JVM源码分析 | 到底有哪些因素决定了一个进程能创建多少线程?

虽然这篇文章的标题打着JVM源码分析的旗号,不过本文不仅仅从JVM源码角度来分析,更多的来自于Linux Kernel的源码分析,今天要说的是JVM里比较常见的一个问题

这个问题可能有几种表述

  • 一个Java进程到底能创建多少线程?
  • 到底有哪些因素决定了能创建多少线程?
  • java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: unable to create new native thread的异常究竟是怎么回事

不过我这里先声明下可能不能完全百分百将各种因素都理出来,因为毕竟我不是做Linux Kernel开发的,还有不少细节没有注意到的,我将我能分析到的因素和大家分享一下,如果大家在平时工作中还碰到别的因素,欢迎在文章下面留言,让更多人参与进来讨论

从JVM说起

线程大家都熟悉,new Thread().start()即会创建一个线程,这里我首先指出一点new Thread()其实并不会创建一个真正的线程,只有在调用了start方法之后才会创建一个线程,这个大家分析下Java代码就知道了,Thread的构造函数是纯Java代码,start方法会调到一个native方法start0里,而start0其实就是JVM_StartThread这个方法


 
JVM_ENTRY(void, JVM_StartThread(JNIEnv* env, jobject jthread)) ... // We could also check the stillborn flag to see if this thread was already stopped, but // for historical reasons we let the thread detect that itself when it starts running jlong size = java_lang_Thread::stackSize(JNIHandles::resolve_non_null(jthread)); // Allocate the C++ Thread structure and create the native thread. The // stack size retrieved from java is signed, but the constructor takes // size_t (an unsigned type), so avoid passing negative values which would // result in really large stacks. size_t sz = size > 0 ? (size_t) size : 0; native_thread = new JavaThread(&thread_entry, sz); ... if (native_thread->osthread() == NULL) { ... THROW_MSG(vmSymbols::java_lang_OutOfMemoryError(), "unable to create new native thread"); } Thread::start(native_thread); JVM_END

从上面代码里首先要大家关注下最后的那个if判断if (native_thread->osthread() == NULL) ,如果osthread为空,那将会抛出大家比较熟悉的unable to create new native thread OOM异常,因此osthread为空非常关键,后面会看到什么情况下osthread会为空

另外大家应该注意到了native_thread = new JavaThread(&thread_entry, sz),在这里才会真正创建一个线程


 
JavaThread::JavaThread(ThreadFunction entry_point, size_t stack_sz) : Thread() #ifndef SERIALGC , _satb_mark_queue(&_satb_mark_queue_set), _dirty_card_queue(&_dirty_card_queue_set) #endif // !SERIALGC { if (TraceThreadEvents) { tty->print_cr("creating thread %p", this); } initialize(); _jni_attach_state = _not_attaching_via_jni; set_entry_point(entry_point); // Create the native thread itself. // %note runtime_23  os::ThreadType thr_type = os::java_thread; thr_type = entry_point == &compiler_thread_entry ? os::compiler_thread :  os::java_thread;  os::create_thread(this, thr_type, stack_sz); }

上面代码里的os::create_thread(this, thr_type, stack_sz)会通过pthread_create来创建线程,而Linux下对应的实现如下:


 
bool os::create_thread(Thread* thread, ThreadType thr_type, size_t stack_size) { assert(thread->osthread() == NULL, "caller responsible"); // Allocate the OSThread object OSThread* osthread = new OSThread(NULL, NULL); if (osthread == NULL) { return false; } // set the correct thread state osthread->set_thread_type(thr_type); // Initial state is ALLOCATED but not INITIALIZED osthread->set_state(ALLOCATED); thread->set_osthread(osthread); // init thread attributes pthread_attr_t attr; pthread_attr_init(&attr); pthread_attr_setdetachstate(&attr, PTHREAD_CREATE_DETACHED); // stack size if (os::Linux::supports_variable_stack_size()) { // calculate stack size if it's not specified by caller if (stack_size == 0) { stack_size = os::Linux::default_stack_size(thr_type); switch (thr_type) { case os::java_thread: // Java threads use ThreadStackSize which default value can be // changed with the flag -Xss assert (JavaThread::stack_size_at_create() > 0, "this should be set"); stack_size = JavaThread::stack_size_at_create(); break; case os::compiler_thread: if (CompilerThreadStackSize > 0) { stack_size = (size_t)(CompilerThreadStackSize * K); break; } // else fall through: // use VMThreadStackSize if CompilerThreadStackSize is not defined case os::vm_thread: case os::pgc_thread: case os::cgc_thread: case os::watcher_thread: if (VMThreadStackSize > 0) stack_size = (size_t)(VMThreadStackSize * K); break; } } stack_size = MAX2(stack_size, os::Linux::min_stack_allowed); pthread_attr_setstacksize(&attr, stack_size); } else { // let pthread_create() pick the default value. } // glibc guard page pthread_attr_setguardsize(&attr, os::Linux::default_guard_size(thr_type)); ThreadState state; { // Serialize thread creation if we are running with fixed stack LinuxThreads bool lock = os::Linux::is_LinuxThreads() && !os::Linux::is_floating_stack(); if (lock) { os::Linux::createThread_lock()->lock_without_safepoint_check(); } pthread_t tid; int ret = pthread_create(&tid, &attr, (void* (*)(void*)) java_start, thread); pthread_attr_destroy(&attr); if (ret != 0) { if (PrintMiscellaneous && (Verbose || WizardMode)) { perror("pthread_create()"); } // Need to clean up stuff we've allocated so far thread->set_osthread(NULL); delete osthread; if (lock) os::Linux::createThread_lock()->unlock(); return false; } // Store pthread info into the OSThread osthread->set_pthread_id(tid); ... } ... return true; }

