# Python __Underscore__ Methods

## 1   Intro

My intention for this article is to be a quick-reference guide: all the information you might need about a method or property condensed into a few lines. This might not be possible for something like __slots__, perhaps we should link to the Python Docs for details on the more complex ones. I know this stuff is documented in other places (for example, http://docs.python.org/ref/specialnames.html), but it's all over the place and hard to mentally parse. I want to teach while at the same time to be brief, if that is possible.

Anyways feel free to add, don't worry about messing stuff up, I can always revert your edits if I really hate them ; ) A list of underscore methods that I haven't written about yet is at the bottom; there might be more too that I don't know about. And things I'm not sure about have question marks next to them, feel free to search for question marks and correct any uncertainties.

## 2   Class and Instance Methods

For consistency's sake, let's say we have a class called 'Class', instances called 'x' and 'y'. Keeping with the Python docstrings, '<==>' can be read as 'is equivalent to'.

### 2.1   Creation, Calling, and Destruction

__init__(self, ...)
Class.__init__(...) <==> x.__init__(...) <==> Class(...)
Called when class is called, or in other words when you instantiate the class. Shouldn't return any value; the created instance will be returned automatically.
If not present, nothing is called and life goes on.

__call__(self, ...)
x.__call__(...) <==> x(...)
Called when instance is called.
If not present, instance is not callable and a TypeError (object is not callable) or an AttributeError is raised. (?)

__del__(self)
Called when instance is about to be destroyed. This happens when the reference count reaches zero, probably because the instance was del'ed.
If not present, nothing is called and life goes on.

### 2.2   Conversion to Strings

__repr__(self)
x.__repr__() <==> repr(x) <==> x
Should return a string representation of the class or instance with as much information as possible, preferably something that can be passed to eval to recreate the object. Return value must be a string.
If not present, returns something like '<class __main__.Class at 0x2e6d50>' for classes and '<__main__.Class instance at 0xbfb70>' for instances.

__str__(self)
x.__str__() <==> str(x) <==> print x
Should return an informal, user-friendly string describing the class or instance. Return value must be a string.
If not present, __repr__ is tried. If that is not present, returns something like '__main__.Class' for classes and '<__main__.Class instance at 0xbfb70>' for instances.

__unicode__(self)
x.__unicode__() <==> unicode(x)
Should return an informal, user-friendly unicode string describing the class or instance. Return value must be unicode string, or a string or buffer (which will be automatically converted into a unicode string).
If not present, __str__ is called and the result is converted into a unicode string.

### 2.3   Truth Testing

__nonzero__(self)
bool(x) <==> x.__nonzero__()
Called by the built-in function bool, or whenever any truth-value test occurs.
Should return False, True, 0, or 1.
If not defined, __len__ is called; if both are not defined the instance always evaluates to True.

### 2.4   Comparisons

For instances to be meaningfully sorted, either __cmp__, __lt__, or __gt__ must be defined. If more than one is defined, __lt__ will be tried first, followed by __gt__ and then finally __cmp__.

__cmp__(self, other)
x.__cmp__(other) <==> cmp(x, other)
Should return a negative integer if instance is less than other, 0 if instance is equal to other, or a positive integer if instance is greater than other.
If not present (and other comparisons aren't present?) instances are compared by object identity ('address') (?)

#### 2.4.1   "Rich Comparison" Operators

The following functions customarily return True or False, but can return any value. If in a boolean context, Python will call bool() on the returned value to determine truthfulness. NotImplemented should be raised if no valid comparison can be made.

If one of these methods is not defined, Python will try the opposite method with swapped arguments. For example, if you call x < other but x.__lt__ is not defined, Python will try the equivalent other.__gt__(x). If neither is not defined, x.__cmp__(other) will be tried, followed by other.__cmp__(x). If all four methods are undefined, instances are compared by object identity (address?).

Note that no other fallbacks will be performed. For example, if __le__ is not defined, Python does not call lt and eq. Similarly, Python will not fallback to __ne__ if __eq__ is not defined, or vice versa -- this can result in two instances that are 'equal' and 'not equal' at the same time.

There are no explicit 'reflected' (swapped-argument) versions of the comparison operators.

