Android线程间通信(补充):UI线程

原创 2015年11月19日 22:57:57

  前文提到,Android只允许UI线程更新应用界面。当我们在其他线程中想要更改应用界面时,就需要用到线程间通信,这是最常见的线程通信场景。在UI线程或者使用主Looper创建Handler,其他线程通过这个Handler往UI线程发送操作消息,UI线程根据消息做出相应的反应。
  我们前面说接收线程是需要申请和绑定Looper对象才能接收和处理消息的。但是在我们用Handler+Message更新UI线程时,却没有申请和绑定过任何的Looper对象。这是为什么呢?
  不知道诸君眼里的UI线程是怎么样的?我们在Looper类提到过,Looper类中prepareMainLooper()的注释强调了只能UI线程调用。我尝试查看这个方法的调用列表,然后发现在一个叫做ActivityThread类的方法中调用了它。这个方法的代码如下:

public static void main(String[] args) {
        ……(省略)

        Looper.prepareMainLooper();

        ActivityThread thread = new ActivityThread();
        thread.attach(false);

        if (sMainThreadHandler == null) {
            sMainThreadHandler = thread.getHandler();
        }

        if (false) {
            Looper.myLooper().setMessageLogging(new
                    LogPrinter(Log.DEBUG, "ActivityThread"));
        }

        Looper.loop();

        throw new RuntimeException("Main thread loop unexpectedly exited");
    }

  没错,这居然是一个Java的主方法!在这里我们不展开分析ActivityThread类,来看一下前辈们对这个类的定义:

  它管理应用进程的主线程的执行(相当于普通Java程序的main入口函数),并根据AMS的要求(通过IApplicationThread接口,AMS为Client、ActivityThread.ApplicationThread为Server)负责调度和执行activities、broadcasts和其它操作。
     —— Android ActivityThread(主线程或UI线程)简介

  不严格地说,可以理解成Android是一个Java应用,ActivityThread是这个Java应用的主类,它对应的线程可以叫做主/UI线程。再进一步说,Android的UI线程其实和我们之前提到的receiver线程一样,都需要申请和绑定Looper,都会无限循环地从消息队列中取消息。只不过这些操作藏在了Android源码中。这意味着UI线程涉及的所有包括创建Activity、销毁Activity、开始应用和退出应用等基础操作都是通过消息类传达的!
  在ActivityThread类中,还定义了一个Handler的子类H,H重写了Handler的handleMessage()。很显然这个H适用于其他线程与UI线程通信的。我们来看一下它的代码:

private class H extends Handler {
        public static final int LAUNCH_ACTIVITY         = 100;
        public static final int PAUSE_ACTIVITY          = 101;
        public static final int PAUSE_ACTIVITY_FINISHING= 102;
        public static final int STOP_ACTIVITY_SHOW      = 103;
        public static final int STOP_ACTIVITY_HIDE      = 104;
        public static final int SHOW_WINDOW             = 105;
        public static final int HIDE_WINDOW             = 106;
        public static final int RESUME_ACTIVITY         = 107;
        public static final int SEND_RESULT             = 108;
        public static final int DESTROY_ACTIVITY        = 109;
        public static final int BIND_APPLICATION        = 110;
        public static final int EXIT_APPLICATION        = 111;
        public static final int NEW_INTENT              = 112;
        public static final int RECEIVER                = 113;
        public static final int CREATE_SERVICE          = 114;
        public static final int SERVICE_ARGS            = 115;
        public static final int STOP_SERVICE            = 116;

        public static final int CONFIGURATION_CHANGED   = 118;
        public static final int CLEAN_UP_CONTEXT        = 119;
        public static final int GC_WHEN_IDLE            = 120;
        public static final int BIND_SERVICE            = 121;
        public static final int UNBIND_SERVICE          = 122;
        public static final int DUMP_SERVICE            = 123;
        public static final int LOW_MEMORY              = 124;
        public static final int ACTIVITY_CONFIGURATION_CHANGED = 125;
        public static final int RELAUNCH_ACTIVITY       = 126;
        public static final int PROFILER_CONTROL        = 127;
        public static final int CREATE_BACKUP_AGENT     = 128;
        public static final int DESTROY_BACKUP_AGENT    = 129;
        public static final int SUICIDE                 = 130;
        public static final int REMOVE_PROVIDER         = 131;
        public static final int ENABLE_JIT              = 132;
        public static final int DISPATCH_PACKAGE_BROADCAST = 133;
        public static final int SCHEDULE_CRASH          = 134;
        public static final int DUMP_HEAP               = 135;
        public static final int DUMP_ACTIVITY           = 136;
        public static final int SLEEPING                = 137;
        public static final int SET_CORE_SETTINGS       = 138;
        public static final int UPDATE_PACKAGE_COMPATIBILITY_INFO = 139;
        public static final int TRIM_MEMORY             = 140;
        public static final int DUMP_PROVIDER           = 141;
        public static final int UNSTABLE_PROVIDER_DIED  = 142;
        public static final int REQUEST_ASSIST_CONTEXT_EXTRAS = 143;
        public static final int TRANSLUCENT_CONVERSION_COMPLETE = 144;
        public static final int INSTALL_PROVIDER        = 145;
        public static final int ON_NEW_ACTIVITY_OPTIONS = 146;
        public static final int CANCEL_VISIBLE_BEHIND = 147;
        public static final int BACKGROUND_VISIBLE_BEHIND_CHANGED = 148;
        public static final int ENTER_ANIMATION_COMPLETE = 149;

