbinbo 男 100
xiaoming 男 89
xiaowang 男 91
xiaohua 女 98
yunfeng 男 88
wangming 男 78
wuming 男 98
xiaobin 男 68
binbin 男 44
tianhua 女 55
liyun 女 65

PL/SQL 过程已成功完成。

===============================================================

带参数的显式游标
SET SERVEROUTPUT ON
SQL> DECLARE
desig VARCHAR2(20);
emp_code VARCHAR2(5);
empnm VARCHAR2(20);
CURSOR emp_cur(desigparam VARCHAR2) IS
SELECT empno, ename FROM employee
WHERE designation=desig;
BEGIN
desig:= '&desig';
OPEN emp_cur(desig);
LOOP
FETCH emp_cur INTO emp_code,empnm;
EXIT WHEN emp_cur%NOTFOUND;
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(emp_code||' '||empnm);
END LOOP;
CLOSE emp_cur;
END;
===============================================================
SET SERVEROUTPUT ON
SQL> DECLARE
new_price NUMBER;
CURSOR cur_toy IS
SELECT toyprice FROM toys WHERE toyprice<100
FOR UPDATE OF toyprice;
BEGIN
OPEN cur_toy;
LOOP
FETCH cur_toy INTO new_price;
EXIT WHEN cur_toy%NOTFOUND;
UPDATE toys
SET toyprice = 1.1*new_price
WHERE CURRENT OF cur_toy;
END LOOP;
CLOSE cur_toy;
COMMIT;
END;

===============================================================
游标变量的功能强大,可以简化数据处理

游标变量的优点有:
1.可从不同的 SELECT 语句中提取结果集
2.可以作为过程的参数进行传递
3.可以引用游标的所有属性
4.可以进行赋值运算

使用游标变量的限制:
1.不能在程序包中声明游标变量
2.FOR UPDATE子句不能与游标变量一起使用
3.不能使用比较运算符
===============================================================
===============================================================


创建过程
create procedure test_b(test varchar2,test1 number)
as
begin

dbms_output.put_line(test);
dbms_output.put_line(test1);
end;

create procedure test_c(test varchar2,test1 char)
as
aa varchar2(20);
bb char(10);
begin
select name into aa from test where name=test;
dbms_output.put_line(aa);
select age into bb from test where age=test1;
dbms_output.put_line(bb);
end;
===============================================================
创建函数
create or replace function test_binbo return varchar2
as
begin
return '我爱你!';
end
执行:
select test_binbo from dual;

create or replace function test_binbo return varchar2
as
aa varchar2(20);
bb char(3);
begin
bb:='&bb';
select name into aa from test where sex=bb;
return 'name';
end;
执行:
select test_binbo from dual;

create or replace function item_price_range(price number)
return varchar2 as
min_price number;
max_price number;
begin
select max(itemrate),min(temrate) into max_price,min_price
from test;
if price>=min_price and price<=max_price then
return '将计就计机';
else
return '哩哩啦啦理论';
end if;
end;
执行:
select test_binbo from dual;
===============================================================
自主事务处理
CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE p1 AS 
b VARCHAR2(50);
BEGIN
UPDATE vendor_master SET venadd1='10 Walls Street' 
WHERE vencode='V002';
P2();
SELECT venadd1 INTO b 
FROM vendor_master WHERE vencode='V002';
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(b);
END;
/
执行
EXECUTE p1;

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE p2 AS
a VARCHAR2(50);
PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION;
BEGIN
SELECT venadd1 INTO a 
FROM vendor_master WHERE vencode='V002';
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(a);
ROLLBACK;
END;
/

===============================================================
创建程序包


SQL> ed


1 create or replace package package_me as
2 procedure proc_test(test varchar2);
3 function fun_test(funt varchar2) return varchar2;
4* end;
5 /

程序包已创建。

1 create or replace package body package_me as
2 procedure proc_test(test varchar2) as
3 nam varchar2(20);
4 begin
5 select name into nam from test where name=test;
6 dbms_output.put_line('你所查的人的姓名是:'||nam);
7 end;
8 function fun_test(funt varchar2) return varchar2 as
9 funn varchar2(20);
10 begin
11 select next_day(funt,'星期六')-7 into funn from dual;
12 return funn;
13 end;
14* end package_me;
SQL> /

程序包主体已创建。
SQL> select package_me.fun_test('2008-10-16') from dual;

PACKAGE_ME.FUN_TEST('2008-10-16')
---------------------------------------------------------

2008-10-11

SQL> exec package_me.proc_test('xiaoli');
你所查的人的姓名是:xiaoli
PL/SQL 过程已成功完成。
===============================================================
create or replace package pack_me as
procedure order_pr(orn varchar2);
function order_fu(onr varchar2) return varchar2;
end pack_me;
/

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY pack_me AS
PROCEDURE order_proc (orno VARCHAR2) IS
stat CHAR(1);
BEGIN
SELECT ostatus INTO stat FROM order_master
WHERE orderno = orno;
IF stat = 'p' THEN
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('暂挂的订单');
ELSE
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('已完成的订单');
END IF;
END order_proc;

FUNCTION order_fun(ornos VARCHAR2)
RETURN VARCHAR2
IS
icode VARCHAR2(5);
ocode VARCHAR2(5);
qtyord NUMBER;
qtydeld NUMBER;
BEGIN
SELECT qty_ord, qty_deld, itemcode, orderno
INTO qtyord, qtydeld, icode, ocode
FROM order_detail
WHERE orderno = ornos;
IF qtyord < qtydeld THEN
RETURN ocode;
ELSE
RETURN icode;
END IF;
END order_fun;
END pack_me;
/

