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ListView和RecyclerView列表点击反馈

标签: RecyclerView列表点击反馈ListView列表点击反馈列表波纹点击反馈
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整理下Android开发中列表点击反馈的一些知识点,就是点击Item会出现背景阴影的效果。

目前最常用的两个列表控件ListView和RecyclerView,可以说RecyclerView作为ListView的升级版有着更强大的功能,现在也基本都使用RecyclerView居多。当然了,RecyclerView还是有些属性设置没有但ListView有,就是下面要说的点击反馈。

ListView

先来说说ListView,ListView默认就带有点击反馈效果,不需要特意去设置。当然了,你如果不想要默认的点击反馈效果或想替换别的样式,都可以通过设置一下属性来实现:

<!-- 去除ListView的点击反馈效果 -->
<ListView
    android:listSelector="@android:color/transparent"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"/>

<!-- 自定义ListView的点击反馈效果 -->
<ListView
    android:id="@+id/lv_list"
    android:listSelector="@drawable/sel_common_bg_press"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"/>

其中 sel_common_bg_press.xml 文件如下:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<selector xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">

    <item android:state_pressed="true">
        <shape>
            <solid android:color="#88ff5722"/>
        </shape>
    </item>
    <item android:drawable="@android:color/transparent"/>
</selector>

这个很简单,就是定义了按压和没按压时的颜色状态。

基本上ListView的点击反馈都是通过这个属性来处理,不过在一些特殊情况下会出现点击反馈无效的情况:

  1. 设置了Item布局的android:background属性,并且设置为不透明的背景色,在这种情况下就会看不到点击反馈效果,但实际上android:listSelector属性还是处于作用的状态,只不过被覆盖了看不到。你可以用半透明的背景色设置android:background属性,这种情况还是能看到点击反馈的;
  2. Item布局里的子视图占满了整个布局,比如ImageView的图片占满整个Item,这时也看不到点击反馈;
  3. 还有一个不算点击反馈无效的情况就是,如果Item里面的控件接收并处理了点击事件,点击反馈效果也看不到,因为点击事件被别人消耗了;

其实上面前两情况类似,都是点击效果被覆盖了,因为默认的点击反馈响应的是Item的背景而不是前景,这个和后面要提到的android:foreground相对应。不过ListView还有一个属性来处理这种情况:

<!-- android:drawSelectorOnTop="true"让点击反馈为Item的最顶部 -->
<ListView
    android:id="@+id/lv_list"
    android:drawSelectorOnTop="true"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"/>

设置了android:drawSelectorOnTop="true"属性后,即便Item布局被其它东西覆盖了也能看到点击反馈效果。

RecyclerView

RecyclerView就没有ListView这么方便了,默认是没有点击反馈的,需要我们自己设置。简单的话可以设置Item布局的android:background属性,这个效果就和ListView的android:listSelector属性效果类似,但和ListView还是会面临同样的点击看不到效果的情况,而且RecyclerView并没有android:drawSelectorOnTop这些相关的属性,所以要另外想办法处理。
这个时候就要用前面提到的android:foreground设置前景色属性啦,不过这个属性只有在android 6.0版本以上或者FrameLayout控件布局上使用才有效果,所以为了兼容低版本,只能选择使用FrameLayout布局来作为Item的顶层布局(该方法同样适用ListView)。使用如下:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<FrameLayout
    xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="wrap_content"
    android:clickable="true"
    android:foreground="@drawable/sel_common_bg_press">

    <ImageView
        android:id="@+id/iv_icon"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:layout_gravity="center"
        android:scaleType="centerCrop"
        android:src="@mipmap/ic_pic"/>
</FrameLayout>

实际也挺简单的,就是让FrameLayout作为最外层布局就行了。有一点需要注意下,我对FrameLayout设置了android:clickable="true"属性,这么做是为了说明FrameLayout要能接收到点击事件才会有点击反馈效果!正常情况我们并不需要在这里设置,因为我们通常会给列表的Item添加点击监听,这样也能看到点击反馈效果。如果你要使用系统默认的点击反馈样式,可以用这个android:foreground="?android:attr/selectableItemBackground"。
到此RecyclerView的点击反馈也能够处理了,下面在讲下自定义布局的点击反馈效果,就拿经典的开源项目RippleEffect来介绍,这个同样适用ListView。