__eq__(self, other)
x.__eq__(other) <==> x == other
Must be implemented if two instances are to be perceived as identical, for example in a set.
Should return a value indicating if instance is equal to other.
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, other.__eq__(x) will be tried, followed by x.__cmp__(other) then other.__cmp__(x).

__ne__(self, other)
x.__ne__(other) <==> x != other
Should return a value indicating if instance is not equal to other.
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, other.__ne__(x) will be tried, followed by x.__cmp__(other) then other.__cmp__(x).

__lt__(self, other)
x.__lt__(other) <==> x < other
Should return a value indicating if instance is less than other.
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, other.__gt__(x) will be tried, followed by x.__cmp__(other) then other.__cmp__(x).

__le__(self, other)
x.__le__(other) <==> x <= other
Should return a value indicating if instance is less than or equal to other.
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, other.__ge__(x) will be tried, followed by x.__cmp__(other) then other.__cmp__(x).

__ge__(self, other)
x.__ge__(other) <==> x >= other
Should return a value indicating if instance is greater than or equal to other.
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, other.__le__(x) will be tried, followed by x.__cmp__(other) then other.__cmp__(x).

__gt__(self, other)
x.__gt__(other) <==> x > other
Should return a value indicating if instance is greater than other.
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, other.__lt__(x) will be tried, followed by x.__cmp__(other) then other.__cmp__(x).

### 2.5   Logical and Mathematical Operators

#### 2.5.1   Regular Binary Operations

These methods implment the binary operators +, -, , /, //, %, *, <<, >>, &, |, and ^, and the functions divmod and pow.

The method may raise NotImplemented if no operation is possible with the supplied with the supplied argument(s).

If not defined or if returns NotImplemented, and the two instances belong to different classes, Python will try to call the equivalent reflected binary operator method of the other instance, with this instance as the argument.

If that method is also not defined, the relevant operation is not possible and a TypeError ('unsupported operand type') is raised.

__add__(self, other)
x.__add__(other) <==> x + other
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, other.__radd__(x) is tried.

__sub__(self, other)
x.__sub__(other) <==> x - other
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, other.__rsub__(x) is tried.

__mul__(self, other)
x.__mul__(other) <==> x * other
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, `other.__rmul__(x) is tried.

__div__(self, other)
x.__div__(other) <==> x / other
If from __future__ import division is used, __truediv__ is called instead.
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, other.__rdiv__(x) is tried.

__truediv__(self, other)
x.__truediv__(other) <==> x / other
Only called if from __future__ import division is used. Otherwise, __div__ is used.
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, other.__rtruediv__(x) is tried.

__floordiv__(self, other)
x.__floordiv__(other) <==> x // other
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, other.__rfloordiv__(x) is tried.

__mod__(self, other)
x.__mod__(other) <==> x % other
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, other.__rmod__(x) is tried.

__divmod__(self, other)
x.__divmod__(other) <==> divmod(x, other)
Should be equivelant to using __floordiv__ and __mod__. Should not be related to __truediv__.
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, other.__rdivmod__(x) is tried.

__pow__(self, other [, mod])
x.__pow__(other [, mod]) <==> x ** other [% mod] <==> pow(x, other [, mod])
If no mod argument is accepted, the ternary version of pow cannot be used.
If not defined or returns NotImplemented and mod argument is not given, other.__rpow__(x) is tried.
If not defined or returns NotImplemented and mod argument is given, no other methods will be tried and a TypeError (?) is raised.

__lshift__(self, other)
x.__lshift__(other) <==> x << other
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, other.__rlshift__(x) is tried.

__rshift__(self, other)
x.__rshift__(other) <==> x >> other
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, other.__rrshift__(x) is tried.

__and__(self, other)
x.__and__(other) <==> x & other
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, other.__rand__(x) is tried.

__or__(self, other)
x.__or__(other) <==> x | other
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, other.__ror__(x) is tried.

__xor__(self, other)
x.__xor__(other) <==> x ^ other
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, other.__rxor__(x) is tried.

#### 2.5.2   Reversed Binary Operations

These methods implement, with swapped commands, the binary operators +, -, , /, //, %, *, <<, >>, &, |, and ^, and the functions divmod and pow. They are only called if the target's equivalent regular binary operator is not defined or returns NotImplemented.

