模块格式:CommonJS AMD CMD UMD ES6

版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得转载。 https://blog.csdn.net/xianghongai/article/details/79828083

皆为前端工程化中定义模块(module)的规则,如:模块标识,模块依赖,模块实现,模块对外接口,模块加载;

实现时有:异步,同步,依赖前置,依赖就近,预执行,懒执行,软依赖,硬依赖,模块对象支持类型等差异;

Javascript的灵活性、借鉴性、标准难产落地性,带来模块的实现方式(运行时加载/编译静态加载)有本质的差异,代码风格(require,return/import,export)有形式上的差异。


CommonJS

CommonJS Modules/1.0规范,概述, wiki

在服务器上或本地桌面应用程序,定义了模块格式,如node模块的实现,

仅支持对象类型的模块,同步加载。

如模块qux

// filename: qux.js

// dependencies
var $ = require('jquery');

// methods
function foo(){};

// exposed public method (single)
module.exports = foo;
// filename: qux.js
var $ = require('jquery');
var _ = require('underscore');

// methods
function foo(){};    //    private because it's omitted from module.exports (see below)
function bar(){};    //    public because it's defined in module.exports
function baz(){};    //    public because it's defined in module.exports

// exposed public methods
module.exports = {
    bar: bar,
    baz: baz
};

AMD

Asynchronous Module Definition, 概述, Why AMD?

异/同步加载

支持对象、函数、构造器、字符串、JSON等各种类型的模块。

AMD 早期实现为 依赖前置,提前执行

define(id?, dependencies?, factory);

如模块qux

// filename: qux.js
define(['jquery'], function ($) {
    // methods
    function foo(){};

    // exposed public methods
    return foo;
});
// filename: qux.js
define(['jquery', 'underscore'], function ($, _) {
    // methods
    function foo(){}; // private because it's not returned (see below)
    function bar(){}; // public because it's returned
    function baz(){}; // public because it's returned

    // exposed public methods
    return {
        bar: bar,
        baz: baz
    }
});

兼容CommonJS规范:

// filename: qux.js
define(function (require, exports, module) {
    // dependencies
    var $ = require('jquery');
    _ = require('underscore');

    // exposed public methods
    exports.foo= function () {}
});

CMD

Common Module Definition, 概述, 中文

define(function(require,exports,module){...});

CMD实现为 依赖就近,延迟执行

UMD

Universal Module Definition

识别当前环境所支持的模块风格,兼容不同的加载规范

// code from https://github.com/tangshuang/omd
(function(factory){
    "use strict";

    // change to your module name
    var NAME = 'omd';

    if(typeof define == 'function' && (define.cmd || define.amd)) { // amd & cmd
        define(function(require){
            var requires = {
                /**
                 * dependences: 
                 * 1. need to fill requires
                 * 2. use require, moudule name should be defined before
                 * 3. relative path is not allowed in cmd & amd mode
                 */
                // 'jquery' : require('jquery'),
                // 'bootstrap' : require('bootstrap')
            };
            var _require_ = function(key) {
                return requires[key];
            }
            return factory(_require_);
        });
    }
    else if(typeof module !== 'undefined' && typeof exports === 'object') { // nodejs
        module.exports = factory(require); // in node, require can be used everywhere generally
    }
    else { // none module
        this[NAME] = factory(function(key){
            return this[key];
        }.bind(this));
    }
}).call(this || (typeof window !== 'undefined' ? window : global),function(require){
    "use strict";

    // require('jquery');

    /**
     * use return object to export. i.e.
     * return {
        name : 'module name',
        init : function(opotions) {},
        destory : function() {}
     };
     */

});
(function (root, factory) {
    if (typeof define === 'function' && define.amd) {
        // AMD
        define(['jquery', 'underscore'], factory);
    } else if (typeof exports === 'object') {
        // Node, CommonJS-like
        module.exports = factory(require('jquery'), require('underscore'));
    } else {
        // Browser globals (root is window)
        root.returnExports = factory(root.jQuery, root._);
    }
}(this, function ($, _) {
    // methods
    function foo(){}; // private because it's not returned (see below)
    function bar(){}; // public because it's returned
    function baz(){}; // public because it's returned

    // exposed public methods
    return {
        bar: bar,
        baz: baz
    }
}));

ES6

import, export

ES标准下的模块,具有静态结构特性,编译时 Tree Shaking 可去 dead-code ;


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