RippleView

注意,我对RippleEffect源码做了些修改,来让效果更贴近平时的使用。我直接贴源码,因为这里主要讲点击反馈,我只在源码的基础上增加了些触摸的判断。

public class RippleView extends RelativeLayout {

    // 点击加速度
    private static final int RIPPLE_ACCELERATE = 20;
    // 5种触摸状态
    private static final int RIPPLE_NORMAL = 0;
    private static final int RIPPLE_SINGLE = 1;
    private static final int RIPPLE_LONG_PRESS = 2;
    private static final int RIPPLE_ACTION_MOVE = 3;
    private static final int RIPPLE_ACTION_UP = 4;
    // 触摸状态
    private int rippleStatus = RIPPLE_NORMAL;
    // 是否为列表模式,默认为否
    private boolean isListMode;
    // 用户是否滑动的判别距离
    private int touchSlop;
    // 长按时的坐标
    private int lastLongPressX;
    private int lastLongPressY;

    private int WIDTH;
    private int HEIGHT;
    private int frameRate = 10;
    private int rippleDuration = 400;
    private int rippleAlpha = 90;
    private Handler canvasHandler;
    private float radiusMax = 0;
    private boolean animationRunning = false;
    private int timer = 0;
    private int timerEmpty = 0;
    private int durationEmpty = -1;
    private float x = -1;
    private float y = -1;
    private int zoomDuration;
    private float zoomScale;
    private ScaleAnimation scaleAnimation;
    private Boolean hasToZoom;
    private Boolean isCentered;
    private Integer rippleType;
    private Paint paint;
    private Bitmap originBitmap;
    private int rippleColor;
    private int ripplePadding;
    private GestureDetector gestureDetector;
    private final Runnable runnable = new Runnable() {
        @Override
        public void run() {
            invalidate();
        }
    };

    private OnRippleCompleteListener onCompletionListener;

    public RippleView(Context context) {
        super(context);
    }

    public RippleView(Context context, AttributeSet attrs) {
        super(context, attrs);
        init(context, attrs);
    }

    public RippleView(Context context, AttributeSet attrs, int defStyle) {
        super(context, attrs, defStyle);
        init(context, attrs);
    }

    /**
     * Method that initializes all fields and sets listeners
     *
     * @param context Context used to create this view
     * @param attrs   Attribute used to initialize fields
     */
    private void init(final Context context, final AttributeSet attrs) {
        if (isInEditMode())
            return;

        final TypedArray typedArray = context.obtainStyledAttributes(attrs, R.styleable.RippleView);
        rippleColor = typedArray.getColor(R.styleable.RippleView_rv_color, Color.parseColor("#33626262"));
        rippleType = typedArray.getInt(R.styleable.RippleView_rv_type, 0);
        hasToZoom = typedArray.getBoolean(R.styleable.RippleView_rv_zoom, false);
        isCentered = typedArray.getBoolean(R.styleable.RippleView_rv_centered, false);
        rippleDuration = typedArray.getInteger(R.styleable.RippleView_rv_rippleDuration, rippleDuration);
        frameRate = typedArray.getInteger(R.styleable.RippleView_rv_framerate, frameRate);
        rippleAlpha = typedArray.getInteger(R.styleable.RippleView_rv_alpha, rippleAlpha);
        ripplePadding = typedArray.getDimensionPixelSize(R.styleable.RippleView_rv_ripplePadding, 0);
        canvasHandler = new Handler();
        zoomScale = typedArray.getFloat(R.styleable.RippleView_rv_zoomScale, 1.03f);
        zoomDuration = typedArray.getInt(R.styleable.RippleView_rv_zoomDuration, 200);
        isListMode = typedArray.getBoolean(R.styleable.RippleView_rv_listMode, false);
        typedArray.recycle();
        paint = new Paint();
        paint.setAntiAlias(true);
        paint.setStyle(Paint.Style.FILL);
        paint.setColor(rippleColor);
        paint.setAlpha(rippleAlpha);
        this.setWillNotDraw(false);

        gestureDetector = new GestureDetector(context, new GestureDetector.SimpleOnGestureListener() {
            @Override
            public void onLongPress(MotionEvent event) {
                super.onLongPress(event);
                animateRipple(event);
                sendClickEvent(true);
                lastLongPressX = (int) event.getX();
                lastLongPressY = (int) event.getY();
                rippleStatus = RIPPLE_LONG_PRESS;
            }