===============================================================

执行
EXECUTE pack_me.order_proc('o002');

DECLARE
msg VARCHAR2(10);
BEGIN
msg := pack_me.order_fun('o002');
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('值是 ' || msg);
END;

/

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY cur_pack AS
CURSOR ord_cur(vcode VARCHAR2)
RETURN order_master%ROWTYPE IS 
SELECT * FROM order_master
WHERE VENCODE=vcode;
PROCEDURE ord_pro(vcode VARCHAR2) IS
or_rec order_master%ROWTYPE;
BEGIN
OPEN ord_cur(vcode); 
LOOP
FETCH ord_cur INTO or_rec;
EXIT WHEN ord_cur%NOTFOUND;
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LIne('返回的值为' || or_rec.orderno);
END LOOP;
END ord_pro;
END cur_pack;

EXEC cur_pack.ord_pro('V001');
===============================================================


COLUMN OBJECT_NAME FORMAT A18

SELECT object_name, object_type
FROM USER_OBJECTS
WHERE object_type IN ('PROCEDURE', 'FUNCTION',
'PACKAGE', 'PACKAGE BODY');

DESC USER_SOURCE

COLUMN LINE FORMAT 9999
COLUMN TEXT FORMAT A50

SELECT line, text FROM USER_SOURCE
WHERE NAME='TEST';

DESC pack_me;

===============================================================

数据库级触发器
CREATE TABLE system.session_info (
username VARCHAR2(30),
logontime DATE,
session_id VARCHAR2(30),
ip_addr VARCHAR2(30),
hostname VARCHAR2(30),
auth_type VARCHAR2(30)
);
显示
set serverout on

create or replace trigger trg_session_info defore logoff on database
declare
session_id varchar2(30);
ip_addr varchar2(30);
hostname varchar2(30);
auth_type varchar2(30);
logontime date;

begin
select sys_context('userenv','sessionid') -- 会话编号
-- 用户登录的客户端IP地址 
select sys_context('userenv','ip_address') into ip_addr from dual;
-- 用户登录的客户端主机名 
select sys_context('usernv','host') into hostname from dual;
-- 登录认证方式,数据库认证或外部认证
select sys_context('usernv','authentication_type') into auth_type from dual;
insert into system.session_info values (user,sysdate,session_id,ip_addr,hostname,auth_type);
end;
SELECT * FROM system.session_info;
===============================================================
对表employees创建触发器
create or replace trigger tr_employee after update on employees 
for each row
begin
if(:new.salary>40000) then
raise_application_error(-20002,'职员工资不能超过 40000');
end if;
end;
===============================================================

create or replace procedure demo(salary in number) as
cursor_name integer;
rows_processed interger;
begin
cursor_name:=dbms_sql.open_cursor;
dbms_sql.parse(cursor_name,'delete from salary_records where empsal>:temp_sal',dbms_sql.native);
dbms_sql.bind_variable(cursor_name,':temp_sal',salay);
rows_processed:=dbms_sql.execute(cursor_name);
dbms_sql.close_cursor(crusor_name);
exception
when others then
dbms_sql.close_cursor(cursor_name);
end;
===============================================================
1.写一个带程序包的函数,只要传入文件名和地址就可以把这个文件的内容存到BLOB类型的字段中。
binbo>create directory tnpdir as 'c:/bfile';
binbo>grant read on directory tnpdir to scott;
binbo>CREATE TABLE my_dia
(
chapter_descr VARCHAR2(40),
diagram_no INTEGER,
diagram BLOB 
);

DECLARE
l_bf BFILE;
l_bl BLOB;
BEGIN
INSERT INTO my_dia (diagram)
VALUES (EMPTY_BLOB())
RETURN diagram INTO l_bl;
l_bf := BFILENAME('jsp', '/test.jsp');
DBMS_LOB.OPEN(l_bf, DBMS_LOB.FILE_READONLY);
DBMS_LOB.LOADFROMFILE(l_bl, l_bf, DBMS_LOB.GETLENGTH(l_bf));
DBMS_LOB.CLOSE(l_bf);
COMMIT;
END;
===============================================================
2.有一张表,字段的值是这样的:name varchar2(20),sex char(2),score number(3)。其中的SCORE字段为分数字段。请用一条SQL语句把九十分以上的显示为A。九十到七十分的为B。七十分以下的为C。

binbo>create table test(name varchar2(20),sex char(2),score number(3));
binbo>select name,sex,case when score<=70 then 'C'
when score<=90 and score>70 when 'B'
when score>90 when 'A'
end case from test;
===============================================================
*****3.有一个表,其中有一个字段为自动增长的数据类型。请在ORACLE中实现。
binbo>create table test(id number,name varchar2(20));
create sequence seq_test increment by 1 start with 1 maxvalue 999;
create or replace trigger tr_test before insert or update of id on test
for each row
begin
if insert into then
select seq_test.nextval into :new.id from dual;
else
raise_application_error(-20002,'不允许更新ID序列!');
end if;
end;
===============================================================
4.如何删除一个用户下的所有表。

binbo>spool c:/test.sql
binbo>select 'drop table '||tname||';'from tab;
binbo>spool off
binbo>@c:/test;
===============================================================
****5。如何把数据库的日志模式从归档模式变为非归档模式

binbo>shutdown immediate
binbo>startup mount
binbo>alter database archivelog;
binbo>archive log list;
binbo>alter system set log_archive_dest=false scope=spfile;
binbo>alter database open;
===============================================================

