为什么说Python是一门动态语言--Python的魅力

动态语言的定义:动态编程语言高级程序设计语言的一个类别,在计算机科学领域已被广泛应用。它是一类在运行时可以改变其结构的语言:例如新的函数、对象、甚至代码可以被引进,已有的函数可以被删除或是其他结构上的变化。动态语言目前非常具有活力。众所周知的ECMAScriptJavaScript)便是一个动态语言,除此之外如PHPRubyPython等也都属于动态语言,而CC++等语言则不属于动态语言。----来自维基百科

你是不是有过给class里面变量赋值却发现程序没达到自己预期结果的遭遇?是不是本来赋值给class.abc却赋给了class.abd?这其实是动态语言惹的“祸”!【博主以前玩的是java】我们先来试着玩一玩

>>> class Person():
	def __init__(self, name = None, age = None):
	    self.name = name
	    self.age = age

	    
>>> P = Person("The_Third_Wave", "24")
>>> 

在这里,我们定义了1个类Person,在这个类里,定义了两个初始属性name和age,但是人还有性别啊!如果这个类不是你写的是不是你会尝试访问性别这个属性呢?

>>> P.sexuality = "male"
>>> P.sexuality
'male'
>>> 
这时候就发现问题了,我们定义的类里面没有sexuality这个属性啊!怎么回事呢?这就是动态语言的魅力和坑!这里实际上就是动态给实例绑定属性!所以博主“当年”从java转python被“坑”(无知啊)过!我们再看下一个例子

>>> P1 = Person("Wave", "25")
>>> P1.sexuality

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<pyshell#21>", line 1, in <module>
    P1.sexuality
AttributeError: Person instance has no attribute 'sexuality'
>>> 
我们尝试打印P1.sexuality,发现报错,P1没有sexuality这个属性!----给P这个实例绑定属性对P1这个实例不起作用!

那我们要给所有的Person的实例加上sexuality属性怎么办呢?答案就是直接给Person绑定属性!

>>>> Person.sexuality = None
>>> P1 = Person("Wave", "25")
>>> print P1.sexuality
None
>>> 
我们直接给Person绑定sexuality这个属性,重行实例化P1后,P1就有sexuality这个属性了!

那么function呢?怎么绑定?

>>> class Person():
	def __init__(self, name = None, age = None):
	    self.name = name
	    self.age = age
	def eat(self):
	    print "eat food"

	    
>>> def run(self, speed):
	print "Keeping moving, the speed is %s km/h" %speed

	
>>> P = Person("The_Third_Wave", "24")
>>> 
KeyboardInterrupt
>>> P.run()

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<pyshell#5>", line 1, in <module>
    P.run()
AttributeError: Person instance has no attribute 'run'
>>> P.eat()
eat food
>>> import types
>>> Person.run = types.MethodType(run, None, Person)
>>> P.run(180)
Keeping moving, the speed is 180 km/h
>>> 

绑定我们了解了,但是怎么删除呢?

请看以下例子首先给的是属性的真删:

>>> P.name
'The_Third_Wave'
>>> P.sex

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<pyshell#32>", line 1, in <module>
    P.sex
AttributeError: Person instance has no attribute 'sex'
>>> setattr(P, "sex", "male") # 増
>>> P.sex
'male'
>>> delattr(P, "name") # 删
>>> P.name

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<pyshell#36>", line 1, in <module>
    P.name
AttributeError: Person instance has no attribute 'name'
>>> 

添加方法呢?

>>> class Person():
	def __init__(self, name = None, age = None):
	    self.name = name
	    self.age = age
	def eat(self):
	    print "eat food"

	    
>>> P = Person("The_Third_Wave", "24")
>>> P.eat()
eat food
>>> P.run()

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<pyshell#41>", line 1, in <module>
    P.run()
AttributeError: Person instance has no attribute 'run'
>>> def run(self, speed):
	print "Keeping moving, the speed is %s" %speed

	
>>> setattr(P, "run", run)
>>> P.run(360)

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<pyshell#45>", line 1, in <module>
    P.run(360)
TypeError: run() takes exactly 2 arguments (1 given)
>>> P.run(1, 360)
Keeping moving, the speed is 360
>>> 
删除

>>> delattr(P, "run")
>>> P.run()

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<pyshell#48>", line 1, in <module>
    P.run()
AttributeError: Person instance has no attribute 'run'
>>> 

通过以上例子可以得出一个结论:相对于动态语言,静态语言具有严谨性!所以,玩动态语言的时候,小心动态的坑!

那么怎么避免这种情况呢?请使用__slots__,但是我的是2.7.6版本,测试是不行的!代码如下:

>>> class Person():
	__slots__ = ("location", "run")
	
	def __init__(self, name = None, age = None):
	    self.name = name
	    self.age = age
	    
	def eat(self):
	    print "eat food"

	    
>>> P = Person()
>>> P.sex

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<pyshell#3>", line 1, in <module>
    P.sex
AttributeError: Person instance has no attribute 'sex'
>>> P.sex = "male"
>>> 

具体原因是什么呢,本来是准备请等待更新:ing...的

BUT,我多写了个object就出来了。。。这可真是个神坑!soga!

>>> class Person(object):
	__slots__ = ("location", "run")
	
	def __init__(self, name = None, age = None):
	    self.name = name
	    self.age = age
	    
	def eat(self):
	    print "eat food"

	    
>>> P = Person()

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<pyshell#12>", line 1, in <module>
    P = Person()
  File "<pyshell#11>", line 5, in __init__
    self.name = name
AttributeError: 'Person' object has no attribute 'name' # 顺便还发现了个注意事项:要预先定义的属性也要写到tuple里面!
>>> class Person(object):
	__slots__ = ("name", "age", "eat", "location", "run")
	
	def __init__(self, name = None, age = None):
	    self.name = name
	    self.age = age
	    
	def eat(self):
	    print "eat food"

	    
>>> P = Person()
>>> P.sex = "male"

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<pyshell#16>", line 1, in <module>
    P.sex = "male"
AttributeError: 'Person' object has no attribute 'sex'
>>> P.location = "china"
>>> P.location
'china'
>>> def run(self, speed):
	print "Keeping moving, the speed is %s km/h" %speed

	
>>> setattr(P, "run", run)
>>> P.run(u"请注意这儿参数和上面有个例子不一样哦", 720)
Keeping moving, the speed is 720 km/h
>>> 

顺便还发现了个注意事项:要预先定义的属性也要写到tuple里面!

暂时写到这,不定期更新ing...

关于slots的demo原文:https://docs.python.org/2/reference/datamodel.html?highlight=__slots__#__slots__

本文由@The_Third_Wave原创。不定期更新,有错误请指正。

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