netty入门

netty入门
     Java中的NIO是一种解决阻塞式IO问题的基本技术,但是NIO的编写对java程序员是有比较高的要求的。那么Netty就是一种简化操作的一个成熟的网络IO编程框架。这里简单介绍一个程序,话不多说,直接上代码。
一、服务器编写
     1、Server代码,监听连接:
[Java] 纯文本查看 复制代码
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package com.gerry.netty.server;[/align]import io.netty.bootstrap.ServerBootstrap;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelFuture;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelInitializer;
import io.netty.channel.EventLoopGroup;
import io.netty.channel.nio.NioEventLoopGroup;
import io.netty.channel.socket.SocketChannel;
import io.netty.channel.socket.nio.NioServerSocketChannel;
public class EchoServer {
    private final int port;
    public EchoServer(int port) {
        this.port = port;
    }
    public void start() throws Exception {
        EventLoopGroup group = new NioEventLoopGroup();
        try {
            ServerBootstrap sb = new ServerBootstrap();
            sb.group(group) // 绑定线程池
                    .channel(NioServerSocketChannel.class) // 指定使用的channel
                    .localAddress(this.port)// 绑定监听端口
                    .childHandler(new ChannelInitializer<SocketChannel>() { // 绑定客户端连接时候触发操作
 
                                @Override
                                protected void initChannel(SocketChannel ch) throws Exception {
                                    System.out.println("connected...; Client:" + ch.remoteAddress());
                                    ch.pipeline().addLast(new EchoServerHandler()); // 客户端触发操作
                                }
                            });
            ChannelFuture cf = sb.bind().sync(); // 服务器异步创建绑定
            System.out.println(EchoServer.class + " started and listen on " + cf.channel().localAddress());
            cf.channel().closeFuture().sync(); // 关闭服务器通道
        } finally {
            group.shutdownGracefully().sync(); // 释放线程池资源
        }
    }
 
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        new EchoServer(65535).start(); // 启动
    }
}
     2、具体的处理客户端连接的代码:
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package com.gerry.netty.server;
import io.netty.buffer.Unpooled;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelFutureListener;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelHandlerContext;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelInboundHandlerAdapter;
 
public class EchoServerHandler extends ChannelInboundHandlerAdapter {
    @Override
    public void channelRead(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, Object msg) throws Exception {
        System.out.println("server channelRead...; received:" + msg);
        ctx.write(msg);
    }
    @Override
    public void channelReadComplete(ChannelHandlerContext ctx) throws Exception {
        System.out.println("server channelReadComplete..");
        // 第一种方法:写一个空的buf,并刷新写出区域。完成后关闭sock channel连接。
        ctx.writeAndFlush(Unpooled.EMPTY_BUFFER).addListener(ChannelFutureListener.CLOSE);
        //ctx.flush(); // 第二种方法:在client端关闭channel连接,这样的话,会触发两次channelReadComplete方法。
        //ctx.flush().close().sync(); // 第三种:改成这种写法也可以,但是这中写法,没有第一种方法的好。
    }
    @Override
    public void exceptionCaught(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, Throwable cause) throws Exception {
        System.out.println("server occur exception:" + cause.getMessage());
        cause.printStackTrace();
        ctx.close(); // 关闭发生异常的连接
    }
}

二、客户端编写
     1、具体的连接代码:
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package com.gerry.netty.client;
import io.netty.bootstrap.Bootstrap;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelFuture;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelInitializer;
import io.netty.channel.EventLoopGroup;
import io.netty.channel.nio.NioEventLoopGroup;
import io.netty.channel.socket.SocketChannel;
import io.netty.channel.socket.nio.NioSocketChannel;
import java.net.InetSocketAddress;
public class EchoClient {
    private final String host;
    private final int port;
    public EchoClient() {
        this(0);
    }
    public EchoClient(int port) {
        this("localhost", port);
    }
    public EchoClient(String host, int port) {
        this.host = host;
        this.port = port;
    }
    public void start() throws Exception {
        EventLoopGroup group = new NioEventLoopGroup();
        try {
            Bootstrap b = new Bootstrap();
            b.group(group) // 注册线程池
                    .channel(NioSocketChannel.class) // 使用NioSocketChannel来作为连接用的channel类
                    .remoteAddress(new InetSocketAddress(this.host, this.port)) // 绑定连接端口和host信息
                    .handler(new ChannelInitializer<SocketChannel>() { // 绑定连接初始化器
                                @Override
                                protected void initChannel(SocketChannel ch) throws Exception {
                                    System.out.println("connected...");
                                    ch.pipeline().addLast(new EchoClientHandler());
                                }
                            });
            System.out.println("created..");
 
            ChannelFuture cf = b.connect().sync(); // 异步连接服务器
            System.out.println("connected..."); // 连接完成
 
            cf.channel().closeFuture().sync(); // 异步等待关闭连接channel
            System.out.println("closed.."); // 关闭完成
        } finally {
            group.shutdownGracefully().sync(); // 释放线程池资源
        }
    }
 
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        new EchoClient("127.0.0.1", 65535).start(); // 连接127.0.0.1/65535,并启动
    }
}

     2、连接成功后,具体的通信代码:
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package com.gerry.netty.client;
import java.nio.charset.Charset;
import io.netty.buffer.ByteBuf;
import io.netty.buffer.ByteBufUtil;
import io.netty.buffer.Unpooled;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelHandlerContext;
import io.netty.channel.SimpleChannelInboundHandler;
import io.netty.util.CharsetUtil;
 
public class EchoClientHandler extends SimpleChannelInboundHandler<ByteBuf> {
    @Override
    public void channelActive(ChannelHandlerContext ctx) throws Exception {
        System.out.println("client channelActive..");
        ctx.writeAndFlush(Unpooled.copiedBuffer("Netty rocks!", CharsetUtil.UTF_8)); // 必须有flush
        // 必须存在flush
        // ctx.write(Unpooled.copiedBuffer("Netty rocks!", CharsetUtil.UTF_8));
        // ctx.flush();
    }
    @Override
    protected void channelRead0(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, ByteBuf msg) throws Exception {
        System.out.println("client channelRead..");
        ByteBuf buf = msg.readBytes(msg.readableBytes());
        System.out.println("Client received:" + ByteBufUtil.hexDump(buf) + "; The value is:" + buf.toString(Charset.forName("utf-8")));
        //ctx.channel().close().sync();// client关闭channel连接
    }
    @Override
    public void exceptionCaught(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, Throwable cause) throws Exception {
        cause.printStackTrace();
        ctx.close();
    }
}

三、结果
先运行server,在运行client即可
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