****6。建立一个用户和表空间,在这个用户和表空间下建立一张表。并授予SCOTT用户查询权利。
binbo>create user binbo identified by binbo;
binbo>create tablespace test datafile 'e:/test.dbf' size 10m;
binbo>GRANT SELECT ON scott.test to scott;
===============================================================
7。写一个过程,计算某个月有多少天。
create or replace procedure dept(test in varchar2)
as
aa varchar2(20);
begin
select extract(day from last_day(to_date (test,'yyyy-mm-dd'))) into aa from dual;
dbms_output.put_line(aa);
end;
===============================================================
8。有一章表,字段为name,sex,score,score字段为分数字段,查询出这个班的第五名到第七名的人的姓名。
binbo>create table test(name varchar2(20),sex char(3),score number(3));
binbo>select * from (select name n,score sc,rownum r from (select name,score,rownum from test order by score desc)) where r between 5 and 7;
===============================================================
9。查询出当前这个星期的星期六是几号。

binbo>select next_day(sysdate,'星期六') from dual;
===============================================================
10。做一个外键关联的两个表。然后用触发器做级联更新。
create table test(name varchar2(20),sex char(3),score number(3));
create table test_t(name varchar2(20));

create or replace trigger test_test before insert or update of name on test
for each row
begin
if inserting then
insert into test_t(name) values (:new.name);
dbms_output.put_line('test_t表中name也已经插入!');
elseif updating then
update test_t set name=:new.name where name=old.name;
dbms_output.put_line('test_t表中name也已经更新!');
elseif deleting then
delete from test_t where name=:old.name;
dbms_output.put_line('test_t表中name也已经删除!');
else
raise_application_error(-20002,'不允许更新test表中的name字段');
end if;
end;

===============================================================
---从外界向数据库中插入数据
SQL> create table test_file(name varchar(30),shell varchar2(30));
表已创建。

G:盘data.ctl:(tab键隔开时间用x'09')
load data into table test_file fields terminated by '=='(name,shell);

G:盘data.txt:
aaaaaaaa==11111111
bbbbbbbb==22222222
cccccccc==33333333
binbo==hehehehe


C:/Documents and Settings/Administrator>sqlldr rbb/rbb control=G:/data.ctl data=G:/data.txt

SQL*Loader: Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production on 星期二 7月 10 20:37:47 2007

Copyright (c) 1982, 2002, Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.

达到提交点,逻辑记录计数3
达到提交点,逻辑记录计数4

SQL> select * from test_file;

NAME SHELL
------------------------------ ------------------------------
aaaaaaaa 11111111
bbbbbbbb 22222222
cccccccc 33333333
binbo hehehehe


===============================================================
declare
result clob;
xmlstr varchar2(32767);
line varchar2(2000);
line_no integer:=1;
begin
result:=dbms_xmlquery.getxml('select * from test');
xmlstr:=dbms_lob.substr(result,32767);
loop
exit when xmlstr is null;
line:=substr(xmlstr,1,instr(xmlstr,chr(10))-1);
dbms_output.put_line(line_no||':'||line);
xmlstr:=substr(xmlstr,instr(xmlstr,chr(10))+1);
line_no:=line_no+1;
end loop;
end;
SQL> /

PL/SQL 过程已成功完成。

SQL> select instr('abcdefsfssdfabcabcsdfs','bc',2,2) "instring" from dual;

instring
----------
14

===============================================================
---创建表中自动增长列(利用触发器)
//创建表
create table test_bin(id number(3),name varchar2(20));
//创建序列
create sequence test_sq increment by 1 start with 1 maxvalue 1000;
//创建触发器
行级触发器
create or replace trigger test_test before insert or update of id on test_bin
for each row
begin
if inserting then
select test_sq.nextval into :new.id from dual;
else
raise_application_error(-20002,'不允许更新id');
end if;
end;
===============================================================
语句级触发器

create or replace trigger trgdemo after insert or update or delete on order_master
begin
if updating then
dbms_output.put_line('已更新order_master中的数据');
elseif deleting then
dbms_output.put_line('已删除order_master中的数据');
elseif inserting then
dbms_output.put_line('已在order_master中插入数据');
end if;
end;
===============================================================
instead of 触发器(主要用在视图中[视图中只能有for each row])

create or replace trigger upda_ord instead of update on ord_view 
for each row
begin
update order_master set vencode=:new.vencode where orderno=:new.orderno;
dbms_output.put_line('已激活触发器');
end;
===============================================================
触发器由三部分组成:
触发器语句(事件)
定义激活触发器的 DML 事件和 DDL 事件
触发器限制
执行触发器的条件,该条件必须为真才能激活触发器
触发器操作(主体)
包含一些 SQL 语句和代码,它们在发出了触发器语句且触发限制的值为真时运行