如果在new OSThread的过程中就失败了,那显然osthread为NULL,那再回到上面第一段代码,此时会抛出java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: unable to create new native thread的异常,而什么情况下new OSThread会失败,比如说内存不够了,而这里的内存其实是C Heap,而非Java Heap,由此可见从JVM的角度来说,影响线程创建的因素包括了Xmx,MaxPermSize,MaxDirectMemorySize,ReservedCodeCacheSize等,因为这些参数会影响剩余的内存

另外注意到如果pthread_create执行失败,那通过thread->set_osthread(NULL)会设置空值,这个时候osthread也为NULL,因此也会抛出上面的OOM异常,导致创建线程失败,因此接下来要分析下pthread_create失败的因素

glibc中的pthread_create

stack_size

pthread_create的实现在glibc里,


 
int __pthread_create_2_1 (pthread_t *newthread, const pthread_attr_t *attr, void *(*start_routine) (void *), void *arg) { STACK_VARIABLES; const struct pthread_attr *iattr = (struct pthread_attr *) attr; struct pthread_attr default_attr; ... struct pthread *pd = NULL; int err = ALLOCATE_STACK (iattr, &pd); int retval = 0; if (__glibc_unlikely (err != 0)) /* Something went wrong. Maybe a parameter of the attributes is invalid or we could not allocate memory. Note we have to translate error codes. */ { retval = err == ENOMEM ? EAGAIN : err; goto out; } ... }

上面我主要想说的一段代码是int err = ALLOCATE_STACK (iattr, &pd),顾名思义就是分配线程栈,简单来说就是根据iattr里指定的stackSize,通过mmap分配一块内存出来给线程作为栈使用

那我们来说说stackSize,这个大家应该都明白,线程要执行,要有一些栈空间,试想一下,如果分配栈的时候内存不够了,是不是创建肯定失败?而stackSize在JVM下是可以通过-Xss指定的,当然如果没有指定也有默认的值,下面是JDK6之后(含)默认值的情况


 
// return default stack size for thr_type size_t os::Linux::default_stack_size(os::ThreadType thr_type) { // default stack size (compiler thread needs larger stack) #ifdef AMD64 size_t s = (thr_type == os::compiler_thread ? 4 * M : 1 * M); #else size_t s = (thr_type == os::compiler_thread ? 2 * M : 512 * K); #endif // AMD64 return s; }

估计不少人有一个疑问,栈内存到底属于-Xmx控制的Java Heap里的部分吗,这里明确告诉大家不属于,因此从glibc的这块逻辑来看,JVM里的Xss也是影响线程创建的一个非常重要的因素。

Linux Kernel里的clone

如果栈分配成功,那接下来就要创建线程了,大概逻辑如下


 
retval = create_thread (pd, iattr, true, STACK_VARIABLES_ARGS, &thread_ran);

而create_thread其实是调用的系统调用clone


 
const int clone_flags = (CLONE_VM | CLONE_FS | CLONE_FILES | CLONE_SYSVSEM | CLONE_SIGHAND | CLONE_THREAD | CLONE_SETTLS | CLONE_PARENT_SETTID | CLONE_CHILD_CLEARTID | 0); TLS_DEFINE_INIT_TP (tp, pd); if (__glibc_unlikely (ARCH_CLONE (&start_thread, STACK_VARIABLES_ARGS, clone_flags, pd, &pd->tid, tp, &pd->tid) == -1)) return errno;