        String codeToString(int code) {
            if (DEBUG_MESSAGES) {
                switch (code) {
                    case LAUNCH_ACTIVITY: return "LAUNCH_ACTIVITY";
                    case PAUSE_ACTIVITY: return "PAUSE_ACTIVITY";
                    case PAUSE_ACTIVITY_FINISHING: return "PAUSE_ACTIVITY_FINISHING";
                    case STOP_ACTIVITY_SHOW: return "STOP_ACTIVITY_SHOW";
                    case STOP_ACTIVITY_HIDE: return "STOP_ACTIVITY_HIDE";
                    case SHOW_WINDOW: return "SHOW_WINDOW";
                    case HIDE_WINDOW: return "HIDE_WINDOW";
                    case RESUME_ACTIVITY: return "RESUME_ACTIVITY";
                    case SEND_RESULT: return "SEND_RESULT";
                    case DESTROY_ACTIVITY: return "DESTROY_ACTIVITY";
                    case BIND_APPLICATION: return "BIND_APPLICATION";
                    case EXIT_APPLICATION: return "EXIT_APPLICATION";
                    case NEW_INTENT: return "NEW_INTENT";
                    case RECEIVER: return "RECEIVER";
                    case CREATE_SERVICE: return "CREATE_SERVICE";
                    case SERVICE_ARGS: return "SERVICE_ARGS";
                    case STOP_SERVICE: return "STOP_SERVICE";
                    case CONFIGURATION_CHANGED: return "CONFIGURATION_CHANGED";
                    case CLEAN_UP_CONTEXT: return "CLEAN_UP_CONTEXT";
                    case GC_WHEN_IDLE: return "GC_WHEN_IDLE";
                    case BIND_SERVICE: return "BIND_SERVICE";
                    case UNBIND_SERVICE: return "UNBIND_SERVICE";
                    case DUMP_SERVICE: return "DUMP_SERVICE";
                    case LOW_MEMORY: return "LOW_MEMORY";
                    case ACTIVITY_CONFIGURATION_CHANGED: return "ACTIVITY_CONFIGURATION_CHANGED";
                    case RELAUNCH_ACTIVITY: return "RELAUNCH_ACTIVITY";
                    case PROFILER_CONTROL: return "PROFILER_CONTROL";
                    case CREATE_BACKUP_AGENT: return "CREATE_BACKUP_AGENT";
                    case DESTROY_BACKUP_AGENT: return "DESTROY_BACKUP_AGENT";
                    case SUICIDE: return "SUICIDE";
                    case REMOVE_PROVIDER: return "REMOVE_PROVIDER";
                    case ENABLE_JIT: return "ENABLE_JIT";
                    case DISPATCH_PACKAGE_BROADCAST: return "DISPATCH_PACKAGE_BROADCAST";
                    case SCHEDULE_CRASH: return "SCHEDULE_CRASH";
                    case DUMP_HEAP: return "DUMP_HEAP";
                    case DUMP_ACTIVITY: return "DUMP_ACTIVITY";
                    case SLEEPING: return "SLEEPING";
                    case SET_CORE_SETTINGS: return "SET_CORE_SETTINGS";
                    case UPDATE_PACKAGE_COMPATIBILITY_INFO: return "UPDATE_PACKAGE_COMPATIBILITY_INFO";
                    case TRIM_MEMORY: return "TRIM_MEMORY";
                    case DUMP_PROVIDER: return "DUMP_PROVIDER";
                    case UNSTABLE_PROVIDER_DIED: return "UNSTABLE_PROVIDER_DIED";
                    case REQUEST_ASSIST_CONTEXT_EXTRAS: return "REQUEST_ASSIST_CONTEXT_EXTRAS";
                    case TRANSLUCENT_CONVERSION_COMPLETE: return "TRANSLUCENT_CONVERSION_COMPLETE";
                    case INSTALL_PROVIDER: return "INSTALL_PROVIDER";
                    case ON_NEW_ACTIVITY_OPTIONS: return "ON_NEW_ACTIVITY_OPTIONS";
                    case CANCEL_VISIBLE_BEHIND: return "CANCEL_VISIBLE_BEHIND";
                    case BACKGROUND_VISIBLE_BEHIND_CHANGED: return "BACKGROUND_VISIBLE_BEHIND_CHANGED";
                    case ENTER_ANIMATION_COMPLETE: return "ENTER_ANIMATION_COMPLETE";
                }
            }
            return Integer.toString(code);
        }
        public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
            if (DEBUG_MESSAGES) Slog.v(TAG, ">>> handling: " + codeToString(msg.what));
            switch (msg.what) {
                case LAUNCH_ACTIVITY: {
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "activityStart");
                    final ActivityClientRecord r = (ActivityClientRecord) msg.obj;