===============================================================
触发器类型

DDL 触发器
数据库级触发器
DML 触发器
语句级触发器
行级触发器
INSTEAD OF 触发器
===============================================================
模式触发器
create table dropped_obj(obj_name varchar2(30),obj_type varchar2(20),drop_date date);

create or replace trigger log_drop_obj after drop on schema 
begin
insert into dropped_obj values(ora_dict_obj_name,ora_dict_obj_type,sysdate);
end;
===============================================================
启用和禁用触发器
alter trigger aiu_name disable;
alter trigger aiu_name enable;
===============================================================
删除触发器
drop trigger aiu_name;
===============================================================
user_triggers数据字典视图包含有关触发器的信息
select trigger_name from user_triggers where table_name='emp';

select trigger_type,triggering_event,when_clause from user_triggers
where trigger_name='biu_emp_deptno';
===============================================================
dbms_output包显示pl/sql块和子程序的调试信息
set serveroutput on
BEGIN
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('打印三角形');
FOR i IN 1..9 LOOP
FOR j IN 1..i LOOP
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT('*');
END LOOP for_j;
DBMS_OUTPUT.NEW_LINE;
END LOOP for_i;
END;
打印三角形
*

*

*

*

*

PL/SQL 过程已成功完成。
===============================================================
1.DBMS_LOB 包提供用于处理大型对象的过程和函数
2.DBMS_XMLQUERY 包用于将查询结果转换为 XML 格式
DECLARE result CLOB;
xmlstr VARCHAR2(32767);
line VARCHAR2(2000);
line_no INTEGER := 1;
BEGIN
result := DBMS_XMLQuery.getXml('SELECT * FROM test');
xmlstr := DBMS_LOB.SUBSTR(result,32767);
LOOP
EXIT WHEN xmlstr IS NULL;
line := SUBSTR(xmlstr,1,INSTR(xmlstr,CHR(10))-1);
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(line_no || ':' || line);
xmlstr := SUBSTR(xmlstr,INSTR(xmlstr,CHR(10))+1);
line_no := line_no + 1;
END LOOP;
END;


===============================================================
一些常用的内置程序包:
DBMS_OUTPUT 包输出 PL/SQL 程序的调试信息
DBMS_LOB 包提供操作 LOB 数据的子程序
DBMS_XMLQUERY 将查询结果转换为 XML 格式
DBMS_RANDOM 提供随机数生成器
UTL_FILE 用于读写操作系统文本文件
===============================================================
触发器

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER biu_emp_deptno
BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF deptno
ON emp
FOR EACH ROW
WHEN (New.deptno <> 40)
BEGIN
:New.comm := 0;
END;

/
触发器已创建
===============================================================
----没有表还不能测试

CREATE VIEW ord_view AS
SELECT order_master.orderno, order_master.ostatus, 
order_detail.qty_deld, order_detail.qty_ord 
FROM order_master, order_detail 
WHERE order_master.orderno = order_detail.orderno;

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER order_mast_insert
INSTEAD OF INSERT ON ord_view
REFERENCING NEW AS n
FOR EACH ROW
DECLARE
CURSOR ecur IS SELECT * FROM order_master
WHERE order_master.orderno = :n.orderno;
CURSOR dcur IS SELECT * FROM order_detail
WHERE order_detail.orderno = :n.orderno;
a ecur%rowtype;
b dcur%rowtype;
BEGIN
OPEN ecur;
OPEN dcur;
FETCH ecur into a;
FETCH dcur into b;
IF dcur%notfound THEN
INSERT INTO order_master(orderno,ostatus)
VALUES(:n.orderno, :n.ostatus);
ELSE
UPDATE order_master SET order_master.ostatus = :n.ostatus
WHERE order_master.orderno = :n.orderno;
END IF;
IF ecur%notfound THEN
INSERT INTO order_detail(qty_ord,qty_deld,orderno)
VALUES(:n.qty_ord, :n.qty_deld, :n.orderno);
ELSE
UPDATE order_detail
SET order_detail.qty_ord = :n.qty_ord, 
order_detail.qty_deld = :n.qty_deld
WHERE order_detail.orderno = :n.orderno;
END IF;
CLOSE ecur;
CLOSE dcur;
END;
/
===============================================================
CREATE TABLE dropped_obj
(
obj_name VARCHAR2(30),
obj_type VARCHAR2(20),
drop_date DATE
);

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER log_drop_obj
AFTER DROP ON SCHEMA
BEGIN
INSERT INTO dropped_obj
VALUES (ORA_DICT_OBJ_NAME, ORA_DICT_OBJ_TYPE, SYSDATE);
END;
/


ALTER TRIGGER biu_emp_deptno DISABLE;

ALTER TRIGGER biu_emp_deptno ENABLE;

DROP TRIGGER biu_emp_deptno;

DESC USER_TRIGGERS;

===============================================================
DECLARE
l_num NUMBER;
counter NUMBER;
BEGIN
counter:=1;
WHILE counter <= 10
LOOP
l_num := ABS((DBMS_RANDOM.RANDOM MOD 100)) + 1;
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(l_num);
counter := counter + 1;
END LOOP;
END;
/
40
4
35
52
68
5
94
38
49
51

PL/SQL 过程已成功完成。
===============================================================
===============================================================
---查询出表中数据转换为xml格式
-- 以 SYSTEM 用户登录执行命令
CREATE DIRECTORY TEST_DIR AS 'C:/DEVELOP';
GRANT READ, WRITE ON DIRECTORY TEST_DIR TO SCOTT;

