为何sql.Rows使用结束后一定要Close

前言

常见的sql.Rows使用方式如下:

var db  *sql.DB
....
rows, err :=db.QueryContext(ctx,selectSql,args...)
...
defer rows.Close()
for rows.Next() {
	if err = rows.Scan(&dst); err != nil {
		return
	}
}

我们知道sql.Rows使用结束后一定要关闭。

但为何要关闭?不关闭又会发生什么呢?

源码会告诉我们答案。

Rows

Rows的结构如下:

// Rows is the result of a query. Its cursor starts before the first row
// of the result set. Use Next to advance from row to row.
type Rows struct {
	dc          *driverConn // owned; must call releaseConn when closed to release
	releaseConn func(error)
	rowsi       driver.Rows
	cancel      func()      // called when Rows is closed, may be nil.
	closeStmt   *driverStmt // if non-nil, statement to Close on close

	// closemu prevents Rows from closing while there
	// is an active streaming result. It is held for read during non-close operations
	// and exclusively during close.
	//
	// closemu guards lasterr and closed.
	closemu sync.RWMutex
	closed  bool
	lasterr error // non-nil only if closed is true

	// lastcols is only used in Scan, Next, and NextResultSet which are expected
	// not to be called concurrently.
	lastcols []driver.Value
}

Rows中的field dc后的注释明确提到了连接关闭释放时一定要调用releaseConn。

那么releaseConn与Close有什么关联呢?继续看Close的代码。

Close

// Close closes the Rows, preventing further enumeration. If Next is called
// and returns false and there are no further result sets,
// the Rows are closed automatically and it will suffice to check the
// result of Err. Close is idempotent and does not affect the result of Err.
func (rs *Rows) Close() error {
	return rs.close(nil)
}

func (rs *Rows) close(err error) error {
	rs.closemu.Lock()
	defer rs.closemu.Unlock()

	if rs.closed {
		return nil
	}
	rs.closed = true

	if rs.lasterr == nil {
		rs.lasterr = err
	}

	withLock(rs.dc, func() {
		err = rs.rowsi.Close()
	})
	if fn := rowsCloseHook(); fn != nil {
		fn(rs, &err)
	}
	if rs.cancel != nil {
		rs.cancel()
	}

	if rs.closeStmt != nil {
		rs.closeStmt.Close()
	}
	rs.releaseConn(err)
	return err
}

可以看到Close最后调用的就是releaseConn,到这初步解释了Close的原因,要释放连接。不Close,意味着不释放连接,连接用完后会怎么样呢?

不Close会发生什么?

看下sql查询QueryContext的源码:

// QueryContext executes a prepared query statement with the given arguments
// and returns the query results as a *Rows.
func (s *Stmt) QueryContext(ctx context.Context, args ...interface{}) (*Rows, error) {
	s.closemu.RLock()
	defer s.closemu.RUnlock()

	var rowsi driver.Rows
	strategy := cachedOrNewConn
	for i := 0; i < maxBadConnRetries+1; i++ {
		if i == maxBadConnRetries {
			strategy = alwaysNewConn
		}
		dc, releaseConn, ds, err := s.connStmt(ctx, strategy)
		if err != nil {
			if err == driver.ErrBadConn {
				continue
			}
			return nil, err
		}

		rowsi, err = rowsiFromStatement(ctx, dc.ci, ds, args...)
		if err == nil {
			// Note: ownership of ci passes to the *Rows, to be freed
			// with releaseConn.
			rows := &Rows{
				dc:    dc,
				rowsi: rowsi,
				// releaseConn set below
			}
			// addDep must be added before initContextClose or it could attempt
			// to removeDep before it has been added.
			s.db.addDep(s, rows)

			// releaseConn must be set before initContextClose or it could
			// release the connection before it is set.
			rows.releaseConn = func(err error) {
				releaseConn(err)
				s.db.removeDep(s, rows)
			}
			var txctx context.Context
			if s.cg != nil {
				txctx = s.cg.txCtx()
			}
			rows.initContextClose(ctx, txctx)
			return rows, nil
		}

		releaseConn(err)
		if err != driver.ErrBadConn {
			return nil, err
		}
	}
	return nil, driver.ErrBadConn
}

rows.releaseConn会调用connStmt生成的releaseConn。

connStmt

connStmt的源码如下:

// connStmt returns a free driver connection on which to execute the
// statement, a function to call to release the connection, and a
// statement bound to that connection.
func (s *Stmt) connStmt(ctx context.Context, strategy connReuseStrategy) (dc *driverConn, releaseConn func(error), ds *driverStmt, err error) {
	if err = s.stickyErr; err != nil {
		return
	}
	s.mu.Lock()
	if s.closed {
		s.mu.Unlock()
		err = errors.New("sql: statement is closed")
		return
	}

	// In a transaction or connection, we always use the connection that the
	// stmt was created on.
	if s.cg != nil {
		s.mu.Unlock()
		dc, releaseConn, err = s.cg.grabConn(ctx) // blocks, waiting for the connection.
		if err != nil {
			return
		}
		return dc, releaseConn, s.cgds, nil
	}

	s.removeClosedStmtLocked()
	s.mu.Unlock()

	dc, err = s.db.conn(ctx, strategy)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, nil, nil, err
	}

	s.mu.Lock()
	for _, v := range s.css {
		if v.dc == dc {
			s.mu.Unlock()
			return dc, dc.releaseConn, v.ds, nil
		}
	}
	s.mu.Unlock()

	// No luck; we need to prepare the statement on this connection
	withLock(dc, func() {
		ds, err = s.prepareOnConnLocked(ctx, dc)
	})
	if err != nil {
		dc.releaseConn(err)
		return nil, nil, nil, err
	}

	return dc, dc.releaseConn, ds, nil
}

代码虽然很多,只需要关注一行即可(嘚瑟表情):

dc, releaseConn, err = s.cg.grabConn(ctx) // blocks, waiting for the connection.

看下注释,就可以知道:连接dc及释放连接releaseConn的获取是阻塞的,必须等到有连接时才返回,当数据库的连接用完后,则会一直阻塞至此,表现就是程序运行在此处阻塞。

这在grabConn的注释中再次提到操作完成后一定要调用release。

// stmtConnGrabber represents a Tx or Conn that will return the underlying
// driverConn and release function.
type stmtConnGrabber interface {
	// grabConn returns the driverConn and the associated release function
	// that must be called when the operation completes.
	grabConn(context.Context) (*driverConn, releaseConn, error)

	// txCtx returns the transaction context if available.
	// The returned context should be selected on along with
	// any query context when awaiting a cancel.
	txCtx() context.Context
}

总结

QueryContext查询中会获取一个连接及其对应的连接释放方法(对外即Close),返回的sql.Rows在使用后需要主动调用Close释放连接,否则会因连接占用完毕无法建立新的连接,导致查询阻塞,无法进行sql操作。

需要注意的是:sql.Row使用就不需要调用Close了,因为其Scan在使用时已经调用了Close方法了。

func (r *Row) Scan(dest ...interface{}) error {
	if r.err != nil {
		return r.err
	}


	defer r.rows.Close()
	for _, dp := range dest {
		if _, ok := dp.(*RawBytes); ok {
			return errors.New("sql: RawBytes isn't allowed on Row.Scan")
		}
	}

	if !r.rows.Next() {
		if err := r.rows.Err(); err != nil {
			return err
		}
		return ErrNoRows
	}
	err := r.rows.Scan(dest...)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	// Make sure the query can be processed to completion with no errors.
	return r.rows.Close()
}
  • 0
    点赞
  • 1
    收藏
  • 打赏
    打赏
  • 0
    评论

“相关推荐”对你有帮助么?

  • 非常没帮助
  • 没帮助
  • 一般
  • 有帮助
  • 非常有帮助
提交
©️2022 CSDN 皮肤主题:大白 设计师:CSDN官方博客 返回首页
评论

打赏作者

yuchenfw

你的鼓励将是我创作的最大动力

¥2 ¥4 ¥6 ¥10 ¥20
输入1-500的整数
余额支付 (余额:-- )
扫码支付
扫码支付:¥2
获取中
扫码支付

您的余额不足,请更换扫码支付或充值

打赏作者

实付
使用余额支付
点击重新获取
扫码支付
钱包余额 0

抵扣说明:

1.余额是钱包充值的虚拟货币,按照1:1的比例进行支付金额的抵扣。
2.余额无法直接购买下载,可以购买VIP、C币套餐、付费专栏及课程。

余额充值