In other words, if y + x is executed, and y.__add__ is not defined, and y and x are of different types, Python will attempt to call x.__radd__(y).

The method may raise NotImplemented if no operation is possible with the supplied with the supplied argument(s).

If not defined, the relevant operation is not possible and a TypeError ('unsupported operand type') is raised.

__radd__(self, other)
x.__radd__(other) <==> other + x
Only called if other.__add__ is not defined or other.__add__(x) returns NotImplemented.

__rsub__(self, other)
x.__rsub__(other) <==> other - x
Only called if other.__sub__ is not defined or other.__sub__(x) returns NotImplemented.

__rmul__(self, other)
x.__rmul__(other) <==> other * x
Only called if other.__mul__ is not defined or other.__mul__(x) returns NotImplemented.

__rdiv__(self, other)
x.__rdiv__(other) <==> other / x
Only called if other.__div__ is not defined or other.__div__(x) returns NotImplemented.
If from __future__ import division is used, __rtruediv__ is called instead.

__rtruediv__(self, other)
x.__rtruediv__(other) <==> other / x
Only called if other.__truediv__ is not defined or other.__truediv__(x) returns NotImplemented.
Also only called if from __future__ import division is used. Otherwise, __rdiv__ is called.

__rfloordiv__(self, other)
x.__rfloordiv__(other) <==> other // x
Only called if other.__floordiv__ is not defined or other.__floordiv__(x) returns NotImplemented.

__rmod__(self, other)
x.__mod__(other) <==> other % x
Only called if other.__mod__ is not defined or other.__mod__(x) returns NotImplemented.

__rdivmod__(self, other)
x.__rdivmod__(other) <==> divmod(other, x)
Should be equivelant to using __rfloordiv__ and __rmod__. Should not be related to __rtruediv__.
Only called if other.__divmod__ is not defined or other.__divmod__(x) returns NotImplemented.

__rpow__(self, other)
x.__rpow__(other) <==> other ** x <==> pow(x, other)
Ternary pow will not try to call __rpow__, as coersion rules would be too complicated. So, __rpow__ only needs to support binary operation.
Only called if other.__pow__ is not defined or other.__pow__(x) returns NotImplemented.

__rlshift__(self, other)
x.__rlshift__(other) <==> other << x
Only called if other.__lshift__ is not defined or other.__lshift__(x) returns NotImplemented.

__rrshift__(self, other)
x.__rrshift__(other) <==> other >> x
Only called if other.__rshift__ is not defined or other.__rshift__(x) returns NotImplemented..

__rand__(self, other)
x.__rand__(other) <==> other & x
Only called if other.__and__ is not defined or other.__and__(x) returns NotImplemented.

__ror__(self, other)
x.__ror__(other) <==> other | x
Only called if other.__or__ is not defined or other.__or__(x) returns NotImplemented.

__rxor__(self, other)
x.__rxor__(other) <==> other ^ x
Only called if other.__xor__ is not defined or other.__xor__(x) returns NotImplemented.

#### 2.5.3   In-Place Binary Operations

These methods implement the in-place binary operators +=, -=, *=, /=, //=, %=, **=, <<=, >>=, &=, |=, and ^=. Note that there is no in-place equivalent for divmod, while pow is only available as **=.

The method should attempt to modify the instance (self) in place and return the result. In any case, Python assigns the result as the new value of the instance.

It may raise NotImplemented if no operation is possible with the supplied with the supplied argument(s).

If method is not defined or returns NotImplemented, the equivalent operation is attempted with the the equivalent regular binary operator. If that is not defined or returns NotImplemented, and the two instances are of different types, the equivalent reflected binary operator method of the other instance is called.

If none of the three is defined or don't raise Not Implemented, the operation is not possible and a TypeError ('unsupported operand type') is raised.

For example, if x += other is attempted, x.__iadd__(other) is tried first, followed by x.__add__(other) and then other.__radd__(x).

__iadd__(self, other)
x.__iadd__(other) <==> x += other
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, x.__add__(other) is tried, followed by other.__radd__(x).

__isub__(self, other)
x.__isub__(other) <==> x -= other
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, x.__sub__(other) is tried, followed by other.__rsub__(x).

