leetcode|18. 4Sum

Given an array nums of n integers and an integer target, are there elements a, b, c, and d in nums such that a + b + c + d = target? Find all unique quadruplets in the array which gives the sum of target.

Note:

The solution set must not contain duplicate quadruplets.

Example:

Given array nums = [1, 0, -1, 0, -2, 2], and target = 0.

A solution set is:
[
  [-1,  0, 0, 1],
  [-2, -1, 1, 2],
  [-2,  0, 0, 2]
]

求四个数的和的话可以降为求三个数的和

class Solution {
public:
    vector<vector<int>> fourSum(vector<int>& nums, int target) {
        vector<vector<int>> res;
        if(nums.size()<4)
            return res;
        sort(nums.begin(),nums.end());
        for(int i=0;i<nums.size()-1;i++){
            cout<<"----------------"<<endl;
            if(4*nums[i]>target) //值已经超了
                break;
            
            //int tar3=target-nums[i];
            int tar3=target-nums[i];
            //cout<<target<<"  "<<i<<endl;
            threeSum(nums,res,tar3,i);
        }
        return res;
    }
    
    void threeSum(vector<int>& nums,vector<vector<int>>&result,int tar3,int start){//start表示的是计算四个数的和的第一个数
        if(start>0){
            while(nums[start]==nums[start-1])
                //如果这个和前面的相同的话,这个就直接结束好了,再继续下去反而会接着出现问题
                return;
        }
        for(int i=start+1;i<nums.size()-1;i++){
            cout<<i<<endl;
            int target=tar3-nums[i];
            int front=i+1;
            int back=nums.size()-1;
            while(front<back){
               if(nums[front]+nums[back]==target){
                    vector<int> temp;
                    temp.push_back(nums[start]);
                    temp.push_back(nums[i]);
                    temp.push_back(nums[front]);
                    temp.push_back(nums[back]);
                    result.push_back(temp);
                    
                    while(front<back&&nums[front]==temp[2]) front++;
                    while(front<back&&nums[back]==temp[3]) back--;
                   //哇塞哇塞在这里出现了死循环
                   //while(front<back&&nums[front]==temp[1]) front++;
                   //while(front<back&&nums[back]==temp[2]) back--;
                }
                else if(nums[front]+nums[back]<target)
                    front++;
                else if(nums[front]+nums[back]>target)
                    back--;
            }
            while((nums[i]==nums[i+1])&&((i+1)<nums.size())){
                i++;
            }
            
        }
    }
};

求三个数的和仍然使用两个指针,但是由于加了一道步骤所以参数多了,再加上自己命名变量的时候名字有时候会发生重复,所以就导致有点懵。
参数命名的时候需要更加清晰一点啦
而且这次似乎有点得意忘形,所以写的马虎点,于是调了很久。

另外,bug还是要用纸笔一行一行的调。

这个代码是在讨论区看到的,他的优势是把各种情况都考虑的很全面,程序运行起来的话如果遇到这种情况就可以直接结束这次循环,而不是嵌套进去再一点一点的验证,但是这种频繁的判断语句是否也会浪费时间呢,两者相比起来哪个更快一点呢
呀,这个时候明白了计组和操作系统在代码编写中的作用,尤其是c,c++这样与底层相关的语言。

有一个问题,在使用容器的size时是每次都调用函数快还是在一开始就定义一个变量好呢,想必是第二种方式吧。

class Solution {
    public List<List<Integer>> fourSum(int[] nums, int target) {
		ArrayList<List<Integer>> res = new ArrayList<List<Integer>>();
		int len = nums.length;
		if (nums == null || len < 4)
			return res;

		Arrays.sort(nums);

		int max = nums[len - 1];
		if (4 * nums[0] > target || 4 * max < target)
			return res;

		int i, z;
		for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
			z = nums[i];
			if (i > 0 && z == nums[i - 1])// avoid duplicate
				continue;
			if (z + 3 * max < target) // z is too small
				continue;
			if (4 * z > target) // z is too large
				break;
			if (4 * z == target) { // z is the boundary
				if (i + 3 < len && nums[i + 3] == z)
					res.add(Arrays.asList(z, z, z, z));
				break;
			}

			threeSumForFourSum(nums, target - z, i + 1, len - 1, res, z);
		}

		return res;
	}

	/*
	 * Find all possible distinguished three numbers adding up to the target
	 * in sorted array nums[] between indices low and high. If there are,
	 * add all of them into the ArrayList fourSumList, using
	 * fourSumList.add(Arrays.asList(z1, the three numbers))
	 */
	public void threeSumForFourSum(int[] nums, int target, int low, int high, ArrayList<List<Integer>> fourSumList,
			int z1) {
		if (low + 1 >= high)
			return;

		int max = nums[high];
		if (3 * nums[low] > target || 3 * max < target)
			return;

		int i, z;
		for (i = low; i < high - 1; i++) {
			z = nums[i];
			if (i > low && z == nums[i - 1]) // avoid duplicate
				continue;
			if (z + 2 * max < target) // z is too small
				continue;

			if (3 * z > target) // z is too large
				break;

			if (3 * z == target) { // z is the boundary
				if (i + 1 < high && nums[i + 2] == z)
					fourSumList.add(Arrays.asList(z1, z, z, z));
				break;
			}

			twoSumForFourSum(nums, target - z, i + 1, high, fourSumList, z1, z);
		}

	}

	/*
	 * Find all possible distinguished two numbers adding up to the target
	 * in sorted array nums[] between indices low and high. If there are,
	 * add all of them into the ArrayList fourSumList, using
	 * fourSumList.add(Arrays.asList(z1, z2, the two numbers))
	 */
	public void twoSumForFourSum(int[] nums, int target, int low, int high, ArrayList<List<Integer>> fourSumList,
			int z1, int z2) {

		if (low >= high)
			return;

		if (2 * nums[low] > target || 2 * nums[high] < target)
			return;

		int i = low, j = high, sum, x;
		while (i < j) {
			sum = nums[i] + nums[j];
			if (sum == target) {
				fourSumList.add(Arrays.asList(z1, z2, nums[i], nums[j]));

				x = nums[i];
				while (++i < j && x == nums[i]) // avoid duplicate
					;
				x = nums[j];
				while (i < --j && x == nums[j]) // avoid duplicate
					;
			}
			if (sum < target)
				i++;
			if (sum > target)
				j--;
		}
		return;
	}
}

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