            @Override
            public boolean onSingleTapConfirmed(MotionEvent e) {
                return true;
            }

            @Override
            public boolean onSingleTapUp(MotionEvent e) {
                return true;
            }
        });

        this.setDrawingCacheEnabled(true);
        this.setClickable(true);
        this.touchSlop = ViewConfiguration.get(context).getScaledTouchSlop();
    }

    @Override
    public void draw(Canvas canvas) {
        super.draw(canvas);
        if (animationRunning) {
            if (isListMode && (rippleStatus == RIPPLE_SINGLE
                    || rippleStatus == RIPPLE_ACTION_MOVE || rippleStatus == RIPPLE_ACTION_UP)) {
                doRippleWork(canvas, RIPPLE_ACCELERATE);
            } else {
                doRippleWork(canvas, 1);
            }
        }
    }

    private void doRippleWork(Canvas canvas, int offect) {
        canvas.save();
        if (rippleDuration <= timer * frameRate) {
            // There is problem on Android M where canvas.restore() seems to be called automatically
            // For now, don't call canvas.restore() manually on Android M (API 23)
            canvas.drawCircle(x, y, (radiusMax * (((float) timer * frameRate) / rippleDuration)), paint);

            if (onCompletionListener != null && rippleStatus != RIPPLE_ACTION_MOVE && rippleStatus != RIPPLE_LONG_PRESS) {
                onCompletionListener.onComplete(this);
            }
            if (rippleStatus != RIPPLE_LONG_PRESS) {
                animationRunning = false;
                rippleStatus = RIPPLE_NORMAL;
                timer = 0;
                durationEmpty = -1;
                timerEmpty = 0;
                if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT != 23) {
                    canvas.restore();
                }
            }
            invalidate();
            return;
        } else
            canvasHandler.postDelayed(runnable, frameRate);

        if (timer == 0)
            canvas.save();

        canvas.drawCircle(x, y, (radiusMax * (((float) timer * frameRate) / rippleDuration)), paint);

        paint.setColor(Color.parseColor("#ffff4444"));

        if (rippleType == 1 && originBitmap != null && (((float) timer * frameRate) / rippleDuration) > 0.4f) {
            if (durationEmpty == -1)
                durationEmpty = rippleDuration - timer * frameRate;

            timerEmpty++;
            final Bitmap tmpBitmap = getCircleBitmap((int) ((radiusMax) * (((float) timerEmpty * frameRate) / (durationEmpty))));
            canvas.drawBitmap(tmpBitmap, 0, 0, paint);
            tmpBitmap.recycle();
        }

        paint.setColor(rippleColor);
        if (!isListMode) {
            if (rippleType == 1) {
                if ((((float) timer * frameRate) / rippleDuration) > 0.6f)
                    paint.setAlpha((int) (rippleAlpha - ((rippleAlpha) * (((float) timerEmpty * frameRate) / (durationEmpty)))));
                else
                    paint.setAlpha(rippleAlpha);
            } else
                paint.setAlpha((int) (rippleAlpha - ((rippleAlpha) * (((float) timer * frameRate) / rippleDuration))));
        }
        timer += offect;
    }

    @Override
    protected void onSizeChanged(int w, int h, int oldw, int oldh) {
        super.onSizeChanged(w, h, oldw, oldh);
        WIDTH = w;
        HEIGHT = h;

        scaleAnimation = new ScaleAnimation(1.0f, zoomScale, 1.0f, zoomScale, w / 2, h / 2);
        scaleAnimation.setDuration(zoomDuration);
        scaleAnimation.setRepeatMode(Animation.REVERSE);
        scaleAnimation.setRepeatCount(1);
    }

    /**
     * Launch Ripple animation for the current view with a MotionEvent
     *
     * @param event MotionEvent registered by the Ripple gesture listener
     */
    public void animateRipple(MotionEvent event) {
        createAnimation(event.getX(), event.getY());
    }