__imul__(self, other)
x.__imul__(other) <==> x *= other
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, x.__mul__(other) is tried, followed by other.__rmul__(x).

__idiv__(self, other)
x.__idiv__(other) <==> x /= other
If from __future__ import division is used, __itruediv__ is called instead.
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, x.__div__(other) is tried, followed by other.__rdiv__(x).

__itruediv__(self, other)
x.__itruediv__(other) <==> x /= other
Only called if from __future__ import division is used. Otherwise, __idiv__ is used.
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, x.__truediv__(other) is tried, followed by other.__rtruediv__(x).

__ifloordiv__(self, other)
x.__ifloordiv__(other) <==> x //= other
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, x.__floordiv__(other) is tried, followed by other.__rfloordiv__(x).

__imod__(self, other)
x.__imod__(other) <==> x %= other
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, x.__mod__(other) is tried, followed by other.__rmod__(x).

__ipow__(self, other)
x.__ipow__(other) <==> x **= other
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, x.__pow__(other) is tried, followed by other.__rpow__(x).

__ilshift__(self, other)
x.__ilshift__(other) <==> x <<= other
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, x.__lshift__(other) is tried, followed by other.__rlshift__(x).

__irshift__(self, other)
x.__irshift__(other) <==> x >>= other
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, x.__rshift__(other) is tried, followed by other.__rrshift__(x).

__iand__(self, other)
x.__iand__(other) <==> x &= other
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, x.__and__(other) is tried, followed by other.__radd__(x).

__ior__(self, other)
x.__ior__(other) <==> x |= other
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, x.__or__(other) is tried, followed by other.__ror__(x).

__ixor__(self, other)
x.__ixor__(other) <==> x ^= other
If not defined or returns NotImplemented, x.__xor__(other) is tried, followed by other.__rxor__(x).

#### 2.5.4   Unary Operations

__neg__(self)
x.__neg__() <==> -x
If not defined, this construct cannot be used and an AttributeError is raised.

__pos__(self)
x.__pos__() <==> +x
If not defined, this construct cannot be used and an AttributeError is raised.

__invert__(self)
x.__invert__() <==> ~x
If not defined, this construct cannot be used and an AttributeError is raised.

__abs__(self)
x.__abs__() <==> abs(x)
If not defined, the abs function cannot be used on this instance and an AttributeError is raised.

### 2.6   Casts

These methods implement conversion to various numeric types. One of these methods is called when the corresponding built-in method is called with the instance. If no conversion is possible, a ValueError can be raised (?) (not sure if this is official, but that's what strings do). If not present, the specified conversion cannot be done and an AttributeError is raised.

#### 2.6.1   Real Numbers

In these methods, if the incorrect type is returned, a TypeError is raised (e.g., "__float__ returned non-float").

__float__(self)
x.__float__() <==> float(x)
Should return a floating-point representation of x, as a float instance.

__hex__(self)
x.__hex__() <==> hex(x)
Should return a hexadecimal representation of x, preceded by "0x", as a string.

__int__(self)
x.__int__() <==> int(x)
Should return a integer representation of x, as an int instance.
Note: Although the built-in int accepts a base value, this appears to be only useable if a class inherits from str (?) and appears not to involve str.__int__ (?).

__long__(self)
x.__long__() <==> long(x)
Should return a long-integer representation of x, as a long instance.
Note: Although the built-in long accepts a base value, this appears to be only useable if a class inherits from str (?) and appears not to involve str.__long__ (?).

__oct__(self)
x.__oct__() <==> oct(x)
Should return a octal representation of x, preceded by "0", as a string.
##### 2.6.1.1   Slice Indices
__index__(self)
other[x.__index__()] <==> other[x]
x.__index()__ <==> operator.index(x)
Called whenever another object is 'sliced' with the instance, and by the operator module function index.
Should return an integer representation (an int or a long) of the instance suitable for slicing.
New in version 2.5

#### 2.6.2   Complex Numbers

__complex__(self)
x.__complex__() <==> complex(x)
x.__complex__() + y.__float__() <==> complex(x,y)
Should return a complex number. If another type is returned, Python will attempt to call its __float__ method and assign the result to the real part of the complex number.
If a second argument (the imaginary part) is given to the built-in complex method, Python will call its __float__ method and add the result to the imaginary part of the complex number.

