求一个数组中的逆序对

数组中的逆序对是指左边元素大于右边元素,这样的一对数就构成了一个逆序对。求一个数组中的逆序对。这里使用分治方法,具体的思路可以参考剑指offer中的一个问题,这里使用了归并的思想,假如我们将一个数组分成两个数组,而且这两个数组是有序的,在从尾部到头部合并的时候,就可以判定有多少对逆序的元素对

#include <iostream>
#include <string>
#include <vector>
using namespace std;


typedef long long llong;

llong MergeAndCount(vector<unsigned int> &a, int left, int mid, int right, vector<unsigned int> &temp);
llong MergeSortAndCount(vector<unsigned int>& a, int left, int right, vector<unsigned int>& temp);
llong CountInversions(vector<unsigned int>& a);

int main()
{
    //freopen("data.in", "r", stdin);

    int N;
    cin >> N;

    vector<unsigned int> a(N, 0);
    for (int i = 0; i < N; ++i)
    {
        cin >> a[i];
    }

    llong result = CountInversions(a);
    cout << result << endl;
    return 0;
}

llong MergeAndCount(vector<unsigned int> &a, int left, int mid, int right, vector<unsigned int> &temp)
{
    int i = left;
    int j = mid + 1;
    int k = left;
    llong cnt = 0;

    while (i <= mid && j <= right)
    {
        if (a[i] <= a[j])
        {
            temp[k++] = a[i++];
        }
        else 
        {
            temp[k++] = a[j++];
            cnt += mid - i + 1;    // key step
        }
    }

    while (i <= mid) temp[k++] = a[i++];
    while (j <= right) temp[k++] = a[j++];

    for (i = left; i <= right; ++i)
    {
        a[i] = temp[i];
    }
    return cnt;
}

llong MergeSortAndCount(vector<unsigned int>& a, int left, int right, vector<unsigned int>& temp)
{
    // base case
    if (left >= right) return 0;

    int mid = (left + right) / 2;
    
    llong InversionCnt1 = MergeSortAndCount(a, left, mid, temp);
    llong InversionCnt2 = MergeSortAndCount(a, mid+1, right, temp);
    llong MergeInversionCnt = MergeAndCount(a, left, mid, right, temp);

    return InversionCnt1 + InversionCnt2 + MergeInversionCnt;
}

llong CountInversions(vector<unsigned int>& a)
{
    int n = a.size();
    vector<unsigned int> temp(a.begin(), a.end());
    llong ans = MergeSortAndCount(a, 0, n-1, temp);
    return ans;
}



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