-- 以 SCOTT 用户登录
DECLARE
src CLOB;
xmlfile UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE;
length INTEGER;
buffer VARCHAR2(16384);
BEGIN
src := DBMS_XMLQuery.getXml('select * from emp');
length := DBMS_LOB.GETLENGTH(src);
DBMS_LOB.READ(src, length, 1, buffer);
xmlfile := UTL_FILE.FOPEN('TEST_DIR', 'employees.xml', 'w');
UTL_FILE.PUT(xmlfile, buffer);
UTL_FILE.FCLOSE(xmlfile);
END;
/
===============================================================
-------读取xml格式的文件
UTL_FILE 包用于读写操作系统文本文件
操作文件的一般过程是打开、读或写、关闭
UTL_FILE 包指定文件路径依赖于 DIRECTORY 对象
1.CREATE DIRECTORY TEST_DIR AS 'C:/DEVELOP';
2.GRANT READ, WRITE ON DIRECTORY TEST_DIR TO SCOTT

SET SERVEROUT ON FORMAT WRAPPED
DECLARE
input_file UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE;
input_buffer VARCHAR2(4000);
BEGIN
input_file := UTL_FILE.FOPEN('TEST_DIR', 'employees.xml', 'r');
FOR I IN 1..11 LOOP
UTL_FILE.GET_LINE(input_file, input_buffer);
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(input_buffer);
END LOOP;
UTL_FILE.FCLOSE(input_file);
EXCEPTION
WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('------------------');
END;
===============================================================

oracle 数据库重生$rman
oracle 数据库备份两种类型:物理备份和逻辑备份
===============================================================
oracle 故障有4种类型
1.语句故障 
在执行 SQL 语句过程中发生的逻辑故障可导致语句故障。如果用户编写的 SQL 语句无效,就会发生逻辑故障
2.用户进程故障 
当用户程序出错而无法访问数据库时发生用户进程故障。导致用户进程故障的原因是异常断开连接或异常终止进程 
3. 实例故障 
当 Oracle 的数据库实例由于硬件或软件问题而无法
继续运行时,就会发生实例故障

4.介质故障
在数据库无法正确读取或写入某个数据库文件时,
会发生介质故障 
===============================================================
oracle 导出导入模式

1.完全数据库
导出和导入整个数据库中的所有对象
2.表
导出和导入一个或多个指定的表或表分区
3.用户
导出和导入一个用户模式中的所有对象
4.表空间
导出和导入一个或多个指定的表空间中的所有对象

===============================================================
导出实用程序有以下常用命令参数

USERID 确定执行导出实用程序的用户名和口令
BUFFER 确定导出数据时所使用的缓冲区大小,其大小用字节表示
FILE 指定导出的二进制文件名称,默认的扩展名是.dmp
FULL 指定是否以全部数据库方式导出,只有授权用户才可使用此参数
OWNER 要导出的数据库用户列表
HELP 指定是否显示帮助消息和参数说明
ROWS 确定是否要导出表中的数据
TABLES 按表方式导出时,指定需导出的表和分区的名称
PARFILE 指定传递给导出实用程序的参数文件名
TABLESPACES 按表空间方式导出时,指定要导出的表空间名


按用户方式导出数据
exp scott/tiger@oracle_db file=scott_back owner=scott

按表方式导出数据
exp scott/tiger@oracle_db tables=(emp, dept) file=scott_back_tab

按表空间方式导出数据
exp system/zl@oracle_db tablespaces=(users) file=tbs_users

使用参数文件导出数据
exp system/zl parfile='C:/parameters.txt'

===============================================================
导入实用程序有如下常用命令参数

USERID 指定执行导入的用户名和密码
BUFFER 指定用来读取数据的缓冲区大小,以字节为单位
COMMIT 指定是否在每个数组(其大小由BUFFER参数设置)插入后进行提交
FILE 指定要导入的二进制文件名
FROMUSER 指定要从导出转储文件中导入的用户模式
TOUSER 指定要将对象导入的用户名。FROMUSER与TOUSER可以不同
FULL 指定是否要导入整个导出转储文件
TABLES 指定要导入的表的列表
ROWS 指定是否要导入表中的行
PARFILE 指定传递给导入实用程序的参数文件名,此文件可以包含这里列出的所有参数
IGNORE 导入时是否忽略遇到的错误,默认为N
TABLESPACES 按表空间方式导入,列出要导入的表空间名


将整个文件导入数据库
imp oracle_db/oracle_db@oracle_db file=item_back.dmp ignore=y full=y

将scott用户的表导入到martin用户
imp system/zl@oracle_db file=scott_back fromuser=scott touser=martin tables=(emp,dept)

使用参数文件导入数据
imp system/oracle parfile='C:/parameters.txt'
===============================================================
归档日志方式下的数据库:自动归档和手动归档

手动归档允许用户手动归档非活动日志文件文件的已填充组
自动归档对非活动日志文件文件进行自动归档
===============================================================
数据库可在两种方式下运行:非归档日志方式和归档日志方式
非归档日志方式可以避免实例故障,但无法避免介质故障。在此方式下,数据库只能实施冷备份.
归档日志方式产生归档日志,用户可以使用归档日志完全恢复数据库.
===============================================================

导出和导入实用程序的特点有:
可以按时间保存表结构和数据
1.允许导出指定的表,并重新导入到新的数据库中
2.可以把数据库迁移到另外一台异构服务器上
3.在两个不同版本的Oracle数据库之间传输数据
4.在联机状态下进行备份和恢复
5.可以重新组织表的存储结构,减少链接及磁盘碎片
===============================================================

oracle表输格式为xml全过程.txt

SQL> conn sys/sys as sysdba
已连接。
SQL> drop directory test_dir
2 /

目录已丢弃。

SQL> CREATE DIRECTORY TEST_DIR AS 'C:/';