### 2.7   Containing Items

#### 2.7.1   Basics

Although not required, it's probably a good idea to implement these if your instances will contain user-accessible items.

__len__(self)
x.__len__() <==> len(x)
Should (must?) return an integer describing how may items are contained by the instance.
If __nonzero__ is not defined and __len__ returns 0, instance is considered to evaluate to False. If neither is present instance will always evaluate to True.
If not present, len cannot be used and negative slice indexes cannot be used for __getslice__, __setslice__, and __delslice__. An AttributeError is raised.

__contains__(self, item)
x.__contains__(item) <==> item in x
Should return True if item is contained by the instance, False otherwise. Mapping objects should consider only keys, not values.
If not present, Python attempts to look for the item by iterating over all items using __iter__ and then __getitem__, with integer keys starting at zero and ending when IndexError is raised. If neither is defined, a TypeError (?) is raised.

__iter__(self)
x.__iter__() <==> iter(x)
Also called when iteration over the instance is requested, such as in a for loop.
Should return an iterator suitable for iterating over all the items contained in the instance. Mapping objects, again, should consider only keys.
If not present, Python attempts to call __getitem__ with integer keys starting at zero and ending when IndexError is raised. If __getitem__ is also not defined, a TypeError ('iteration over non-sequence') is raised.

__reversed__(self)
x.__reversed__() <==> reversed(x)
Should return an iterator suitable for iterating over all the items contained in the instance in reverse order.
If not present, Python attempts to call __getitem__ with indices starting at __len__ - 1 and ending at 0. In this case, if __len__ is not defined, an AttributeError is raised. If __getitem__ is not defined, a TypeError ('iteration over non-sequence') is raised.

#### 2.7.2   Items and Slices

These methods are called when bracket notation is used.

Python will behave differently depending on the type of value inside of the brackets:

x[key], where key is a single value
Calls x.__*item__(key)
x[start:end] where x.__*slice__ exists
Calls x.__*slice__(cooked_start, cooked_end) where start and end are 'cooked' as described below in 'Old-Style Slices'
x[start:end] where x.__*slice__ does not exist, or x[extended_slice], where extended slice is any slice more complex than start:end
Calls x.__*item__ with slice object, Ellipsis, or list of these.
##### 2.7.2.1   Items and New-Style Slices

In general, if key is of an inappropriate type, TypeError should be raised. If it is outside the sequence of keys in instance, IndexError should be raised. If instance is a mapping object and key cannot be found, KeyError should be raised. (What if neither of these is true? I don't know.)

__getitem__(self, key)
x.__getitem__(key) <==> x[key]
Should return item(s) referenced by key.
Not called if __setslice__ exists and simple start:end slicing is used.
If not present, items cannot be evaluated using bracket notation, and an AttributeError is raised.

__setitem__(self, key, value)
x.__setitem__(key, value) <==> x[key] = value
Should set or replace item(s) referenced by key. value can be a single value or a sequence.
Not called if __setslice__ exists and simple start:end slicing is used. Usage not dependent on presence of __getitem__.
If not present, items cannot be assigned using bracket notation, and an AttributeError is raised.

__delitem__(self, key)
x.__delitem__(key) <==> del x[key]
Should delete item(s) represented by key. Not dependent on presence of __getitem__.
Not called if __delslice__ exists and simple start:end slicing is used. Usage not dependent on presence of __getitem__.
If not present, items cannot be deleted using bracket notation, and an AttributeError is raised.
##### 2.7.2.2   Old-Style Slices

These methods are depreciated but still widely used. Furthermore, for simple slicing Python checks for their existence first before calling the __*item__ methods.

For these methods, Python 'cooks' the indexes before passing them. Negative slice indexes are converted to (usually) positive ones by adding them to the value returned by __len__, and so if __len__ is not defined, negative slice indexes cannot be used. Furthermore, an empty start index is replaced by 0, and an empty end index by sys.maxint.

__getslice__(self, start, end)
x.__getslice__(start, end) <==> x[start:end]
Should return items in the slice represented by start:end.
If not present, or if extended slicing is used, a slice object is passed to __getitem__.