    /**
     * Launch Ripple animation for the current view centered at x and y position
     *
     * @param x Horizontal position of the ripple center
     * @param y Vertical position of the ripple center
     */
    public void animateRipple(final float x, final float y) {
        createAnimation(x, y);
    }

    /**
     * Create Ripple animation centered at x, y
     *
     * @param x Horizontal position of the ripple center
     * @param y Vertical position of the ripple center
     */
    private void createAnimation(final float x, final float y) {
        if (this.isEnabled() && !animationRunning) {
            if (hasToZoom)
                this.startAnimation(scaleAnimation);

            radiusMax = Math.max(WIDTH, HEIGHT);

            if (rippleType != 2)
                radiusMax /= 2;

            radiusMax -= ripplePadding;

            if (isCentered || rippleType == 1) {
                this.x = getMeasuredWidth() / 2;
                this.y = getMeasuredHeight() / 2;
            } else {
                this.x = x;
                this.y = y;
            }

            animationRunning = true;

            if (rippleType == 1 && originBitmap == null)
                originBitmap = getDrawingCache(true);

            invalidate();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onTouchEvent(MotionEvent event) {
        if (gestureDetector.onTouchEvent(event)) {
            animateRipple(event);
            sendClickEvent(false);
            rippleStatus = RIPPLE_SINGLE;
        }
        if (rippleStatus == RIPPLE_LONG_PRESS) {
            if (event.getAction() == MotionEvent.ACTION_UP) {
                rippleStatus = RIPPLE_ACTION_UP;
            } else if (Math.abs(event.getX() - lastLongPressX) >= touchSlop ||
                    Math.abs(event.getY() - lastLongPressY) >= touchSlop) {
                rippleStatus = RIPPLE_ACTION_MOVE;
            }
        }

        return super.onTouchEvent(event);
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onInterceptTouchEvent(MotionEvent event) {
        this.onTouchEvent(event);
        return super.onInterceptTouchEvent(event);
    }

    /**
     * Send a click event if parent view is a Listview instance
     *
     * @param isLongClick Is the event a long click ?
     */
    private void sendClickEvent(final Boolean isLongClick) {
        if (getParent() instanceof AdapterView) {
            final AdapterView adapterView = (AdapterView) getParent();
            final int position = adapterView.getPositionForView(this);
            final long id = adapterView.getItemIdAtPosition(position);
            if (isLongClick) {
                if (adapterView.getOnItemLongClickListener() != null)
                    adapterView.getOnItemLongClickListener().onItemLongClick(adapterView, this, position, id);
            } else {
                if (adapterView.getOnItemClickListener() != null)
                    adapterView.getOnItemClickListener().onItemClick(adapterView, this, position, id);
            }
        }
    }

    private Bitmap getCircleBitmap(final int radius) {
        final Bitmap output = Bitmap.createBitmap(originBitmap.getWidth(), originBitmap.getHeight(), Bitmap.Config.ARGB_8888);
        final Canvas canvas = new Canvas(output);
        final Paint paint = new Paint();
        final Rect rect = new Rect((int) (x - radius), (int) (y - radius), (int) (x + radius), (int) (y + radius));

        paint.setAntiAlias(true);
        canvas.drawARGB(0, 0, 0, 0);
        canvas.drawCircle(x, y, radius, paint);

        paint.setXfermode(new PorterDuffXfermode(PorterDuff.Mode.SRC_IN));
        canvas.drawBitmap(originBitmap, rect, rect, paint);

        return output;
    }

    /**
     * Set Ripple color, default is #FFFFFF
     *
     * @param rippleColor New color resource
     */
    public void setRippleColor(@ColorRes int rippleColor) {
        this.rippleColor = ContextCompat.getColor(getContext(), rippleColor);
    }

    public int getRippleColor() {
        return rippleColor;
    }

    public RippleType getRippleType() {
        return RippleType.values()[rippleType];
    }