系统调用这块就切入到了Linux Kernel里

clone系统调用最终会调用do_fork方法,接下来通过剖解这个方法来分析Kernel里还存在哪些因素

max_user_processes


 
retval = -EAGAIN; if (atomic_read(&p->real_cred->user->processes) >= task_rlimit(p, RLIMIT_NPROC)) { if (!capable(CAP_SYS_ADMIN) && !capable(CAP_SYS_RESOURCE) && p->real_cred->user != INIT_USER) goto bad_fork_free; }

先看这么一段,这里其实就是判断用户的进程数有多少,大家知道在linux下,进程和线程其数据结构都是一样的,因此这里说的进程数可以理解为轻量级线程数,而这个最大值是可以通过ulimit -u可以查到的,所以如果当前用户起的线程数超过了这个限制,那肯定是不会创建线程成功的,可以通过ulimit -u value来修改这个值

max_map_count

在这个过程中不乏有malloc的操作,底层是通过系统调用brk来实现的,或者上面提到的栈是通过mmap来分配的,不管是malloc还是mmap,在底层都会有类似的判断


 
if (mm->map_count > sysctl_max_map_count) return -ENOMEM;

如果进程被分配的内存段超过sysctl_max_map_count就会失败,而这个值在linux下对应/proc/sys/vm/max_map_count,默认值是65530,可以通过修改上面的文件来改变这个阈值

max_threads

还存在max_threads的限制,代码如下


 
/* * If multiple threads are within copy_process(), then this check  * triggers too late. This doesn't hurt, the check is only there * to stop root fork bombs. */ retval = -EAGAIN;  if (nr_threads >= max_threads)  goto bad_fork_cleanup_count;

如果要修改或者查看可以通过/proc/sys/kernel/threads-max来操作,这个值是受到物理内存的限制,在fork_init的时候就计算好了


 
/* * The default maximum number of threads is set to a safe * value: the thread structures can take up at most half * of memory. */ max_threads = mempages / (8 * THREAD_SIZE / PAGE_SIZE); /* * we need to allow at least 20 threads to boot a system */ if(max_threads < 20) max_threads = 20;

pid_max

pid也存在限制


 
if (pid != &init_struct_pid) { retval = -ENOMEM; pid = alloc_pid(p->nsproxy->pid_ns); if (!pid) goto bad_fork_cleanup_io; if (clone_flags & CLONE_NEWPID) { retval = pid_ns_prepare_proc(p->nsproxy->pid_ns); if (retval < 0) goto bad_fork_free_pid; } }

而alloc_pid的定义如下


 
struct pid *alloc_pid(struct pid_namespace *ns) { struct pid *pid; enum pid_type type; int i, nr; struct pid_namespace *tmp; struct upid *upid; pid = kmem_cache_alloc(ns->pid_cachep, GFP_KERNEL); if (!pid) goto out; tmp = ns; for (i = ns->level; i >= 0; i--) { nr = alloc_pidmap(tmp); if (nr < 0) goto out_free; pid->numbers[i].nr = nr; pid->numbers[i].ns = tmp; tmp = tmp->parent; } ... } 

在alloc_pidmap中会判断pid_max,而这个值的定义如下


 
/* * This controls the default maximum pid allocated to a process */ #define PID_MAX_DEFAULT (CONFIG_BASE_SMALL ? 0x1000 : 0x8000) /* * A maximum of 4 million PIDs should be enough for a while. * [NOTE: PID/TIDs are limited to 2^29 ~= 500+ million, see futex.h.] */ #define PID_MAX_LIMIT (CONFIG_BASE_SMALL ? PAGE_SIZE * 8 : \ (sizeof(long) > 4 ? 4 * 1024 * 1024 : PID_MAX_DEFAULT)) int pid_max = PID_MAX_DEFAULT; #define RESERVED_PIDS 300 int pid_max_min = RESERVED_PIDS + 1; int pid_max_max = PID_MAX_LIMIT; 

这个值可以通过/proc/sys/kernel/pid_max来查看或者修改

总结

通过对JVM,glibc,Linux kernel的源码分析,我们暂时得出了一些影响线程创建的因素,包括

  • JVM:Xmx,Xss,MaxPermSize,MaxDirectMemorySize,ReservedCodeCacheSize等
  • Kernel:max_user_processes,max_map_count,max_threads,pid_max等

由于对kernel的源码研读时间有限,不一定总结完整,大家可以补充

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