__setslice__(self, start, end, sequence)
x.__setitem__(start, end, sequence) <==> x[start:end] = sequence
Should assign sequence to the slice represented by start:end.
If not present, or if extended slicing is used, a slice object is passed to __setitem__.

__delslice__(self, key)
x.__delslice__(start, end) <==> del x[start:end]
Should delete items in the slice represented by start:end.
If not present, or if extended slicing is used, a slice object is passed to __delitem__.

### 2.8   Attribute Access

As an alternative to Containing Items, instance attributes can be directly read, written to, and deleted. Access can be customized using these methods.

__getattr__(self, attr)
x.__getattr__(self, attr) <==> x.attr
Only called when attr isn't found in any of the usual places (it is not an instance attribute or a class attribute, and class is old-style or __getattribute__ is not defined).
Should return the value of the key attr in the relevant mapping object.
If not implemented, the attribute cannot be found and an AttributeError is raised.

__getattribute__(self, attr)
x.__getattribute__(self, attr) <==> x.attr
New-style classes only.
Called whenever attribute assignment is attempted (unlike __getattr__).
Should return the value of the key attr in the relevant mapping object.
If not implemented, Python will find the attribute as normal (including calling __getattr__).
If raises AttributeError, Python will call __getattr__, but will not look anywhere else for the attribute.

__setattr__(self, attr, value)
x.__setattr__(self, attr, value) <==> x.attr = value
Called whenever attribute assignment is attempted.
Should give attr a value of value in the relevant mapping object.
If not implemented, Python will assign the attribute to the instance as normal: self.__dict__[attr] = value for old-style classes and object.__setattr__(self, attr, value) for new-style classes.

__delattr__(self, attr)
x.__delattr__(self, attr) <==> del x.attr
Called whenever attribute deletion is attempted.
Should delete the key attr in the relevant mapping object.
If not implemented, Python deletes the attribute as normal: del x.__dict__[attr] for old-style classes and object.__delattr__(self, attr) for new-style classes. (I think, can anyone verify?)

### 2.9   Being Contained By Another Object

__hash__(self)
x.__hash__() <==> hash(x)
Called by the built-in function hash, and to compare keys in dictionary operations.
Should return a 32-bit integer. Objects which evaluate as equal should have the same hash value. Starting in Python 2.5, may instead return a long integer; that object's __hash__ will be used.
Only should be defined if __cmp__ is defined; if __cmp__ or __eq__ are defined and __hash__ is not, hashing of any sort will fail and the object cannot be used as a dictionary key or in a set. If none of the three are defined, object can be used as a dictionary key or in a set (why?).
Hash value should be immutable (always?).

#### 2.9.1   Descriptors

New-style classes may possess attributes called "descriptors", which are themselves new-style class instances. With the following functions, descriptors can change what will happen when the descriptor is accessed, set, or deleted.

Note: to work in this fashion, a descriptor must be possessed by a class, not by an instance.

For the following examples, assume we have a new-style container class called 'Container' with an instance called 'container'. Also note that instance is the container class instance that the descriptor was accessed through, or None if the descriptor was accessed through the class itself. owner is the actual owner of the descriptor (the container class itself).

__get__(self, instance, owner)
x.__get__(self, container, Container) <==> container.x
x.__get__(self, None, Container) <==> Container.x
Called when attribute lookup is attempted in a new-style instance or class.
Should return an appropriate value representing the instance, or raise AttributeError if this is not possible.
If not defined, the entire instance x will be returned.
If AttributeError is raised without a message, it will be caught and re-raised with the message "type object 'Container' has no attribute 'x'".

__set__(self, instance, value)
x.__set__(self, container, value) <==> container.x = value
Called when attribute assignment is attempted in a new-style instance.
Should somehow store value. (what to return?)
If not defined, the attribute container.x will be set to value instead of the current instance.

__delete__(self, instance)
x.__delete__(self, container) <==> del container.x
Called when attribute deletion is attempted in a new-style instance.
Should somehow delete oneself. (what to return?)
If not defined, the attribute container.x will be deleted.

### 2.10   Pickling

The pickle protocol provides a standard way to serialize and de-serialize objects. These functions customize the pickling of class instances.