                    r.packageInfo = getPackageInfoNoCheck(
                            r.activityInfo.applicationInfo, r.compatInfo);
                    handleLaunchActivity(r, null);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                } break;
                case RELAUNCH_ACTIVITY: {
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "activityRestart");
                    ActivityClientRecord r = (ActivityClientRecord)msg.obj;
                    handleRelaunchActivity(r);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                } break;
                case PAUSE_ACTIVITY:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "activityPause");
                    handlePauseActivity((IBinder)msg.obj, false, (msg.arg1&1) != 0, msg.arg2,
                            (msg.arg1&2) != 0);
                    maybeSnapshot();
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case PAUSE_ACTIVITY_FINISHING:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "activityPause");
                    handlePauseActivity((IBinder)msg.obj, true, (msg.arg1&1) != 0, msg.arg2,
                            (msg.arg1&1) != 0);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case STOP_ACTIVITY_SHOW:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "activityStop");
                    handleStopActivity((IBinder)msg.obj, true, msg.arg2);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case STOP_ACTIVITY_HIDE:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "activityStop");
                    handleStopActivity((IBinder)msg.obj, false, msg.arg2);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case SHOW_WINDOW:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "activityShowWindow");
                    handleWindowVisibility((IBinder)msg.obj, true);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case HIDE_WINDOW:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "activityHideWindow");
                    handleWindowVisibility((IBinder)msg.obj, false);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case RESUME_ACTIVITY:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "activityResume");
                    handleResumeActivity((IBinder) msg.obj, true, msg.arg1 != 0, true);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case SEND_RESULT:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "activityDeliverResult");
                    handleSendResult((ResultData)msg.obj);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case DESTROY_ACTIVITY:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "activityDestroy");
                    handleDestroyActivity((IBinder)msg.obj, msg.arg1 != 0,
                            msg.arg2, false);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case BIND_APPLICATION:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "bindApplication");
                    AppBindData data = (AppBindData)msg.obj;
                    handleBindApplication(data);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case EXIT_APPLICATION:
                    if (mInitialApplication != null) {
                        mInitialApplication.onTerminate();
                    }
                    Looper.myLooper().quit();
                    break;
                case NEW_INTENT:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "activityNewIntent");
                    handleNewIntent((NewIntentData)msg.obj);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case RECEIVER:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "broadcastReceiveComp");
                    handleReceiver((ReceiverData)msg.obj);
                    maybeSnapshot();
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case CREATE_SERVICE:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "serviceCreate");
                    handleCreateService((CreateServiceData)msg.obj);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case BIND_SERVICE:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "serviceBind");
                    handleBindService((BindServiceData)msg.obj);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case UNBIND_SERVICE:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "serviceUnbind");
                    handleUnbindService((BindServiceData)msg.obj);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case SERVICE_ARGS:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "serviceStart");
                    handleServiceArgs((ServiceArgsData)msg.obj);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case STOP_SERVICE:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "serviceStop");
                    handleStopService((IBinder)msg.obj);
                    maybeSnapshot();
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case CONFIGURATION_CHANGED:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "configChanged");
                    mCurDefaultDisplayDpi = ((Configuration)msg.obj).densityDpi;
                    handleConfigurationChanged((Configuration)msg.obj, null);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case CLEAN_UP_CONTEXT:
                    ContextCleanupInfo cci = (ContextCleanupInfo)msg.obj;
                    cci.context.performFinalCleanup(cci.who, cci.what);
                    break;
                case GC_WHEN_IDLE:
                    scheduleGcIdler();
                    break;
                case DUMP_SERVICE:
                    handleDumpService((DumpComponentInfo)msg.obj);
                    break;
                case LOW_MEMORY:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "lowMemory");
                    handleLowMemory();
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case ACTIVITY_CONFIGURATION_CHANGED:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "activityConfigChanged");
                    handleActivityConfigurationChanged((IBinder)msg.obj);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case PROFILER_CONTROL:
                    handleProfilerControl(msg.arg1 != 0, (ProfilerInfo)msg.obj, msg.arg2);
                    break;
                case CREATE_BACKUP_AGENT:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "backupCreateAgent");
                    handleCreateBackupAgent((CreateBackupAgentData)msg.obj);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case DESTROY_BACKUP_AGENT:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "backupDestroyAgent");
                    handleDestroyBackupAgent((CreateBackupAgentData)msg.obj);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case SUICIDE:
                    Process.killProcess(Process.myPid());
                    break;
                case REMOVE_PROVIDER:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "providerRemove");
                    completeRemoveProvider((ProviderRefCount)msg.obj);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case ENABLE_JIT:
                    ensureJitEnabled();
                    break;
                case DISPATCH_PACKAGE_BROADCAST:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "broadcastPackage");
                    handleDispatchPackageBroadcast(msg.arg1, (String[])msg.obj);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case SCHEDULE_CRASH:
                    throw new RemoteServiceException((String)msg.obj);
                case DUMP_HEAP:
                    handleDumpHeap(msg.arg1 != 0, (DumpHeapData)msg.obj);
                    break;
                case DUMP_ACTIVITY:
                    handleDumpActivity((DumpComponentInfo)msg.obj);
                    break;
                case DUMP_PROVIDER:
                    handleDumpProvider((DumpComponentInfo)msg.obj);
                    break;
                case SLEEPING:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "sleeping");
                    handleSleeping((IBinder)msg.obj, msg.arg1 != 0);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case SET_CORE_SETTINGS:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "setCoreSettings");
                    handleSetCoreSettings((Bundle) msg.obj);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case UPDATE_PACKAGE_COMPATIBILITY_INFO:
                    handleUpdatePackageCompatibilityInfo((UpdateCompatibilityData)msg.obj);
                    break;
                case TRIM_MEMORY:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "trimMemory");
                    handleTrimMemory(msg.arg1);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                case UNSTABLE_PROVIDER_DIED:
                    handleUnstableProviderDied((IBinder)msg.obj, false);
                    break;
                case REQUEST_ASSIST_CONTEXT_EXTRAS:
                    handleRequestAssistContextExtras((RequestAssistContextExtras)msg.obj);
                    break;
                case TRANSLUCENT_CONVERSION_COMPLETE:
                    handleTranslucentConversionComplete((IBinder)msg.obj, msg.arg1 == 1);
                    break;
                case INSTALL_PROVIDER:
                    handleInstallProvider((ProviderInfo) msg.obj);
                    break;
                case ON_NEW_ACTIVITY_OPTIONS:
                    Pair<IBinder, ActivityOptions> pair = (Pair<IBinder, ActivityOptions>) msg.obj;
                    onNewActivityOptions(pair.first, pair.second);
                    break;
                case CANCEL_VISIBLE_BEHIND:
                    handleCancelVisibleBehind((IBinder) msg.obj);
                    break;
                case BACKGROUND_VISIBLE_BEHIND_CHANGED:
                    handleOnBackgroundVisibleBehindChanged((IBinder) msg.obj, msg.arg1 > 0);
                    break;
                case ENTER_ANIMATION_COMPLETE:
                    handleEnterAnimationComplete((IBinder) msg.obj);
                    break;
            }
            if (DEBUG_MESSAGES) Slog.v(TAG, "<<< done: " + codeToString(msg.what));
        }