目录已创建。

SQL> GRANT READ, WRITE ON DIRECTORY TEST_DIR TO rbb;

授权成功。

SQL> conn rbb/rbb
已连接。
SQL> ed


1 DECLARE
2 src CLOB;
3 xmlfile UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE;
4 length INTEGER;
5 buffer VARCHAR2(16384);
6 BEGIN
7 src := DBMS_XMLQuery.getXml('select * from liuxing');
8 length := DBMS_LOB.GETLENGTH(src);
9 DBMS_LOB.READ(src, length, 1, buffer);
10 xmlfile := UTL_FILE.FOPEN('TEST_DIR', 'emp.xml', 'w');
11 UTL_FILE.PUT(xmlfile, buffer);
12 UTL_FILE.FCLOSE(xmlfile);
13* END;
SQL> /

PL/SQL 过程已成功完成。
===============================================================

SQL> ed


1 declare
2 lname number;
3 counter number;
4 begin
5 counter:=1;
6 while counter<=10
7 loop
8 lname:=dbms_random.random;
9 dbms_output.put_line(lname);
10 counter:=counter+1;
11 end loop;
12* end;
SQL> /
277652640
-479979827
-1049652647
-1006595853
1252280346
196435204
466478280
-85782435
-1489036577
-927786638

PL/SQL 过程已成功完成。

已用时间: 00: 00: 00.00
===============================================================

修改表名

alter table old_table_name rename to new_table_name;
===============================================================
估算SQL执行的I/O数

SQL>SET AUTOTRACE ON ;

SQL>SELECT * FROM TABLE;

OR

SQL>SELECT * FROM v$filestat ; 
===============================================================

如何查有多少个数据库实例

SQL>SELECT * FROM V$INSTANCE;
===============================================================

查询数据库有多少表

SQL>select * from all_tables;

===============================================================

显示测试SQL语句执行所用的时间

SQL>set timing on ; 
===============================================================

监控事例的等待 
select event,sum(decode(wait_Time,0,0,1)) "Prev", 
sum(decode(wait_Time,0,1,0)) "Curr",count(*) "Tot" 
from v$session_Wait 
group by event order by 4; 
===============================================================
回滚段的争用情况
select name, waits, gets, waits/gets "Ratio" 
from v$rollstat C, v$rollname D 
where C.usn = D.usn; 
===============================================================
监控表空间的 I/O 比例
select B.tablespace_name name,B.file_name "file",A.phyrds pyr, 
A.phyblkrd pbr,A.phywrts pyw, A.phyblkwrt pbw 
from v$filestat A, dba_data_files B 
where A.file# = B.file_id 
order by B.tablespace_name; 
===============================================================
监控文件系统的 I/O 比例
select substr(C.file#,1,2) "#", substr(C.name,1,30) "Name", 
C.status, C.bytes, D.phyrds, D.phywrts 
from v$datafile C, v$filestat D 
where C.file# = D.file#; 
===============================================================
在某个用户下找所有的索引 
select user_indexes.table_name, user_indexes.index_name,uniqueness, column_name 
from user_ind_columns, user_indexes 
where user_ind_columns.index_name = user_indexes.index_name 
and user_ind_columns.table_name = user_indexes.table_name 
order by user_indexes.table_type, user_indexes.table_name, 
user_indexes.index_name, column_position; 
===============================================================
监控 SGA 的命中率
select a.value + b.value "logical_reads", c.value "phys_reads", 
round(100 * ((a.value+b.value)-c.value) / (a.value+b.value)) "BUFFER HIT RATIO" 
from v$sysstat a, v$sysstat b, v$sysstat c 
where a.statistic# = 38 and b.statistic# = 39 
and c.statistic# = 40; 
===============================================================
监控 SGA 中字典缓冲区的命中率
select parameter, gets,Getmisses , getmisses/(gets+getmisses)*100 "miss ratio", 
(1-(sum(getmisses)/ (sum(gets)+sum(getmisses))))*100 "Hit ratio" 
from v$rowcache 
where gets+getmisses <>0 
group by parameter, gets, getmisses; 
===============================================================
监控 SGA 中共享缓存区的命中率,应该小于1% 
select sum(pins) "Total Pins", sum(reloads) "Total Reloads", 
sum(reloads)/sum(pins) *100 libcache 
from v$librarycache;

select sum(pinhits-reloads)/sum(pins) "hit radio",sum(reloads)/sum(pins) "reload percent" 
from v$librarycache; 
===============================================================
显示所有数据库对象的类别和大小 
select count(name) num_instances ,type ,sum(source_size) source_size , 
sum(parsed_size) parsed_size ,sum(code_size) code_size ,sum(error_size) error_size, 
sum(source_size) +sum(parsed_size) +sum(code_size) +sum(error_size) size_required 
from dba_object_size 
group by type order by 2; 
===============================================================
监控 SGA 中重做日志缓存区的命中率,应该小于1% 
SELECT name, gets, misses, immediate_gets, immediate_misses, 
Decode(gets,0,0,misses/gets*100) ratio1, 
Decode(immediate_gets+immediate_misses,0,0, 
immediate_misses/(immediate_gets+immediate_misses)*100) ratio2 
FROM v$latch WHERE name IN ('redo allocation', 'redo copy'); 
===============================================================
监控内存和硬盘的排序比率,最好使它小于 .10,增加 sort_area_size 
SELECT name, value FROM v$sysstat WHERE name IN ('sorts (memory)', 'sorts (disk)');