For all the gooey details (trust me they're gooey), see PEP 307 -- Extensions to the Pickle Protocol

#### 2.10.1   Serializing and Unserializing Data

These functions are only called if class is old-style or __reduce__ and __reduce_ex__ are undefined.

__getstate__(self)
Called during pickling.
Should return a pickleable value representing the instance's state.
If not defined, and class is old-style or __slots__ is not defined, self.__dict__ is used.
If not defined and if class is new-style and defines __slots__, a two-item tuple is returned. This tuple contains self.__dict__ as its first argument and a dict that maps slot name to slot value as its second.

__setstate__(self, state)
Called during un-pickling. state is the serialized value -- that returned by __getstate__ or __dict__ during pickling.
For new-style classes only, not called if state is a false value.
Should recreate the original instance using the serialized data.
If not defined, self.__dict__.update(state) is tried. If RuntimeError is then raised, self.__setattr__(self, key, value) is performed for each (key, value) pair in state. If instead state is a two-item tuple as described in __getstate__ above, something appropriate is done (what exactly?).

#### 2.10.2   Customizing Object Creation upon Unpickling

__getinitargs__(self)
Called during pickling, if class is old-style.
Should return a tuple of arguments to be passed to __init__ upon unpickling, if calling __init__ is desired.
If not defined, __init__ will not be called upon unpickling.

__getnewargs__(self)
Called during pickling if class is new-style, pickling protocol is 2 and __reduce__ and __reduce_ex__ are undefined.
Should return a tuple of arguments (besides the class itself) to be passed to __new__ upon unpickling.
If not defined, an empty tuple is used. Upon unpickling, the new object will be created by calling __new__(Class).

#### 2.10.3   Total Control

These methods work for new-style classes only.

__reduce__(self)
Called during pickling, if __reduce_ex__ is not defined. Overrides almost all aspects of un-pickling procedure.
Should return either a string, naming a global(?) variable whose contents are pickled as normal, or a tuple containing the following items:
* A callable object called to initially create the new instance upon un-pickling
* A tuple of arguments for this callable
* (Optional) The object's state, as described in __getstate__ above.
* (Optional) An iterator (not a sequence) with sequential list items. Will be added to the instance upon creation with append or extend.
* (Optional) An iterator with key-value pairs. Will be added to the instance upon creation with instance[key] = value.
If not defined, object.__reduce__ is used and pickling will occur normally. Note: the default __reduce__ function will not work for protocols 0 or 1 for built-in types and new-style classes implemented in C.

__reduce_ex__(self, protocol)
Called during pickling.
Functions the same way as __reduce__, with the obvious exception that the pickling protocol is passed.
If not defined, __reduce__ will be tried. If both are not defined, pickling will occur normally.

#### 2.10.4   One More Thing

__newobj__(cls, *args)
This method does nothing special in itself.
In a new-style class being reduced under protocol 2, __reduce__ or __reduce_ex__ may specify __newobj__ as the first argument in the returned tuple -- the callable to create the new instance upon unpickling. In this case something special is done to shrink the size of the pickle: the method is assumed to have the syntax def __newobj__(cls, *args): return cls.__new__(cls, *args). The pickler does not store __newobj__ as the callable, but instead stores an opcode to just call cls.__new__ upon unpickling.
Protocols 0 and 1 fall back on the 'normal' approach, which is to store __newobj__ as the callable; for this reason __newobj__ should actually have the assumed syntax.

### 2.11   Copying

__copy__ __deepcopy__

### 2.12   "With" Statements

__enter__ __exit__

### 2.13   Really Complicated

__new__ __coerce__

## 3   Class Methods

__subclasses__, see http://lucumr.pocoo.org/blogarchive/python-plugin-system

## 4   Class & Instance Properties

__dict__ & vars() __class__ __metaclass__ __bases__ __name__ __slots__ __weakref__

__doc__

__file__

__import__

## 8   Module Properties

__builtins__ (nonstandard, see http://docs.python.org/lib/module-builtin.html) __all__

## 9   Modules

__builtin__ __main__ (represents scope of main program, http://docs.python.org/lib/module-main.html) __future__

## 10   Other Things I've Seen Around

__requires__ __traceback_hide__ __debug__

## 11   Talk about in Intro/Conclusion?

• dir()
• object
• property/fget/fset/fdel
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