    /**
     * Set Ripple type, default is RippleType.SIMPLE
     *
     * @param rippleType New Ripple type for next animation
     */
    public void setRippleType(final RippleType rippleType) {
        this.rippleType = rippleType.ordinal();
    }

    public Boolean isCentered() {
        return isCentered;
    }

    /**
     * Set if ripple animation has to be centered in its parent view or not, default is False
     *
     * @param isCentered
     */
    public void setCentered(final Boolean isCentered) {
        this.isCentered = isCentered;
    }

    public int getRipplePadding() {
        return ripplePadding;
    }

    /**
     * Set Ripple padding if you want to avoid some graphic glitch
     *
     * @param ripplePadding New Ripple padding in pixel, default is 0px
     */
    public void setRipplePadding(int ripplePadding) {
        this.ripplePadding = ripplePadding;
    }

    public Boolean isZooming() {
        return hasToZoom;
    }

    /**
     * At the end of Ripple effect, the child views has to zoom
     *
     * @param hasToZoom Do the child views have to zoom ? default is False
     */
    public void setZooming(Boolean hasToZoom) {
        this.hasToZoom = hasToZoom;
    }

    public float getZoomScale() {
        return zoomScale;
    }

    /**
     * Scale of the end animation
     *
     * @param zoomScale Value of scale animation, default is 1.03f
     */
    public void setZoomScale(float zoomScale) {
        this.zoomScale = zoomScale;
    }

    public int getZoomDuration() {
        return zoomDuration;
    }

    /**
     * Duration of the ending animation in ms
     *
     * @param zoomDuration Duration, default is 200ms
     */
    public void setZoomDuration(int zoomDuration) {
        this.zoomDuration = zoomDuration;
    }

    public int getRippleDuration() {
        return rippleDuration;
    }

    /**
     * Duration of the Ripple animation in ms
     *
     * @param rippleDuration Duration, default is 400ms
     */
    public void setRippleDuration(int rippleDuration) {
        this.rippleDuration = rippleDuration;
    }

    public int getFrameRate() {
        return frameRate;
    }

    /**
     * Set framerate for Ripple animation
     *
     * @param frameRate New framerate value, default is 10
     */
    public void setFrameRate(int frameRate) {
        this.frameRate = frameRate;
    }

    public int getRippleAlpha() {
        return rippleAlpha;
    }

    /**
     * Set alpha for ripple effect color
     *
     * @param rippleAlpha Alpha value between 0 and 255, default is 90
     */
    public void setRippleAlpha(int rippleAlpha) {
        this.rippleAlpha = rippleAlpha;
    }

    public void setOnRippleCompleteListener(OnRippleCompleteListener listener) {
        this.onCompletionListener = listener;
    }

    /**
     * Defines a callback called at the end of the Ripple effect
     */
    public interface OnRippleCompleteListener {
        void onComplete(RippleView rippleView);
    }

    public enum RippleType {
        SIMPLE(0),
        DOUBLE(1),
        RECTANGLE(2);

        int type;

        RippleType(int type) {
            this.type = type;
        }
    }
}

使用也很简单,把RippleView作为最外层布局就行了。

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<com.dl7.listclickfeedback.RippleView
    android:id="@+id/item_ripple"
    xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    xmlns:app="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res-auto"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="wrap_content"
    app:rv_listMode="true"
    app:rv_color="#88ff5722"
    app:rv_rippleDuration="800"
    app:rv_type="rectangle">

    <LinearLayout
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:orientation="horizontal">

        <ImageView
            android:id="@+id/iv_icon"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_gravity="center"
            android:layout_margin="30dp"
            android:src="@mipmap/ic_face_funny"/>

        <TextView
            android:id="@+id/tv_title"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_gravity="center"
            android:gravity="center"/>
    </LinearLayout>
</com.dl7.listclickfeedback.RippleView>

最后是点击事件的处理,需要让RippleView来接收处理点击事件。

@Override
public void onBindViewHolder(RecyclerView.ViewHolder holder, final int position) {
    // ......
    ((ViewHolder) holder).mItemRipple.setOnRippleCompleteListener(new RippleView.OnRippleCompleteListener() {
        @Override
        public void onComplete(RippleView rippleView) {
            ToastUtils.showToast(mDatas.get(position));
        }
    });
}

这样就OK了,最后贴点图来说明反馈效果。

背景色反馈:


前景色反馈:



波纹反馈:




例子代码:列表点击反馈

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