===============================================================
监控当前数据库谁在运行什么SQL语句 
SELECT osuser, username, sql_text from v$session a, v$sqltext b 
where a.sql_address =b.address order by address, piece; 
===============================================================
监控字典缓冲区
SELECT (SUM(PINS - RELOADS)) / SUM(PINS) "LIB CACHE" FROM V$LIBRARYCACHE; 
SELECT (SUM(GETS - GETMISSES - USAGE - FIXED)) / SUM(GETS) "ROW CACHE" FROM V$ROWCACHE; 
SELECT SUM(PINS) "EXECUTIONS", SUM(RELOADS) "CACHE MISSES WHILE EXECUTING" FROM V$LIBRARYCACHE; 
===============================================================
后者除以前者,此比率小于1%,接近0%为好。

SELECT SUM(GETS) "DICTIONARY GETS",SUM(GETMISSES) "DICTIONARY CACHE GET MISSES" 
FROM V$ROWCACHE 
===============================================================

监控 MTS 
select busy/(busy+idle) "shared servers busy" from v$dispatcher; 
此值大于0.5时,参数需加大 
select sum(wait)/sum(totalq) "dispatcher waits" from v$queue where type='dispatcher'; 
select count(*) from v$dispatcher; 
select servers_highwater from v$mts; 
servers_highwater接近mts_max_servers时,参数需加大 
===============================================================
知道当前用户的ID号
SQL>SHOW USER; 
OR 
SQL>select user from dual; 
===============================================================
查看碎片程度高的表
SELECT segment_name table_name , COUNT(*) extents 
FROM dba_segments WHERE owner NOT IN ('SYS', 'SYSTEM') GROUP BY segment_name 
HAVING COUNT(*) = (SELECT MAX( COUNT(*) ) FROM dba_segments GROUP BY segment_name); 
===============================================================
知道表在表空间中的存储情况 
select segment_name,sum(bytes),count(*) ext_quan from dba_extents where 
tablespace_name='&tablespace_name' and segment_type='TABLE' group by tablespace_name,segment_name; 
===============================================================
知道索引在表空间中的存储情况 
select segment_name,count(*) from dba_extents where segment_type='INDEX' and owner='&owner' 
group by segment_name; 
===============================================================
知道使用CPU多的用户session 11是cpu used by this session

select a.sid,spid,status,substr(a.program,1,40) prog,a.terminal,osuser,value/60/100 value 
from v$session a,v$process b,v$sesstat c 
where c.statistic#=11 and c.sid=a.sid and a.paddr=b.addr order by value desc; 
===============================================================


SQLServer语言基本语句 *


SQL分类:

  DDL—数据定义语言(CREATE,ALTER,DROP,DECLARE) 
  DML—数据操纵语言(SELECT,DELETE,UPDATE,INSERT) 
  DCL—数据控制语言(GRANT,REVOKE,COMMIT,ROLLBACK)

  首先,简要介绍基础语句:

  1、说明:创建数据库

CREATE DATABASE database-name 
create database database

  2、说明:删除数据库
drop database database
drop database dbname

  3、说明:备份sql server

  --- 创建 备份数据的 device
user pubs
exec database 'disk'
USE master
EXEC sp_addumpdevice 'disk', 'testBack', 'c:/mssql7backup/MyNwind_1.dat'

  --- 开始 备份
backup database pubs to testback
BACKUP DATABASE pubs TO testBack 

  4、说明:创建新表
create table tabname(name nvchar(20) primary key,password nvchar(16))
create table tabname(col1 type1 [not null] [primary key],col2 type2 [not null],..)

  根据已有的表创建新表:

A:create table tab_new like tab_old (使用旧表创建新表)
B:create table tab_new as select col1,col2… from tab_old definition only

  5、说明:

  删除新表:drop table tabname 

  6、说明:

  增加一个列:Alter table tabname add column col type
alter table tabanme add column col

  注:列增加后将不能删除。DB2中列加上后数据类型也不能改变,唯一能改变的是增加varchar类型的长度。

  7、说明:

  添加主键:Alter table tabname add primary key(col)

  说明:

  删除主键:Alter table tabname drop primary key(col)

  8、说明:

  创建索引:create [unique] index idxname on tabname(col….)

  删除索引:drop index idxname

  注:索引是不可更改的,想更改必须删除重新建。

  9、说明:

  创建视图:create view viewname as select statement

  删除视图:drop view viewname 

  10、说明:几个简单的基本的sql语句

  选择:select * from table1 where 范围

  插入:insert into table1(field1,field2) values(value1,value2)

  删除:delete from table1 where 范围

  更新:update table1 set field1=value1 where 范围

  查找:select * from table1 where field1 like ’%value1%’ ---like的语法很精妙,查资料!