        private void maybeSnapshot() {
            if (mBoundApplication != null && SamplingProfilerIntegration.isEnabled()) {
                // convert the *private* ActivityThread.PackageInfo to *public* known
                // android.content.pm.PackageInfo
                String packageName = mBoundApplication.info.mPackageName;
                android.content.pm.PackageInfo packageInfo = null;
                try {
                    Context context = getSystemContext();
                    if(context == null) {
                        Log.e(TAG, "cannot get a valid context");
                        return;
                    }
                    PackageManager pm = context.getPackageManager();
                    if(pm == null) {
                        Log.e(TAG, "cannot get a valid PackageManager");
                        return;
                    }
                    packageInfo = pm.getPackageInfo(
                            packageName, PackageManager.GET_ACTIVITIES);
                } catch (NameNotFoundException e) {
                    Log.e(TAG, "cannot get package info for " + packageName, e);
                }
                SamplingProfilerIntegration.writeSnapshot(mBoundApplication.processName, packageInfo);
            }
        }
    }

  虽然大部分调用的方法我们不知道其作用,但是可以根据消息表示可以看出大部分方法都涉及到Android系统的管理。看到这些我们可以断定,Android的UI线程其实就是一个Message机制的接收线程,其他线程遇到需要更新界面的情况,都只需通过H对象往UI线程发送一个更新界面的消息。当然,因为Looper.getMainLooper()方法的存在,我们也可以自己定义绑定主Looper的Handler类并实现更新界面消息的发送。

版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得转载。

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