  排序:select * from table1 order by field1,field2 [desc]

  总数:select count * as totalcount from table1

  求和:select sum(field1) as sumvalue from table1

  平均:select avg(field1) as avgvalue from table1

  最大:select max(field1) as maxvalue from table1

  最小:select min(field1) as minvalue from table1

  11、说明:几个高级查询运算词
下列语句创建 STAFF 表 中 20 部门的非经理人员视图,其中薪水和佣金不通过基表显示。

  CREATE VIEW STAFF_ONLY

  AS SELECT ID, NAME, DEPT, JOB, YEARS

  FROM STAFF

  WHERE JOB <> 'Mgr' AND DEPT=20

  在创建视图之后,下列语句显示视图的内容:

  SELECT * FROM STAFF_ONLY

  A: UNION union 运算符

  UNION 运算符通过组合其他两个结果表(例如 TABLE1 和 TABLE2)并消去表中任何重复行而派生出一个结果表。当 ALL 随 UNION 一起使用时(即 UNION ALL),不消除重复行。两种情况下,派生表的每一行不是来自 TABLE1 就是来自 TABLE2。

  B: EXCEPT except运算符

  EXCEPT 运算符通过包括所有在 TABLE1 中但不在 TABLE2 中的行并消除所有重复行而派生出一个结果表。当 ALL 随 EXCEPT 一起使用时 (EXCEPT ALL),不消除重复行。

  C: INTERSECT intersect运算符

  INTERSECT 运算符通过只包括 TABLE1 和 TABLE2 中都有的行并消除所有重复行而派生出一个结果表。当 ALL 随 INTERSECT 一起使用时 (INTERSECT ALL),不消除重复行。

  注:使用运算词的几个查询结果行必须是一致的。

  12、说明:使用外连接

  A、left outer join:

  左外连接(左连接):结果集几包括连接表的匹配行,也包括左连接表的所有行。

SQL: select a.a, a.b, a.c, b.c, b.d, b.f from a LEFT OUT JOIN b ON a.a = b.c

  B:right outer join:

  右外连接(右连接):结果集既包括连接表的匹配连接行,也包括右连接表的所有行。

  C:full outer join:

  全外连接:不仅包括符号连接表的匹配行,还包括两个连接表中的所有记录。

  其次,大家来看一些不错的sql语句

  1、说明:复制表(只复制结构,源表名:a 新表名:b) (Access可用)

  法一:select * into b from a where 1<>1

  法二:select top 0 * into b from a

  2、说明:拷贝表(拷贝数据,源表名:a 目标表名:b) (Access可用)

insert into b(a, b, c) select d,e,f from b;

  3、说明:跨数据库之间表的拷贝(具体数据使用绝对路径) (Access可用)

insert into b(a, b, c) select d,e,f from b in ‘具体数据库’ where 条件

  例子:..from b in '"&Server.MapPath(".")&"/data.mdb" &"' where..

  4、说明:子查询(表名1:a 表名2:b)

select a,b,c from a where a IN (select d from b ) 或者: select a,b,c from a where a IN (1,2,3)

  5、说明:显示文章、提交人和最后回复时间

select a.title,a.username,b.adddate from table a,(select max(adddate) adddate from table where table.title=a.title) b

  6、说明:外连接查询(表名1:a 表名2:b)

select a.a, a.b, a.c, b.c, b.d, b.f from a LEFT OUT JOIN b ON a.a = b.c

  7、说明:在线视图查询(表名1:a )

select * from (SELECT a,b,c FROM a) T where t.a > 1;

  8、说明:between的用法,between限制查询数据范围时包括了边界值,not between不包括

select * from table1 where time between time1 and time2

select a,b,c, from table1 where a not between 数值1 and 数值2

  9、说明:in 的使用方法

select * from table1 where a [not] in (‘值1’,’值2’,’值4’,’值6’)

  10、说明:两张关联表,删除主表中已经在副表中没有的信息

delete from table1 where not exists ( select * from table2 where table1.field1=table2.field1 )

  11、说明:四表联查问题:

select * from a left inner join b on a.a=b.b right inner join c on a.a=c.c inner join d on a.a=d.d where .....

  12、说明:日程安排提前五分钟提醒

SQL: select * from 日程安排 where datediff('minute',f开始时间,getdate())>5

  13、说明:一条sql 语句搞定数据库分页

select top 10 b.* from (select top 20 主键字段,排序字段 from 表名 order by 排序字段 desc) a,表名 b where b.主键字段 = a.主键字段 order by a.排序字段

  14、说明:前10条记录

select top 10 * form table1 where 范围

  15、说明:选择在每一组b值相同的数据中对应的a最大的记录的所有信息(类似这样的用法可以用于论坛每月排行榜,每月热销产品分析,按科目成绩排名,等等.)

select a,b,c from tablename ta where a=(select max(a) from tablename tb where tb.b=ta.b)

  16、说明:包括所有在 TableA 中但不在 TableB和TableC 中的行并消除所有重复行而派生出一个结果表

(select a from tableA ) except (select a from tableB) except (select a from tableC)

  17、说明:随机取出10条数据

select top 10 * from tablename order by newid()

  18、说明:随机选择记录

select newid()

  19、说明:删除重复记录

Delete from tablename where id not in (select max(id) from tablename group by col1,col2,...)

  20、说明:列出数据库里所有的表名

select name from sysobjects where type='U'

  21、说明:列出表里的所有的

select name from syscolumns where id=object_id('TableName')

  22、说明:列示type、vender、pcs字段,以type字段排列,case可以方便地实现多重选择,类似select 中的case。

select type,sum(case vender when 'A' then pcs else 0 end),sum(case vender when 'C' then pcs else 0 end),sum(case vender when 'B' then pcs else 0 end) FROM tablename group by type


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